Abstract

A low-loss and high-bandwidth polymer parallel optical waveguide with graded-index (GI) rectangular cores is fabricated for high-speed and high-dense optical interconnections. We demonstrate that the near-parabolic index profile formed in the rectangular-shaped core GI waveguide exhibits superior properties similar to those of GI circular core waveguides we previously reported. In particular, we focus on the modal dispersion in the GI polymer waveguides with rectangular cores by showing experimental results. In this paper, the GI rectangular cores are fabricated using the preform method. However, conventional photo-lithography and imprinting processes are viable to fabricate a similar waveguiding structure, by which fabrication of a printed circuit board embedding this waveguide would become feasible.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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  1. C. Berger, B. J. Offrein, and M. Schmatz, “Challenges for the introduction of board-level optical interconnect technology into product development roadmaps,” Proc. SPIE 6124, 61240J1–12 (2006)
  2. K. Nakano, R. Kuribayashi, K. Maeda, A. Noda, J. Sakaki, and H. Takahashi, “Development of alicyclic polymers for multimode waveguide array and its characteristics for use in optical interconnection,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics (National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Tokyo, Japan, 2007), pp. 170–173.
  3. H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ishigure and Y. Takeyoshi, “Polymer waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores for parallel optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5843–5850 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Takeyoshi, K. Matsumoto, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss 4 x 2 channels polymer optical waveguide with circular graded-index cores for high-density integration on printed circuit boards,” in proceedings of IEEE conference on Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Lake Buena Vista, Florida, 2008), pp. 2111–2116.
  6. Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, and Y. Ohtsuka, “New interfacial copolymerization technique for steric GRIN polymer optical waveguides and lens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27(3), 486–491 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. T. Chen, “Graded index linear and curved polymer channel waveguide arrays for massively parallel optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(19), 2278–2280 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Karppinen, T. Alajoki, A. Tanskanen, K. Kataja, J.-T. Mäkinen, K. Kautio, P. Karioja, M. Immonen, and J. Kivilahti, “Parallel optical interconnect between ceramic BGA packages on FR4 board using embedded waveguides and passive optical alignments,” in proceedings of IEEE conference on Electronic Components and Technology Conference (San Diego, California, 2006), pp. 779–805.
  10. R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Kosugi, and T. Ishigure, “Multimode parallel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index rectangular cores for optical interconnects,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (Sydney, Australia, 2008)
  12. Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2 x 4-channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published)
  13. T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Olshansky and D. B. Keck, “Pulse broadening in graded index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 15(2), 483–491 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1449–1456 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. T. Chen, “Graded index linear and curved polymer channel waveguide arrays for massively parallel optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(19), 2278–2280 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1976 (1)

Asano, H.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beyeler, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen, “Graded index linear and curved polymer channel waveguide arrays for massively parallel optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(19), 2278–2280 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dangel, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dellmann, L.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eguchi, S.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gmür, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamelin, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ibamoto, M.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Imoto, K.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, T.

T. Ishigure and Y. Takeyoshi, “Polymer waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores for parallel optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5843–5850 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1449–1456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishiyama, Y.

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kannke, A.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Keck, D. B.

Kobayashi, E.

Koike, Y.

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1449–1456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, and Y. Ohtsuka, “New interfacial copolymerization technique for steric GRIN polymer optical waveguides and lens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27(3), 486–491 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morf, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nihei, E.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nyu, T.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oggioni, S.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohdoko, K.

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

Oka, T.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, S.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Olshansky, R.

Satoh, M.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spreafico, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takanashi, O.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeyoshi, Y.

Takezawa, Y.

Tanaka, S.

Tsushima, H.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, E.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, S.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimatsu, S.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. T. Chen, “Graded index linear and curved polymer channel waveguide arrays for massively parallel optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(19), 2278–2280 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1449–1456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Y. Takeyoshi, K. Matsumoto, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss 4 x 2 channels polymer optical waveguide with circular graded-index cores for high-density integration on printed circuit boards,” in proceedings of IEEE conference on Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Lake Buena Vista, Florida, 2008), pp. 2111–2116.

C. Berger, B. J. Offrein, and M. Schmatz, “Challenges for the introduction of board-level optical interconnect technology into product development roadmaps,” Proc. SPIE 6124, 61240J1–12 (2006)

K. Nakano, R. Kuribayashi, K. Maeda, A. Noda, J. Sakaki, and H. Takahashi, “Development of alicyclic polymers for multimode waveguide array and its characteristics for use in optical interconnection,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics (National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Tokyo, Japan, 2007), pp. 170–173.

T. Kosugi, and T. Ishigure, “Multimode parallel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index rectangular cores for optical interconnects,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (Sydney, Australia, 2008)

Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2 x 4-channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published)

M. Karppinen, T. Alajoki, A. Tanskanen, K. Kataja, J.-T. Mäkinen, K. Kautio, P. Karioja, M. Immonen, and J. Kivilahti, “Parallel optical interconnect between ceramic BGA packages on FR4 board using embedded waveguides and passive optical alignments,” in proceedings of IEEE conference on Electronic Components and Technology Conference (San Diego, California, 2006), pp. 779–805.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic concept of our new waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of fabrication processes

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross sections of the 4-channel GI type waveguide with (a) circular cores, (b) 100 x 100 μm rectangular cores and (c) 60 x 60 μm rectangular cores

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interference fringe pattern of the GI waveguide with (a)circular, and (b)rectangular cores Calculated refractive index profile are displayed 2-dimensionally for (c) circular, (d)rectangular cores, and 3-dimensionally for (e) circular, and (f) rectangular cores

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results of power distribution at the output ends of (a): 1-m single-mode silica fiber, (b): 5-cm GI rectangular core (100 x 100 μm), (c): 5-m GI rectangular core (100 x 100 μm), and (d): 5-cm SI rectangular core (40 x 40 μm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Eye diagram after a 12.5 Gbps (a):Back-to-Back, (b): 3-m transmission through a rectangular GI core

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Refractive index profile of measured GI waveguide (a) and its 2-dimensional profile (b); solid lines are measured profiles and the plots signify the approximated profile by the power-law form

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Output pulse waveforms from a GI square core waveguide under the OML and RML conditions after a 90 m transmission

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of NFP between low order mode and high order mode

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Streak image of the novel waveguide on horizontal direction (a) and on diagonal direction (b).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of bandwidth between OML and RML condition

Equations (2)

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n(r)=n1[12Δ(ra)g]12      0ra        =n2                          ra
Δ=n12n222n12,

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