Abstract

A low-loss and high-bandwidth polymer parallel optical waveguide with graded-index (GI) rectangular cores is fabricated for high-speed and high-dense optical interconnections. We demonstrate that the near-parabolic index profile formed in the rectangular-shaped core GI waveguide exhibits superior properties similar to those of GI circular core waveguides we previously reported. In particular, we focus on the modal dispersion in the GI polymer waveguides with rectangular cores by showing experimental results. In this paper, the GI rectangular cores are fabricated using the preform method. However, conventional photo-lithography and imprinting processes are viable to fabricate a similar waveguiding structure, by which fabrication of a printed circuit board embedding this waveguide would become feasible.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. C. Berger, B. J. Offrein, and M. Schmatz, “Challenges for the introduction of board-level optical interconnect technology into product development roadmaps,” Proc. SPIE 6124, 61240J1–12 (2006)
  2. K. Nakano, R. Kuribayashi, K. Maeda, A. Noda, J. Sakaki, and H. Takahashi, “Development of alicyclic polymers for multimode waveguide array and its characteristics for use in optical interconnection,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics (National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Tokyo, Japan, 2007), pp. 170–173.
  3. H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
  4. T. Ishigure and Y. Takeyoshi, “Polymer waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores for parallel optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5843–5850 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Takeyoshi, K. Matsumoto, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss 4 x 2 channels polymer optical waveguide with circular graded-index cores for high-density integration on printed circuit boards,” in proceedings of IEEE conference on Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Lake Buena Vista, Florida, 2008), pp. 2111–2116.
  6. Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, and Y. Ohtsuka, “New interfacial copolymerization technique for steric GRIN polymer optical waveguides and lens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27(3), 486–491 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. T. Chen, “Graded index linear and curved polymer channel waveguide arrays for massively parallel optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(19), 2278–2280 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Karppinen, T. Alajoki, A. Tanskanen, K. Kataja, J.-T. Mäkinen, K. Kautio, P. Karioja, M. Immonen, and J. Kivilahti, “Parallel optical interconnect between ceramic BGA packages on FR4 board using embedded waveguides and passive optical alignments,” in proceedings of IEEE conference on Electronic Components and Technology Conference (San Diego, California, 2006), pp. 779–805.
  10. R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Kosugi, and T. Ishigure, “Multimode parallel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index rectangular cores for optical interconnects,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (Sydney, Australia, 2008)
  12. Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2 x 4-channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published)
  13. T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Olshansky and D. B. Keck, “Pulse broadening in graded index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 15(2), 483–491 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1449–1456 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. T. Chen, “Graded index linear and curved polymer channel waveguide arrays for massively parallel optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(19), 2278–2280 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1976 (1)

Asano, H.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beyeler, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen, “Graded index linear and curved polymer channel waveguide arrays for massively parallel optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(19), 2278–2280 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dangel, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dellmann, L.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eguchi, S.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gmür, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hamelin, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horst, F.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ibamoto, M.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Imoto, K.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).

Ishigure, T.

T. Ishigure and Y. Takeyoshi, “Polymer waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores for parallel optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5843–5850 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1449–1456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishiyama, Y.

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kannke, A.

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Keck, D. B.

Kobayashi, E.

Koike, Y.

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1449–1456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, and Y. Ohtsuka, “New interfacial copolymerization technique for steric GRIN polymer optical waveguides and lens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27(3), 486–491 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morf, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nihei, E.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nyu, T.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oggioni, S.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohdoko, K.

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

Oka, T.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).

Okamoto, S.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).

Olshansky, R.

Satoh, M.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spreafico, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takanashi, O.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeyoshi, Y.

Takezawa, Y.

Tanaka, S.

Tsushima, H.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).

Watanabe, E.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).

Yamazaki, S.

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimatsu, S.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. T. Chen, “Graded index linear and curved polymer channel waveguide arrays for massively parallel optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(19), 2278–2280 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(4), 759–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

T. Ishigure, M. Satoh, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki, and Y. Koike, “Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(11), 2095–2100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 2445–2448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1449–1456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Eguchi, H. Asano, A. Kannke, and M. Ibamoto, “Gradient index polymer optical waveguide patterned by ultraviolet irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 2, No. 12), L2232–L2235 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).

Other (6)

T. Kosugi, and T. Ishigure, “Multimode parallel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index rectangular cores for optical interconnects,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (Sydney, Australia, 2008)

Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2 x 4-channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published)

Y. Takeyoshi, K. Matsumoto, and T. Ishigure, “Low-loss 4 x 2 channels polymer optical waveguide with circular graded-index cores for high-density integration on printed circuit boards,” in proceedings of IEEE conference on Electronic Components and Technology Conference (Lake Buena Vista, Florida, 2008), pp. 2111–2116.

C. Berger, B. J. Offrein, and M. Schmatz, “Challenges for the introduction of board-level optical interconnect technology into product development roadmaps,” Proc. SPIE 6124, 61240J1–12 (2006)

K. Nakano, R. Kuribayashi, K. Maeda, A. Noda, J. Sakaki, and H. Takahashi, “Development of alicyclic polymers for multimode waveguide array and its characteristics for use in optical interconnection,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics (National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Tokyo, Japan, 2007), pp. 170–173.

M. Karppinen, T. Alajoki, A. Tanskanen, K. Kataja, J.-T. Mäkinen, K. Kautio, P. Karioja, M. Immonen, and J. Kivilahti, “Parallel optical interconnect between ceramic BGA packages on FR4 board using embedded waveguides and passive optical alignments,” in proceedings of IEEE conference on Electronic Components and Technology Conference (San Diego, California, 2006), pp. 779–805.

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