Abstract

We demonstrate a photonic crystal nanocavity laser essentially driven by a self-assembled InAs/GaAs single quantum dot gain. The investigated nanocavities contain only 0.4 quantum dots on an average; an ultra-low density quantum dot sample (1.5 x 108 cm−2) is used so that a single quantum dot can be isolated from the surrounding quantum dots. Laser oscillation begins at a pump power of 42 nW under resonant condition, while the far-detuning conditions require ~145 nW for lasing. This spectral detuning dependence of laser threshold indicates substantial contribution of the single quantum dot to the total gain. Moreover, photon correlation measurements show a distinct transition from anti-bunching to Poissonian via bunching with the increase of the excitation power, which is also an evidence of laser oscillation using the single quantum dot gain.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (1)

M. Kaniber, A. Neumann, A. Laucht, M. F. Huck, M. Bichler, M.-C. Amann, and J. J. Finley, “Efficient and selective cavity-resonant excitation for single photon generation,” N. J. Phys. 11(1), 013031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

2007 (5)

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7506–7514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, N. Kumagai, and Y. Arakawa, “Temporal coherence of a photonic crystal nanocavity laser with high spontaneous emission coupling factor,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, “Photon statistics of semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. G. Xie, S. Götzinger, W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, “Influence of a single quantum dot state on the characteristics of a microdisk laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 117401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, “A. Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 81–90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6308–6315 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, T. Yang, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Enhancement of light emission from single quantum dot in photonic crystal nanocavity by using cavity resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

H. Altug and J. Vucković, “Photonic crystal nanocavity array laser,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8819–8828 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1202–1214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaître, J. Hours, J. M. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton-photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Löffler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature 432(7014), 197–200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vucković, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature 419(6907), 594–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. Vučković, O. Painter, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, “Finite-difference time-domain calculation of the spontaneous emission coupling factor in optical microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1168–1175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. R. Rice and H. J. Carmichael, “Photon statistics of a cavity-QED laser: A comment on the laser-phase-transition analogy,” Phys. Rev. A 50(5), 4318–4329 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, M. Sargent, P. Meystre, H. M. Gibbs, and G. Khitrova, “Photon-number correlations near the threshold of microcavity lasers in the weak-coupling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 49(5), 4038–4042 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

Y. Arakawa and H. Sakaki, “Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(11), 939–941 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. A. Armstrong and A. W. Smith, “Intensity fluctuation in a GaAa laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14(3), 68–70 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177(4497), 27–29 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Altug, H.

Amann, M.-C.

M. Kaniber, A. Neumann, A. Laucht, M. F. Huck, M. Bichler, M.-C. Amann, and J. J. Finley, “Efficient and selective cavity-resonant excitation for single photon generation,” N. J. Phys. 11(1), 013031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaniber, A. Laucht, A. Neumann, J. M. Villas-Bôas, M. Bichler, M.-C. Amann, and J. J. Finley, “Investigation of the nonresonant dot-cavity coupling in two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 77(16), 161303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

Y. Ota, M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, K. Watanabe, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Enhanced photon emission and absorption of single quantum dot in resonance with two modes in photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 183114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, N. Kumagai, and Y. Arakawa, “Temporal coherence of a photonic crystal nanocavity laser with high spontaneous emission coupling factor,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6308–6315 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, T. Yang, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Enhancement of light emission from single quantum dot in photonic crystal nanocavity by using cavity resonant excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arakawa and H. Sakaki, “Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(11), 939–941 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong and A. W. Smith, “Intensity fluctuation in a GaAa laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14(3), 68–70 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Atatüre, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ates, S.

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, “Photon statistics of semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baek, J.-H.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazhenov, A.

Bichler, M.

M. Kaniber, A. Neumann, A. Laucht, M. F. Huck, M. Bichler, M.-C. Amann, and J. J. Finley, “Efficient and selective cavity-resonant excitation for single photon generation,” N. J. Phys. 11(1), 013031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaniber, A. Laucht, A. Neumann, J. M. Villas-Bôas, M. Bichler, M.-C. Amann, and J. J. Finley, “Investigation of the nonresonant dot-cavity coupling in two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 77(16), 161303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, J.

E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaître, J. Hours, J. M. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton-photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Böckler, C.

Boggavarapu, D.

R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, M. Sargent, P. Meystre, H. M. Gibbs, and G. Khitrova, “Photon-number correlations near the threshold of microcavity lasers in the weak-coupling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 49(5), 4038–4042 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmeester, D.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cade, N. I.

Cao, H.

Z. G. Xie, S. Götzinger, W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, “Influence of a single quantum dot state on the characteristics of a microdisk laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 117401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmichael, H. J.

P. R. Rice and H. J. Carmichael, “Photon statistics of a cavity-QED laser: A comment on the laser-phase-transition analogy,” Phys. Rev. A 50(5), 4318–4329 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.-S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deppe, D. G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, D.

Ell, C.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fält, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, W.

Z. G. Xie, S. Götzinger, W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, “Influence of a single quantum dot state on the characteristics of a microdisk laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 117401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattal, D.

C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vucković, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature 419(6907), 594–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finley, J. J.

M. Kaniber, A. Neumann, A. Laucht, M. F. Huck, M. Bichler, M.-C. Amann, and J. J. Finley, “Efficient and selective cavity-resonant excitation for single photon generation,” N. J. Phys. 11(1), 013031 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaniber, A. Laucht, A. Neumann, J. M. Villas-Bôas, M. Bichler, M.-C. Amann, and J. J. Finley, “Investigation of the nonresonant dot-cavity coupling in two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 77(16), 161303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

S. Reitzenstein, C. Böckler, A. Bazhenov, A. Gorbunov, A. Löffler, M. Kamp, V. D. Kulakovskii, and A. Forchel, “Single quantum dot controlled lasing effects in high-Q micropillar cavities,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4848–4857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, “Photon statistics of semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Löffler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature 432(7014), 197–200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerace, D.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gérard, J. M.

E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaître, J. Hours, J. M. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton-photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067401 (2005).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of the PhC nanocavity laser. An atomic force microscope image of an equivalent sample without capping demonstrates that no interference from other quantum dots occurs (lower left inset). The lower right inset depicts the electric field intensity of the cavity mode, showing that photons are strongly confined. (b) PL spectrum measured by a high spectral resolution (~30 pm) setup at a pump power of ~90 nW, which is below the laser threshold at this detuning. A Voigt function was used to estimate the real linewidth of the cavity mode by considering finite spectral resolution of the system. The estimated cavity Q is 24,800 ± 1,000.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured PL spectrum of the coupled exciton (914.6 nm) and the cavity mode (915.25 nm) at sufficiently high detuning (6K). (b) PL spectra recorded at various detunings for a pump power of 60 nW; x and c denote the exciton and the cavity, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PL spectra measured under far-detuning (−0.65 nm, blue) and resonant (red) conditions at the excitation power of ~15 nW. (b) L-L plots of the cavity mode under coupled condition. (c) Spectral detuning dependence of laser threshold. Lasing begins at a pump power of 42 nW under resonant condition, while the far-detuning conditions require ~145 nW for lasing. The detuning of the single QD to the cavity mode was carried out by changing the temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photon correlation measurements for a laser with a single QD under coupling condition. (a) Schematic picture of the optical system used in the measurements. (b)-(d), Photon correlation function g (2)(τ) recorded at below (0.34 P th), near (1.35 P th), and above (9.3 P th) the laser threshold (P th = 42 nW) under the condition of zero detuning. The photon statistics changes from anti-bunching (b) to bunching (c) to Poissonian (d) as the pump power is increased. The blue lines in (b) and (c) are fitted curves. Temporal accuracy of the detection system was taken into account.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photon statistics of a single quantum dot coupled laser. (a), L-L plot on a logarithmic scale with the fitted curve shown in light blue. (b), Photon correlation function ĝ (2)(0) at various pump powers. The horizontal axes of the two panels represent the pump power normalized by P th = 42 nW. The dashed green line ĝ (2)(0) = 1 indicates the photon statistics of coherent light. The change in ĝ (2)(0) clearly shows a transition of the light source from a single photon source to a laser with an enhancement of the intensity noise at the threshold.

Equations (2)

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g(2)(τ)=1/2πσ2g^(2)(ττ')exp(τ'2/2σ2)dτ'.
g^(2)(τ)=1(1g^2(0))exp(|τ|/τ0)

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