Abstract

A high sensitivity spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms is presented by using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the 6S1/2-6P3/2-nD ladder-type system of cesium vapor cell at room temperature. The EIT spectra of 40D Rydberg state are measured and the dependences of the EIT magnitude and linewidth on the coupling laser power are investigated in detail. The Rydberg EIT linewidth is measured to be about 5.6MHz when the powers of probe and coupling lasers are 50μW and 5.2mW, respectively, and which is close to the natural linewidth of cesium atoms. The effect of double resonance optical pumping on EIT is also investigated. The fine structures of nD (n = 39-55) are measured and the experimental result is in agreement with quantum defect theory.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge 1994)
  2. D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent optical detection of highly excited Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 113003 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Xiao, Y. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of Dispersive Properties of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Rubidium Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(5), 666–669 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Clarke, H. Chen, and W. A. van Wijngaarden, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and optical switching in a rubidium cascade system,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 2047–2051 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Mauger, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, “Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 40(22), F319–F325 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4(11), 890–894 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Gea-Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 576–584 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. S. Moon, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping effects in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12163–12170 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Z. Feng, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Lifetime measurement of ultracoldcesium Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 42(14), 145303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. C. Harvey and B. P. Stoicheff, “Fine Structure of the n2D Series in Rubidium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38(10), 537–540 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 163001 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Z. Feng, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Lifetime measurement of ultracoldcesium Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 42(14), 145303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. S. Moon, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping effects in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12163–12170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. Mauger, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, “Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 40(22), F319–F325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent optical detection of highly excited Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Clarke, H. Chen, and W. A. van Wijngaarden, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and optical switching in a rubidium cascade system,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 2047–2051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

M. Xiao, Y. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of Dispersive Properties of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Rubidium Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(5), 666–669 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gea-Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 576–584 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

K. C. Harvey and B. P. Stoicheff, “Fine Structure of the n2D Series in Rubidium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38(10), 537–540 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. S.

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent optical detection of highly excited Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amthor, T.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bason, M. G.

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berman, P. R.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Butscher, B.

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chotia, A.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirac, J. I.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, J.

Comparat, D.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cote, R.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubel, T.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Denskat, J.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, L. M.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldbaum, D.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z.

Z. Feng, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Lifetime measurement of ultracoldcesium Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 42(14), 145303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, T. F.

P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher,, T. F.

P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gang, Z.

K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gea-Banacloche, J.

J. Gea-Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 576–584 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, Y. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of Dispersive Properties of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Rubidium Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(5), 666–669 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guest, J. R.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, K. C.

K. C. Harvey and B. P. Stoicheff, “Fine Structure of the n2D Series in Rubidium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38(10), 537–540 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Henage, T.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isenhower, L.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, T. R.

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent optical detection of highly excited Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaksch, D.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, S.

Z. Feng, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Lifetime measurement of ultracoldcesium Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 42(14), 145303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, K. J.

J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.

M. Xiao, Y. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of Dispersive Properties of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Rubidium Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(5), 666–669 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gea-Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 576–584 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. A.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, M. P. A.

S. Mauger, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, “Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 40(22), F319–F325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kachru, R

P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kachru, R.

P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. B.

Kong, L. B.

J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L.

Li, A.

K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Z. Feng, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Lifetime measurement of ultracoldcesium Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 42(14), 145303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K.

J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Gea-Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 576–584 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, Y. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of Dispersive Properties of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Rubidium Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(5), 666–669 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcassa, L. G.

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauger, S.

S. Mauger, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, “Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 40(22), F319–F325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Millen, J.

S. Mauger, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, “Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 40(22), F319–F325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mohapatra, A. K.

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent optical detection of highly excited Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, H. S.

Pillet, P.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Raithel, G.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reetz-Lamour, M.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saffman, M.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansonetti, C. J.

K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singer, K.

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, W. W

P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. W.

P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stoicheff, B. P.

K. C. Harvey and B. P. Stoicheff, “Fine Structure of the n2D Series in Rubidium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38(10), 537–540 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Teo, B. K.

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. H

P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. H.

P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tu, X. H.

J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Urban, E.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Wijngaarden, W. A.

Viteau, M.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, T.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, T. G.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weatherill, K. J.

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K. H.

K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weidemüller, M.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 163001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westermann, S.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, Y. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of Dispersive Properties of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Rubidium Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(5), 666–669 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gea-Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 576–584 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, H. W.

J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yavuz, D. D.

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yifu Zhu, M. S.

J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Z. Feng, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Lifetime measurement of ultracoldcesium Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 42(14), 145303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Z. Feng, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Lifetime measurement of ultracoldcesium Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 42(14), 145303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoller, P.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Phys. B (2)

Z. Feng, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Lifetime measurement of ultracoldcesium Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 42(14), 145303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mauger, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, “Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 40(22), F319–F325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gea-Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 576–584 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent optical detection of highly excited Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge 1994)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Relevant levels scheme used for the experimental demonstration of a ladder-type EIT. Ω p and Ω c are Rabi frequencies of probe and coupling beam, γ2 and γ3 are delay rates of level |2> and |3>. (b) Schematic of the experimental setup, where SAS: saturated absorption spectroscopy; M: reflecting mirror; PBS: polarization prism; BS: beam splitter; ST: second EIT device used to lock the coupling laser; DM: dichroic mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A saturated absorption spectroscopy of probe laser (a) and EIT signal of ladder three levels system of Rydberg atoms 40D5/2 (b), the weak probe beam is scanned through the transition of 6S1/2 (F = 4)→ 6P3/2 and the coupling laser is locked to the transition of 6P3/2 (F’ = 5)→40D5/2 Rydberg state.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

40D EIT signal versus the power of the coupling laser with (a) for the signal magnitude and (b) for the linewidth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DROP (a) and EIT (b) signals under the condition of the weak probe beam is locked to the transition of 6S1/2 (F = 4)→ 6P3/2 (F’ = 5) and the coupling laser is scanned through the transition of 6P3/2 (F’ = 5)→50D Rydberg state.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The measured Rydberg D state fine structure splittings as a function of the principal quantum number and the red solid line is the theoretical calculation by using the quantum defect theory, the quantum defect of cesium D state is 2.4699 [13].

Equations (1)

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χ(v)dv=i4g22ε0N(v)dv[γ2iΔpiωpcv+(Ωc2)2γ3i(Δp+Δc)i(ωPωc)v/c]1

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