Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapidly emerging imaging modality that can non-invasively provide cross-sectional, high-resolution images of tissue morphology in situ and in real-time. We previously demonstrated that OCT is capable of visualizing characteristic kidney anatomic structures, including blood vessels, uriniferous tubules, glomeruli, and renal capsules on a Munich–Wistar rat model. Because the viability of a donor kidney is closely correlated with its tubular morphology, and a large amount of image datasets are expected when using OCT to scan the entire kidney to provide a global assessment of its viability, it is necessary to develop automatic image analysis methods to quantify the spatially-resolved morphometric parameters such as tubular diameter to provide potential diagnostic information. In this study, we imaged the human kidney in vitro and quantified the diameters of hollow structures such as blood vessels and uriniferous tubules automatically. The microstructures were first segmented from cross-sectional OCT images. Then the spatially-isolated region-of-interest (ROI) was automatically selected to quantify its dimension. This method enables the automatic selection and quantification of spatially-resolved morphometric parameters. The quantification accuracy was validated, and measured features are in agreement with known kidney morphology. This work can enable studies to determine the clinical utility of OCT for kidney imaging, as well as studies to evaluate kidney morphology as a biomarker for assessing kidney’s viability prior to transplantation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

X. Qi, Y. Pan, Z. Hu, W. Kang, J. E. Willis, K. Olowe, M. V. Sivak, Jr., and A. M. Rollins, "Automated quantification of colonic crypt morphology using integrated microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054055 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Effects of Axial Resolution Improvement on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Imaging of Gastrointestinal Tissues," Opt. Express 16, 2469-2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

V. Gemignani, F. Faita, L. Ghiadoni, E. Poggianti, and M. Demi, "A system for real-time measurement of the brachial artery diameter in B-mode ultrasound images," IEEE transactions on Medical Imaging 26, 393-404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225-3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, "Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm," Opt. Express 13, 10523-10538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q1. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmol. 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, "Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695-706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging," Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1361-1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

P. M. Andrews, B. S. Khirabadi, and B. C. Bengs, "Using tandem scanning confocal microscopy to predict the status of donor kidneys," Nephron 91, 148-155 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

O. B. Franc, C. Stefano, V. S. Maria, G. Lorenzo, H. Yale, T. Stefano, and S. Antonio, "Automatic evaluation of arterial diameter variation from vascular echographic images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1621-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, "High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography," Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Daiman, and I. Koni, "Glomerular enlargement in the progression of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis," Clin. Nephrol. 49, 145-152 (1998).

1996 (1)

T. J. Hall, M. F. Insana, L. A. Harrison, and G. G. Cox, "Ultrasonic measurement of glomerular diameters in normal adult humans," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22, 987-997 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

E. Nyberg, S. O. Bohman, and U. Berg, "Glomerular volume and renal function in children with different types of nephrotic syndrome," Pediatr. Nephrol. 8, 285-289 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

L. Lam, S.-W. Lee, and C. Y. Suen, "Thinning Methodologies-A Comprehensive Survey," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intelligence 14, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Moran, J. Mulhall, D. Kelly, S. Sheehan, J. Dowsett, P. Dervan, and J. M. Fitzpatrick, "Morphological changes and alterations in regional intrarenal blood flow induced by graded renal ischemia," J. Urology 148, 463-466 (1992).

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

Q2. H. J. Gunderson, and R. Osterby, "Glomerular size and structure in diabetes mellitus II. Late abnormalities," Disbetologia 13, 43-48 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, A. D.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Effects of Axial Resolution Improvement on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Imaging of Gastrointestinal Tissues," Opt. Express 16, 2469-2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, P. M.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Andrews, B. S. Khirabadi, and B. C. Bengs, "Using tandem scanning confocal microscopy to predict the status of donor kidneys," Nephron 91, 148-155 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonio, S.

O. B. Franc, C. Stefano, V. S. Maria, G. Lorenzo, H. Yale, T. Stefano, and S. Antonio, "Automatic evaluation of arterial diameter variation from vascular echographic images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1621-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aretz, H. T.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bajraszewski, T.

Barry, S. E.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. K.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bengs, B. C.

P. M. Andrews, B. S. Khirabadi, and B. C. Bengs, "Using tandem scanning confocal microscopy to predict the status of donor kidneys," Nephron 91, 148-155 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, U.

E. Nyberg, S. O. Bohman, and U. Berg, "Glomerular volume and renal function in children with different types of nephrotic syndrome," Pediatr. Nephrol. 8, 285-289 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohman, S. O.

E. Nyberg, S. O. Bohman, and U. Berg, "Glomerular volume and renal function in children with different types of nephrotic syndrome," Pediatr. Nephrol. 8, 285-289 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, "High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography," Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, "High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography," Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
[PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, "High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography," Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
[PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, "Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm," Opt. Express 13, 10523-10538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chak, A.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Y.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Effects of Axial Resolution Improvement on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Imaging of Gastrointestinal Tissues," Opt. Express 16, 2469-2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Compton, C. C.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, G. G.

T. J. Hall, M. F. Insana, L. A. Harrison, and G. G. Cox, "Ultrasonic measurement of glomerular diameters in normal adult humans," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22, 987-997 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daiman, S.

S. Daiman, and I. Koni, "Glomerular enlargement in the progression of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis," Clin. Nephrol. 49, 145-152 (1998).

de Boer, J. F.

Demi, M.

V. Gemignani, F. Faita, L. Ghiadoni, E. Poggianti, and M. Demi, "A system for real-time measurement of the brachial artery diameter in B-mode ultrasound images," IEEE transactions on Medical Imaging 26, 393-404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dervan, P.

K. Moran, J. Mulhall, D. Kelly, S. Sheehan, J. Dowsett, P. Dervan, and J. M. Fitzpatrick, "Morphological changes and alterations in regional intrarenal blood flow induced by graded renal ischemia," J. Urology 148, 463-466 (1992).

Desai, S.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dowsett, J.

K. Moran, J. Mulhall, D. Kelly, S. Sheehan, J. Dowsett, P. Dervan, and J. M. Fitzpatrick, "Morphological changes and alterations in regional intrarenal blood flow induced by graded renal ischemia," J. Urology 148, 463-466 (1992).

Drexler, W.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, "Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695-706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duker, J. S.

Q1. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmol. 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalevicz, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh resolution, high speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faita, F.

V. Gemignani, F. Faita, L. Ghiadoni, E. Poggianti, and M. Demi, "A system for real-time measurement of the brachial artery diameter in B-mode ultrasound images," IEEE transactions on Medical Imaging 26, 393-404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, "Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695-706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figueiredo, M.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Findl, O.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, "Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695-706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzpatrick, J. M.

K. Moran, J. Mulhall, D. Kelly, S. Sheehan, J. Dowsett, P. Dervan, and J. M. Fitzpatrick, "Morphological changes and alterations in regional intrarenal blood flow induced by graded renal ischemia," J. Urology 148, 463-466 (1992).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franc, O. B.

O. B. Franc, C. Stefano, V. S. Maria, G. Lorenzo, H. Yale, T. Stefano, and S. Antonio, "Automatic evaluation of arterial diameter variation from vascular echographic images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1621-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Effects of Axial Resolution Improvement on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Imaging of Gastrointestinal Tissues," Opt. Express 16, 2469-2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225-3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q1. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmol. 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, "Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm," Opt. Express 13, 10523-10538 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalevicz, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh resolution, high speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging," Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1361-1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, "Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695-706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, "High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography," Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
[PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gemignani, V.

V. Gemignani, F. Faita, L. Ghiadoni, E. Poggianti, and M. Demi, "A system for real-time measurement of the brachial artery diameter in B-mode ultrasound images," IEEE transactions on Medical Imaging 26, 393-404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghiadoni, L.

V. Gemignani, F. Faita, L. Ghiadoni, E. Poggianti, and M. Demi, "A system for real-time measurement of the brachial artery diameter in B-mode ultrasound images," IEEE transactions on Medical Imaging 26, 393-404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossage, K. W.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunderson, H. J.

Q2. H. J. Gunderson, and R. Osterby, "Glomerular size and structure in diabetes mellitus II. Late abnormalities," Disbetologia 13, 43-48 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

T. J. Hall, M. F. Insana, L. A. Harrison, and G. G. Cox, "Ultrasonic measurement of glomerular diameters in normal adult humans," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22, 987-997 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, L. A.

T. J. Hall, M. F. Insana, L. A. Harrison, and G. G. Cox, "Ultrasonic measurement of glomerular diameters in normal adult humans," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22, 987-997 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, "Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695-706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herz, P. R.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houser, S. L.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsiung, P.

Hsiung, P. L.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, Z. Hu, W. Kang, J. E. Willis, K. Olowe, M. V. Sivak, Jr., and A. M. Rollins, "Automated quantification of colonic crypt morphology using integrated microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054055 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. W.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Effects of Axial Resolution Improvement on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Imaging of Gastrointestinal Tissues," Opt. Express 16, 2469-2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Huber, R. A.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Insana, M. F.

T. J. Hall, M. F. Insana, L. A. Harrison, and G. G. Cox, "Ultrasonic measurement of glomerular diameters in normal adult humans," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22, 987-997 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isenberg, G.

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isenberg, G. A.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, I. K.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J. Y.

Kang, D. H.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kang, W.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, Z. Hu, W. Kang, J. E. Willis, K. Olowe, M. V. Sivak, Jr., and A. M. Rollins, "Automated quantification of colonic crypt morphology using integrated microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054055 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, D.

K. Moran, J. Mulhall, D. Kelly, S. Sheehan, J. Dowsett, P. Dervan, and J. M. Fitzpatrick, "Morphological changes and alterations in regional intrarenal blood flow induced by graded renal ischemia," J. Urology 148, 463-466 (1992).

Khirabadi, B. S.

P. M. Andrews, B. S. Khirabadi, and B. C. Bengs, "Using tandem scanning confocal microscopy to predict the status of donor kidneys," Nephron 91, 148-155 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.

Q1. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmol. 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalevicz, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh resolution, high speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, "Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695-706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koni, I.

S. Daiman, and I. Koni, "Glomerular enlargement in the progression of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis," Clin. Nephrol. 49, 145-152 (1998).

Koski, A.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Q1. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmol. 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A.

Krinsky, M. L.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lam, L.

L. Lam, S.-W. Lee, and C. Y. Suen, "Thinning Methodologies-A Comprehensive Survey," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intelligence 14, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Le, T.

Lee, S.-W.

L. Lam, S.-W. Lee, and C. Y. Suen, "Thinning Methodologies-A Comprehensive Survey," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intelligence 14, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, X. D.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenzo, G.

O. B. Franc, C. Stefano, V. S. Maria, G. Lorenzo, H. Yale, T. Stefano, and S. Antonio, "Automatic evaluation of arterial diameter variation from vascular echographic images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1621-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maria, V. S.

O. B. Franc, C. Stefano, V. S. Maria, G. Lorenzo, H. Yale, T. Stefano, and S. Antonio, "Automatic evaluation of arterial diameter variation from vascular echographic images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1621-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mashimo, H.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Effects of Axial Resolution Improvement on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Imaging of Gastrointestinal Tissues," Opt. Express 16, 2469-2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moran, K.

K. Moran, J. Mulhall, D. Kelly, S. Sheehan, J. Dowsett, P. Dervan, and J. M. Fitzpatrick, "Morphological changes and alterations in regional intrarenal blood flow induced by graded renal ischemia," J. Urology 148, 463-466 (1992).

Mulhall, J.

K. Moran, J. Mulhall, D. Kelly, S. Sheehan, J. Dowsett, P. Dervan, and J. M. Fitzpatrick, "Morphological changes and alterations in regional intrarenal blood flow induced by graded renal ischemia," J. Urology 148, 463-466 (1992).

Mutinga, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nassif, N. A.

Nishioka, N. S.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nyberg, E.

E. Nyberg, S. O. Bohman, and U. Berg, "Glomerular volume and renal function in children with different types of nephrotic syndrome," Pediatr. Nephrol. 8, 285-289 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olowe, K.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, Z. Hu, W. Kang, J. E. Willis, K. Olowe, M. V. Sivak, Jr., and A. M. Rollins, "Automated quantification of colonic crypt morphology using integrated microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054055 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onozato, M. L.

P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osterby, R.

Q2. H. J. Gunderson, and R. Osterby, "Glomerular size and structure in diabetes mellitus II. Late abnormalities," Disbetologia 13, 43-48 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, Z. Hu, W. Kang, J. E. Willis, K. Olowe, M. V. Sivak, Jr., and A. M. Rollins, "Automated quantification of colonic crypt morphology using integrated microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054055 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Park, S. J.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. W.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pedrosa, M.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Pitris, C.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, "High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography," Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
[PubMed]

Poggianti, E.

V. Gemignani, F. Faita, L. Ghiadoni, E. Poggianti, and M. Demi, "A system for real-time measurement of the brachial artery diameter in B-mode ultrasound images," IEEE transactions on Medical Imaging 26, 393-404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomerantsev, E.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, Z. Hu, W. Kang, J. E. Willis, K. Olowe, M. V. Sivak, Jr., and A. M. Rollins, "Automated quantification of colonic crypt morphology using integrated microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054055 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, J. J.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, Z. Hu, W. Kang, J. E. Willis, K. Olowe, M. V. Sivak, Jr., and A. M. Rollins, "Automated quantification of colonic crypt morphology using integrated microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054055 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, "Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695-706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlendorf, K.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Effects of Axial Resolution Improvement on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Imaging of Gastrointestinal Tissues," Opt. Express 16, 2469-2485 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, P. M. Andrews, A. D. Aguirre, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034008 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. L. Hsiung, S. Desai, P. R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. W. Huang, A. Koski, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholda, C.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, "Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695-706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

Q1. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmol. 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seung, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, S.

K. Moran, J. Mulhall, D. Kelly, S. Sheehan, J. Dowsett, P. Dervan, and J. M. Fitzpatrick, "Morphological changes and alterations in regional intrarenal blood flow induced by graded renal ischemia," J. Urology 148, 463-466 (1992).

Shishkov, M.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sivak, M. V.

X. Qi, Y. Pan, Z. Hu, W. Kang, J. E. Willis, K. Olowe, M. V. Sivak, Jr., and A. M. Rollins, "Automated quantification of colonic crypt morphology using integrated microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054055 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

Q1. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmol. 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stefano, C.

O. B. Franc, C. Stefano, V. S. Maria, G. Lorenzo, H. Yale, T. Stefano, and S. Antonio, "Automatic evaluation of arterial diameter variation from vascular echographic images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1621-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stefano, T.

O. B. Franc, C. Stefano, V. S. Maria, G. Lorenzo, H. Yale, T. Stefano, and S. Antonio, "Automatic evaluation of arterial diameter variation from vascular echographic images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1621-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stingl, A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stur, M.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, "Enhanced visualization of macular pathology with the use of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695-706 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suen, C. Y.

L. Lam, S.-W. Lee, and C. Y. Suen, "Thinning Methodologies-A Comprehensive Survey," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intelligence 14, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 467-474 (2000).
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J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, "High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography," Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
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R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
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M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. Qi, Y. Pan, Z. Hu, W. Kang, J. E. Willis, K. Olowe, M. V. Sivak, Jr., and A. M. Rollins, "Automated quantification of colonic crypt morphology using integrated microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054055 (2008).
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X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
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Wong, R. C.

M. V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, A. M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R. C. Wong, G. A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yale, H.

O. B. Franc, C. Stefano, V. S. Maria, G. Lorenzo, H. Yale, T. Stefano, and S. Antonio, "Automatic evaluation of arterial diameter variation from vascular echographic images," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27, 1621-1629 (2001).
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M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. G. Fujimoto, S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, and M. E. Brezinski, "High resolution in vivo intra-arterial imaging with optical coherence tomography," Heart 82, 128-133 (1999).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. College Cardiology (1)

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. College Cardiology 39, 604-609 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, Y. Pan, Z. Hu, W. Kang, J. E. Willis, K. Olowe, M. V. Sivak, Jr., and A. M. Rollins, "Automated quantification of colonic crypt morphology using integrated microscopy and optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 054055 (2008).
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P. M. Andrews, Y. Chen, M. L. Onozato, S. W. Huang, D. C. Adler, R. A. Huber, J. Jiang, S. E. Barry, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of the living kidney," Lab. Investigation 88, 441-449 (2008).
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Y. Chen, A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. W. Huang, H. Mashimo, J. M. Schmitt, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Effects of Axial Resolution Improvement on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Imaging of Gastrointestinal Tissues," Opt. Express 16, 2469-2485 (2008).
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R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalevicz, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh resolution, high speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
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Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: AVI (480 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3089 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2529 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3159 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (2558 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (3852 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic and photo of the OCT imaging system. FC: fiber coupler, PC: polarization controller, C: collimator, MZI: Mach-Zehnder interferometer (frequency clocks), M: mirror, BD: balanced detector, DAQ: data acquisition board, DCG: dispersion compensating glasses, OBJ: objective.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

General flow chart of the automatic image processing algorithm, which includes three major steps: 1) image segmentation from the raw OCT image; 2) automatic region selection (denoted by different gray values), enabling individual analysis of each isolated region; 3) finding the boundary and skeleton for each isolated region, and quantification of the local tubule/vessel diameters.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Demonstration of automatic selection of isolated ROIs (as indicated by different colors) (Media 1). This process enables further image analysis algorithm (such as diameter quantification) being applied to a spatially-resolved ROI instead of the whole image.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Illustration of segmented image (a-c) radius quantification. d, e, and f are the graphical representations of the radius quantification of the segmented images a, b and c, respectively. A limited number of radii are shown (in red color). Boundary is shown in black color, and the skeleton is shown in gray color.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) An OCT image of a capillary tube phantom in YZ plane. The tube (indicated by an arrow) is submerged in a highly scattering medium with 2% Intralipid. (b) Corresponding segmentation image of (a). Tube region is highlighted by green color. (c) Histogram of the estimated tube diameters from 61 different OCT cross-sectional (YZ) images along X dimension by computer analysis and a human observer (d). (e) A digital microscopy image of the capillary tube.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Cross-sectional OCT image of the human kidney. Uriniferous tubules (T), glomerulus (G) and the kidney capsule (C) are distinguishable. (b) Conventional histology of the associated area in the human kidney. (c) and (d) are the histograms of the uriniferous tubules diameters calculated by the computer algorithm from OCT images, and manually measurement from the histology, respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) 3D cut-through view of the human kidney. The blood vessels as well as the kidney parenchyma are visualized. (b–d): Representative OCT images in the XY, XZ, and YZ planes. (e) 3D volumetric image of the segmented vasculature (Media 2). (f) Automatically quantified and color-coded structural image. (g) Volume histogram of the blood vessel diameter distribution.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) 3D cut-through view of the human kidney including uriniferous tubules and the kidney parenchyma is displayed. (b–d): Representative OCT images in the XY, XZ, and YZ planes. (e) 3D volumetric image of the segmented tubular network (Media 3). (f) Automatically quantified and color-coded structural image. (g) Volume histogram of the uriniferous tubules diameter distribution.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) 3D cut-through view of the human kidney with distended uriniferous tubules. (b–d): Representative OCT images in the XY, XZ, and YZ planes. (e) 3D volumetric image of the segmented distended tubular network (Media 4). (f) Automatically quantified and color-coded structural image. (g) Volume histogram of the distended uriniferous tubules diameter distribution.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) 3D cut-through enlarged view of the human kidney showing a glomerulus and tubular network. (b–d): Representative OCT images in the XY, XZ, and YZ planes. (e) 3D volumetric image of the segmented glomerulus and tubular network (Media 5). (f) Automatically quantified and color-coded structural image.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) 3D cut-through view of the human kidney showing a glomerulus (G) surrounded by tubules (T) and vessels (V). (b–d): Representative OCT images in the XY, XZ, and YZ planes. (e) 3D volumetric image of the segmented glomeruli and tubular network (Media 6). (f) Automatically quantified and color-coded structural image.

Equations (2)

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g (x,y)={1;f(x,y)<T0;f(x,y)T
Radius (b)=min(distsS.(b,s))

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