Abstract

Camera-based optical imaging of the exposed brain allows cortical hemodynamic responses to stimulation to be examined. Typical multispectral imaging systems utilize a camera and illumination at several wavelengths, allowing discrimination between changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration. However, most multispectral imaging systems utilize white light sources and mechanical filter wheels to multiplex illumination wavelengths, which are slow and difficult to synchronize at high frame rates. We present a new LED-based system capable of high-resolution multispectral imaging at frame rates exceeding 220 Hz. This improved performance enables simultaneous visualization of hemoglobin oxygenation dynamics within single vessels, changes in vessel diameters, blood flow dynamics from the motion of erythrocytes, and dynamically changing fluorescence.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (1)

H. D. Lu, G. Chen, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. W. Roe, “A rapid topographic mapping and eye alignment method using optical imaging in Macaque visual cortex,” Neuroimage 44(3), 636–646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

H. K. Shin, M. Nishimura, P. B. Jones, H. Ay, D. A. Boas, M. A. Moskowitz, and C. Ayata, “Mild induced hypertension improves blood flow and oxygen metabolism in transient focal cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 39(5), 1548–1555 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Duan, E. Angelini, S. Herz, C. Ingrassia, K. Costa, J. Holmes, S. Homma, and A. F. Laine, “Region-Based Endocardium Tracking on Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35, 256–265 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Themelis, J. S. Yoo, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral imaging using multiple-bandpass filters,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 1023–1025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

N. Prakash, J. D. Biag, S. A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, “Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex,” Neuroimage 37(Suppl 1), S27–S36 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakaguchi, T. Tachibana, S. Furukawa, T. Katsura, K. Yamazaki, H. Kawaguchi, A. Maki, and E. Okada, “Experimental prediction of the wavelength-dependent path-length factor for optical intrinsic signal analysis,” Appl. Opt. 46(14), 2769–2777 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zhao, M. Suh, H. Ma, C. Perry, A. Geneslaw, and T. H. Schwartz, “Focal increases in perfusion and decreases in hemoglobin oxygenation precede seizure onset in spontaneous human epilepsy,” Epilepsia 48(11), 2059–2067 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, “Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation,” Neuroimage 35(1), 89–104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

J. Berwick, D. Johnston, M. Jones, J. Martindale, P. Redgrave, N. McLoughlin, I. Schiessl, and J. E. W. Mayhew, “Neurovascular coupling investigated with two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy in rat whisker barrel cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 22(7), 1655–1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Spatial extent of oxygen metabolism and hemodynamic changes during functional activation of the rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuroimage 27(2), 279–290 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Fox, A. Z. Snyder, J. L. Vincent, M. Corbetta, D. C. Van Essen, and M. E. Raichle, “The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(27), 9673–9678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vanzetta, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Compartment-resolved imaging of activity-dependent dynamics of cortical blood volume and oximetry,” J. Neurosci. 25(9), 2233–2244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ohki, S. Chung, Y. H. Ch’ng, P. Kara, and R. C. Reid, “Functional imaging with cellular resolution reveals precise micro-architecture in visual cortex,” Nature 433(7026), 597–603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, S. N. Narayanan, S. R. Jones, M. L. Andermann, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of the cortical hemodynamic response to cortical and thalamic neuronal activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(10), 3822–3827 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuron 39(2), 353–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 28–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

N. Pouratian, A. F. Cannestra, N. A. Martin, and A. W. Toga, “Intraoperative optical intrinsic signal imaging: a clinical tool for functional brain mapping,” Neurosurg. Focus 13(4), 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Blood, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, “Temporally staggered forelimb stimulation modulates barrel cortex optical intrinsic signal responses to whisker stimulation,” J. Neurophysiol. 88(1), 422–437 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, “Concurrent optical imaging spectroscopy and laser-Doppler flowmetry: the relationship between blood flow, oxygenation, and volume in rodent barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13(61), 1002–1015 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Imaging cortical dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution with novel blue voltage-sensitive dyes,” Neuron 24(4), 791–802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Owen, C. E. Stern, R. B. Look, I. Tracey, B. R. Rosen, and M. Petrides, “Functional organization of spatial and nonspatial working memory processing within the human lateral frontal cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(13), 7721–7726 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

D. Malonek and A. Grinvald, “Interactions between electrical activity and cortical microcirculation revealed by imaging spectroscopy: implications for functional brain mapping,” Science 272(5261), 551–554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. Y. Ts’o, R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, and A. Grinvald, “Functional organization of primate visual cortex revealed by high resolution optical imaging,” Science 249(4967), 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

H. S. Orbach, L. B. Cohen, and A. Grinvald, “Optical mapping of electrical activity in rat somatosensory and visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 5(7), 1886–1895 (1985).
[PubMed]

Andermann, M. L.

A. Devor, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, S. N. Narayanan, S. R. Jones, M. L. Andermann, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of the cortical hemodynamic response to cortical and thalamic neuronal activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(10), 3822–3827 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 28–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuron 39(2), 353–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angelini, E.

Q. Duan, E. Angelini, S. Herz, C. Ingrassia, K. Costa, J. Holmes, S. Homma, and A. F. Laine, “Region-Based Endocardium Tracking on Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35, 256–265 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arieli, A.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Imaging cortical dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution with novel blue voltage-sensitive dyes,” Neuron 24(4), 791–802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ay, H.

H. K. Shin, M. Nishimura, P. B. Jones, H. Ay, D. A. Boas, M. A. Moskowitz, and C. Ayata, “Mild induced hypertension improves blood flow and oxygen metabolism in transient focal cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 39(5), 1548–1555 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayata, C.

H. K. Shin, M. Nishimura, P. B. Jones, H. Ay, D. A. Boas, M. A. Moskowitz, and C. Ayata, “Mild induced hypertension improves blood flow and oxygen metabolism in transient focal cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 39(5), 1548–1555 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacskai, B. J.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation,” Neuroimage 35(1), 89–104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belliveau, J. W.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berwick, J.

J. Berwick, D. Johnston, M. Jones, J. Martindale, P. Redgrave, N. McLoughlin, I. Schiessl, and J. E. W. Mayhew, “Neurovascular coupling investigated with two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy in rat whisker barrel cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 22(7), 1655–1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, “Concurrent optical imaging spectroscopy and laser-Doppler flowmetry: the relationship between blood flow, oxygenation, and volume in rodent barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13(61), 1002–1015 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biag, J. D.

N. Prakash, J. D. Biag, S. A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, “Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex,” Neuroimage 37(Suppl 1), S27–S36 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blood, A. J.

A. J. Blood, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, “Temporally staggered forelimb stimulation modulates barrel cortex optical intrinsic signal responses to whisker stimulation,” J. Neurophysiol. 88(1), 422–437 (2002).
[PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

H. K. Shin, M. Nishimura, P. B. Jones, H. Ay, D. A. Boas, M. A. Moskowitz, and C. Ayata, “Mild induced hypertension improves blood flow and oxygen metabolism in transient focal cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 39(5), 1548–1555 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation,” Neuroimage 35(1), 89–104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Spatial extent of oxygen metabolism and hemodynamic changes during functional activation of the rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuroimage 27(2), 279–290 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, S. N. Narayanan, S. R. Jones, M. L. Andermann, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of the cortical hemodynamic response to cortical and thalamic neuronal activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(10), 3822–3827 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 28–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuron 39(2), 353–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolay, H.

Bouchard, M. B.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation,” Neuroimage 35(1), 89–104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brady, T. J.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannestra, A. F.

N. Pouratian, A. F. Cannestra, N. A. Martin, and A. W. Toga, “Intraoperative optical intrinsic signal imaging: a clinical tool for functional brain mapping,” Neurosurg. Focus 13(4), 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ch’ng, Y. H.

K. Ohki, S. Chung, Y. H. Ch’ng, P. Kara, and R. C. Reid, “Functional imaging with cellular resolution reveals precise micro-architecture in visual cortex,” Nature 433(7026), 597–603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

H. D. Lu, G. Chen, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. W. Roe, “A rapid topographic mapping and eye alignment method using optical imaging in Macaque visual cortex,” Neuroimage 44(3), 636–646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.-M.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chesler, D. A.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, S.

K. Ohki, S. Chung, Y. H. Ch’ng, P. Kara, and R. C. Reid, “Functional imaging with cellular resolution reveals precise micro-architecture in visual cortex,” Nature 433(7026), 597–603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, L. B.

H. S. Orbach, L. B. Cohen, and A. Grinvald, “Optical mapping of electrical activity in rat somatosensory and visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 5(7), 1886–1895 (1985).
[PubMed]

Cohen, M. S.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corbetta, M.

M. D. Fox, A. Z. Snyder, J. L. Vincent, M. Corbetta, D. C. Van Essen, and M. E. Raichle, “The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(27), 9673–9678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costa, K.

Q. Duan, E. Angelini, S. Herz, C. Ingrassia, K. Costa, J. Holmes, S. Homma, and A. F. Laine, “Region-Based Endocardium Tracking on Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35, 256–265 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dale, A. M.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation,” Neuroimage 35(1), 89–104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Spatial extent of oxygen metabolism and hemodynamic changes during functional activation of the rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuroimage 27(2), 279–290 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, S. N. Narayanan, S. R. Jones, M. L. Andermann, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of the cortical hemodynamic response to cortical and thalamic neuronal activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(10), 3822–3827 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 28–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuron 39(2), 353–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devor, A.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation,” Neuroimage 35(1), 89–104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Spatial extent of oxygen metabolism and hemodynamic changes during functional activation of the rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuroimage 27(2), 279–290 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, S. N. Narayanan, S. R. Jones, M. L. Andermann, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of the cortical hemodynamic response to cortical and thalamic neuronal activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(10), 3822–3827 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 28–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuron 39(2), 353–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, Q.

Q. Duan, E. Angelini, S. Herz, C. Ingrassia, K. Costa, J. Holmes, S. Homma, and A. F. Laine, “Region-Based Endocardium Tracking on Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35, 256–265 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation,” Neuroimage 35(1), 89–104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Spatial extent of oxygen metabolism and hemodynamic changes during functional activation of the rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuroimage 27(2), 279–290 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, S. N. Narayanan, S. R. Jones, M. L. Andermann, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of the cortical hemodynamic response to cortical and thalamic neuronal activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(10), 3822–3827 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 28–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuron 39(2), 353–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, M. D.

M. D. Fox, A. Z. Snyder, J. L. Vincent, M. Corbetta, D. C. Van Essen, and M. E. Raichle, “The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(27), 9673–9678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frostig, R. D.

D. Y. Ts’o, R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, and A. Grinvald, “Functional organization of primate visual cortex revealed by high resolution optical imaging,” Science 249(4967), 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furukawa, S.

Geneslaw, A.

M. Zhao, M. Suh, H. Ma, C. Perry, A. Geneslaw, and T. H. Schwartz, “Focal increases in perfusion and decreases in hemoglobin oxygenation precede seizure onset in spontaneous human epilepsy,” Epilepsia 48(11), 2059–2067 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbert, C. D.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glaser, D. E.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Imaging cortical dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution with novel blue voltage-sensitive dyes,” Neuron 24(4), 791–802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, I. E.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grinvald, A.

I. Vanzetta, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Compartment-resolved imaging of activity-dependent dynamics of cortical blood volume and oximetry,” J. Neurosci. 25(9), 2233–2244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Imaging cortical dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution with novel blue voltage-sensitive dyes,” Neuron 24(4), 791–802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Malonek and A. Grinvald, “Interactions between electrical activity and cortical microcirculation revealed by imaging spectroscopy: implications for functional brain mapping,” Science 272(5261), 551–554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Ts’o, R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, and A. Grinvald, “Functional organization of primate visual cortex revealed by high resolution optical imaging,” Science 249(4967), 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Orbach, L. B. Cohen, and A. Grinvald, “Optical mapping of electrical activity in rat somatosensory and visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 5(7), 1886–1895 (1985).
[PubMed]

Guiou, M. W.

S. A. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. W. Guiou, M. A. Walker, and A. W. Toga, “Spatiotemporal evolution of functional hemodynamic changes and their relationship to neuronal activity,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab . 25, S324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haslinger, R. H.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helmchen, F.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herz, S.

Q. Duan, E. Angelini, S. Herz, C. Ingrassia, K. Costa, J. Holmes, S. Homma, and A. F. Laine, “Region-Based Endocardium Tracking on Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35, 256–265 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hildesheim, R.

I. Vanzetta, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Compartment-resolved imaging of activity-dependent dynamics of cortical blood volume and oximetry,” J. Neurosci. 25(9), 2233–2244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Imaging cortical dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution with novel blue voltage-sensitive dyes,” Neuron 24(4), 791–802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, E. M. C.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. C. Hillman, “Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation,” Neuroimage 35(1), 89–104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmes, J.

Q. Duan, E. Angelini, S. Herz, C. Ingrassia, K. Costa, J. Holmes, S. Homma, and A. F. Laine, “Region-Based Endocardium Tracking on Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35, 256–265 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homma, S.

Q. Duan, E. Angelini, S. Herz, C. Ingrassia, K. Costa, J. Holmes, S. Homma, and A. F. Laine, “Region-Based Endocardium Tracking on Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35, 256–265 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoppel, B. E.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingrassia, C.

Q. Duan, E. Angelini, S. Herz, C. Ingrassia, K. Costa, J. Holmes, S. Homma, and A. F. Laine, “Region-Based Endocardium Tracking on Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35, 256–265 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, D.

J. Berwick, D. Johnston, M. Jones, J. Martindale, P. Redgrave, N. McLoughlin, I. Schiessl, and J. E. W. Mayhew, “Neurovascular coupling investigated with two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy in rat whisker barrel cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 22(7), 1655–1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, “Concurrent optical imaging spectroscopy and laser-Doppler flowmetry: the relationship between blood flow, oxygenation, and volume in rodent barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13(61), 1002–1015 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, M.

J. Berwick, D. Johnston, M. Jones, J. Martindale, P. Redgrave, N. McLoughlin, I. Schiessl, and J. E. W. Mayhew, “Neurovascular coupling investigated with two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy in rat whisker barrel cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 22(7), 1655–1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, “Concurrent optical imaging spectroscopy and laser-Doppler flowmetry: the relationship between blood flow, oxygenation, and volume in rodent barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13(61), 1002–1015 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, P. B.

H. K. Shin, M. Nishimura, P. B. Jones, H. Ay, D. A. Boas, M. A. Moskowitz, and C. Ayata, “Mild induced hypertension improves blood flow and oxygen metabolism in transient focal cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 39(5), 1548–1555 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, S. R.

A. Devor, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, S. N. Narayanan, S. R. Jones, M. L. Andermann, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of the cortical hemodynamic response to cortical and thalamic neuronal activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(10), 3822–3827 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kara, P.

K. Ohki, S. Chung, Y. H. Ch’ng, P. Kara, and R. C. Reid, “Functional imaging with cellular resolution reveals precise micro-architecture in visual cortex,” Nature 433(7026), 597–603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsura, T.

Kawaguchi, H.

Kenet, T.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Imaging cortical dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution with novel blue voltage-sensitive dyes,” Neuron 24(4), 791–802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, D. N.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinfeld, D.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, G. W.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation,” Neuroimage 35(1), 89–104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, K. K.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laine, A. F.

Q. Duan, E. Angelini, S. Herz, C. Ingrassia, K. Costa, J. Holmes, S. Homma, and A. F. Laine, “Region-Based Endocardium Tracking on Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 35, 256–265 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieke, E.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieke, E. E.

D. Y. Ts’o, R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, and A. Grinvald, “Functional organization of primate visual cortex revealed by high resolution optical imaging,” Science 249(4967), 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, E. H.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Look, R. B.

A. M. Owen, C. E. Stern, R. B. Look, I. Tracey, B. R. Rosen, and M. Petrides, “Functional organization of spatial and nonspatial working memory processing within the human lateral frontal cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(13), 7721–7726 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, H. D.

H. D. Lu, G. Chen, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. W. Roe, “A rapid topographic mapping and eye alignment method using optical imaging in Macaque visual cortex,” Neuroimage 44(3), 636–646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

M. Zhao, M. Suh, H. Ma, C. Perry, A. Geneslaw, and T. H. Schwartz, “Focal increases in perfusion and decreases in hemoglobin oxygenation precede seizure onset in spontaneous human epilepsy,” Epilepsia 48(11), 2059–2067 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maki, A.

Malonek, D.

D. Malonek and A. Grinvald, “Interactions between electrical activity and cortical microcirculation revealed by imaging spectroscopy: implications for functional brain mapping,” Science 272(5261), 551–554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, N. A.

N. Pouratian, A. F. Cannestra, N. A. Martin, and A. W. Toga, “Intraoperative optical intrinsic signal imaging: a clinical tool for functional brain mapping,” Neurosurg. Focus 13(4), 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martindale, J.

J. Berwick, D. Johnston, M. Jones, J. Martindale, P. Redgrave, N. McLoughlin, I. Schiessl, and J. E. W. Mayhew, “Neurovascular coupling investigated with two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy in rat whisker barrel cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 22(7), 1655–1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayhew, J.

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, “Concurrent optical imaging spectroscopy and laser-Doppler flowmetry: the relationship between blood flow, oxygenation, and volume in rodent barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13(61), 1002–1015 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayhew, J. E. W.

J. Berwick, D. Johnston, M. Jones, J. Martindale, P. Redgrave, N. McLoughlin, I. Schiessl, and J. E. W. Mayhew, “Neurovascular coupling investigated with two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy in rat whisker barrel cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 22(7), 1655–1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLoughlin, N.

J. Berwick, D. Johnston, M. Jones, J. Martindale, P. Redgrave, N. McLoughlin, I. Schiessl, and J. E. W. Mayhew, “Neurovascular coupling investigated with two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy in rat whisker barrel cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 22(7), 1655–1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitra, P. P.

D. Kleinfeld, P. P. Mitra, F. Helmchen, and W. Denk, “Fluctuations and stimulus-induced changes in blood flow observed in individual capillaries in layers 2 through 4 of rat neocortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(26), 15741–15746 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsuyama, S.

N. Prakash, J. D. Biag, S. A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, “Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex,” Neuroimage 37(Suppl 1), S27–S36 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskowitz, M. A.

H. K. Shin, M. Nishimura, P. B. Jones, H. Ay, D. A. Boas, M. A. Moskowitz, and C. Ayata, “Mild induced hypertension improves blood flow and oxygen metabolism in transient focal cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 39(5), 1548–1555 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 28–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narayanan, S. N.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Devor, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, S. N. Narayanan, S. R. Jones, M. L. Andermann, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of the cortical hemodynamic response to cortical and thalamic neuronal activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(10), 3822–3827 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemoto, M.

S. A. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. W. Guiou, M. A. Walker, and A. W. Toga, “Spatiotemporal evolution of functional hemodynamic changes and their relationship to neuronal activity,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab . 25, S324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

H. K. Shin, M. Nishimura, P. B. Jones, H. Ay, D. A. Boas, M. A. Moskowitz, and C. Ayata, “Mild induced hypertension improves blood flow and oxygen metabolism in transient focal cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 39(5), 1548–1555 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

Ohki, K.

K. Ohki, S. Chung, Y. H. Ch’ng, P. Kara, and R. C. Reid, “Functional imaging with cellular resolution reveals precise micro-architecture in visual cortex,” Nature 433(7026), 597–603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okada, E.

Orbach, H. S.

H. S. Orbach, L. B. Cohen, and A. Grinvald, “Optical mapping of electrical activity in rat somatosensory and visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 5(7), 1886–1895 (1985).
[PubMed]

Owen, A. M.

A. M. Owen, C. E. Stern, R. B. Look, I. Tracey, B. R. Rosen, and M. Petrides, “Functional organization of spatial and nonspatial working memory processing within the human lateral frontal cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(13), 7721–7726 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, C.

M. Zhao, M. Suh, H. Ma, C. Perry, A. Geneslaw, and T. H. Schwartz, “Focal increases in perfusion and decreases in hemoglobin oxygenation precede seizure onset in spontaneous human epilepsy,” Epilepsia 48(11), 2059–2067 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrides, M.

A. M. Owen, C. E. Stern, R. B. Look, I. Tracey, B. R. Rosen, and M. Petrides, “Functional organization of spatial and nonspatial working memory processing within the human lateral frontal cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(13), 7721–7726 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poncelet, B. P.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pouratian, N.

A. J. Blood, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, “Temporally staggered forelimb stimulation modulates barrel cortex optical intrinsic signal responses to whisker stimulation,” J. Neurophysiol. 88(1), 422–437 (2002).
[PubMed]

N. Pouratian, A. F. Cannestra, N. A. Martin, and A. W. Toga, “Intraoperative optical intrinsic signal imaging: a clinical tool for functional brain mapping,” Neurosurg. Focus 13(4), 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prakash, N.

N. Prakash, J. D. Biag, S. A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, “Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex,” Neuroimage 37(Suppl 1), S27–S36 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raichle, M. E.

M. D. Fox, A. Z. Snyder, J. L. Vincent, M. Corbetta, D. C. Van Essen, and M. E. Raichle, “The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(27), 9673–9678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramachandra, C.

N. Prakash, J. D. Biag, S. A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, “Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex,” Neuroimage 37(Suppl 1), S27–S36 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Redgrave, P.

J. Berwick, D. Johnston, M. Jones, J. Martindale, P. Redgrave, N. McLoughlin, I. Schiessl, and J. E. W. Mayhew, “Neurovascular coupling investigated with two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy in rat whisker barrel cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 22(7), 1655–1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, R. C.

K. Ohki, S. Chung, Y. H. Ch’ng, P. Kara, and R. C. Reid, “Functional imaging with cellular resolution reveals precise micro-architecture in visual cortex,” Nature 433(7026), 597–603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roe, A. W.

H. D. Lu, G. Chen, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. W. Roe, “A rapid topographic mapping and eye alignment method using optical imaging in Macaque visual cortex,” Neuroimage 44(3), 636–646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, B. R.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Owen, C. E. Stern, R. B. Look, I. Tracey, B. R. Rosen, and M. Petrides, “Functional organization of spatial and nonspatial working memory processing within the human lateral frontal cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(13), 7721–7726 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruvinskaya, L.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, K.

Schiessl, I.

J. Berwick, D. Johnston, M. Jones, J. Martindale, P. Redgrave, N. McLoughlin, I. Schiessl, and J. E. W. Mayhew, “Neurovascular coupling investigated with two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy in rat whisker barrel cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 22(7), 1655–1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, T. H.

M. Zhao, M. Suh, H. Ma, C. Perry, A. Geneslaw, and T. H. Schwartz, “Focal increases in perfusion and decreases in hemoglobin oxygenation precede seizure onset in spontaneous human epilepsy,” Epilepsia 48(11), 2059–2067 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalinsky, M. H.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheth, S. A.

N. Prakash, J. D. Biag, S. A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, “Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex,” Neuroimage 37(Suppl 1), S27–S36 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. W. Guiou, M. A. Walker, and A. W. Toga, “Spatiotemporal evolution of functional hemodynamic changes and their relationship to neuronal activity,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab . 25, S324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. K.

H. K. Shin, M. Nishimura, P. B. Jones, H. Ay, D. A. Boas, M. A. Moskowitz, and C. Ayata, “Mild induced hypertension improves blood flow and oxygen metabolism in transient focal cerebral ischemia,” Stroke 39(5), 1548–1555 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoham, D.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Imaging cortical dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution with novel blue voltage-sensitive dyes,” Neuron 24(4), 791–802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Skoch, J.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation,” Neuroimage 35(1), 89–104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. Z.

M. D. Fox, A. Z. Snyder, J. L. Vincent, M. Corbetta, D. C. Van Essen, and M. E. Raichle, “The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(27), 9673–9678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, C. E.

A. M. Owen, C. E. Stern, R. B. Look, I. Tracey, B. R. Rosen, and M. Petrides, “Functional organization of spatial and nonspatial working memory processing within the human lateral frontal cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(13), 7721–7726 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, M.

M. Zhao, M. Suh, H. Ma, C. Perry, A. Geneslaw, and T. H. Schwartz, “Focal increases in perfusion and decreases in hemoglobin oxygenation precede seizure onset in spontaneous human epilepsy,” Epilepsia 48(11), 2059–2067 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tachibana, T.

Teng, I. C.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Themelis, G.

Theriot, J.

N. Prakash, J. D. Biag, S. A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, “Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex,” Neuroimage 37(Suppl 1), S27–S36 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, P.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toga, A. W.

N. Prakash, J. D. Biag, S. A. Sheth, S. Mitsuyama, J. Theriot, C. Ramachandra, and A. W. Toga, “Temporal profiles and 2-dimensional oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin somatosensory maps in rat versus mouse cortex,” Neuroimage 37(Suppl 1), S27–S36 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. W. Guiou, M. A. Walker, and A. W. Toga, “Spatiotemporal evolution of functional hemodynamic changes and their relationship to neuronal activity,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab . 25, S324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Pouratian, A. F. Cannestra, N. A. Martin, and A. W. Toga, “Intraoperative optical intrinsic signal imaging: a clinical tool for functional brain mapping,” Neurosurg. Focus 13(4), 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Blood, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, “Temporally staggered forelimb stimulation modulates barrel cortex optical intrinsic signal responses to whisker stimulation,” J. Neurophysiol. 88(1), 422–437 (2002).
[PubMed]

Toledo, Y.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Imaging cortical dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution with novel blue voltage-sensitive dyes,” Neuron 24(4), 791–802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tracey, I.

A. M. Owen, C. E. Stern, R. B. Look, I. Tracey, B. R. Rosen, and M. Petrides, “Functional organization of spatial and nonspatial working memory processing within the human lateral frontal cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95(13), 7721–7726 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ts’o, D. Y.

H. D. Lu, G. Chen, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. W. Roe, “A rapid topographic mapping and eye alignment method using optical imaging in Macaque visual cortex,” Neuroimage 44(3), 636–646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Ts’o, R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, and A. Grinvald, “Functional organization of primate visual cortex revealed by high resolution optical imaging,” Science 249(4967), 417–420 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, R.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulbert, I.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Devor, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, S. N. Narayanan, S. R. Jones, M. L. Andermann, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of the cortical hemodynamic response to cortical and thalamic neuronal activity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(10), 3822–3827 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, “Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex,” Neuron 39(2), 353–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Essen, D. C.

M. D. Fox, A. Z. Snyder, J. L. Vincent, M. Corbetta, D. C. Van Essen, and M. E. Raichle, “The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(27), 9673–9678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanzetta, I.

I. Vanzetta, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Compartment-resolved imaging of activity-dependent dynamics of cortical blood volume and oximetry,” J. Neurosci. 25(9), 2233–2244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincent, J. L.

M. D. Fox, A. Z. Snyder, J. L. Vincent, M. Corbetta, D. C. Van Essen, and M. E. Raichle, “The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(27), 9673–9678 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waeber, C.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, M. A.

S. A. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. W. Guiou, M. A. Walker, and A. W. Toga, “Spatiotemporal evolution of functional hemodynamic changes and their relationship to neuronal activity,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab . 25, S324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weisskoff, R. M.

K. K. Kwong, J. W. Belliveau, D. A. Chesler, I. E. Goldberg, R. M. Weisskoff, B. P. Poncelet, D. N. Kennedy, B. E. Hoppel, M. S. Cohen, R. Turner, H.-M. Cheng, T. J. Brady, and B. R. Rosen, “Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89(12), 5675–5679 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesel, T. N.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wijnbergen, C.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Imaging cortical dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution with novel blue voltage-sensitive dyes,” Neuron 24(4), 791–802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, K.

Yoo, J. S.

Zhao, M.

M. Zhao, M. Suh, H. Ma, C. Perry, A. Geneslaw, and T. H. Schwartz, “Focal increases in perfusion and decreases in hemoglobin oxygenation precede seizure onset in spontaneous human epilepsy,” Epilepsia 48(11), 2059–2067 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Epilepsia (1)

M. Zhao, M. Suh, H. Ma, C. Perry, A. Geneslaw, and T. H. Schwartz, “Focal increases in perfusion and decreases in hemoglobin oxygenation precede seizure onset in spontaneous human epilepsy,” Epilepsia 48(11), 2059–2067 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Neurosci. (1)

J. Berwick, D. Johnston, M. Jones, J. Martindale, P. Redgrave, N. McLoughlin, I. Schiessl, and J. E. W. Mayhew, “Neurovascular coupling investigated with two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy in rat whisker barrel cortex,” Eur. J. Neurosci. 22(7), 1655–1666 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

E. M. C. Hillman, “Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab (1)

S. A. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. W. Guiou, M. A. Walker, and A. W. Toga, “Spatiotemporal evolution of functional hemodynamic changes and their relationship to neuronal activity,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab . 25, S324 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(3), 195–201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

A. J. Blood, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, “Temporally staggered forelimb stimulation modulates barrel cortex optical intrinsic signal responses to whisker stimulation,” J. Neurophysiol. 88(1), 422–437 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (3)

I. Vanzetta, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Compartment-resolved imaging of activity-dependent dynamics of cortical blood volume and oximetry,” J. Neurosci. 25(9), 2233–2244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Orbach, L. B. Cohen, and A. Grinvald, “Optical mapping of electrical activity in rat somatosensory and visual cortex,” J. Neurosci. 5(7), 1886–1895 (1985).
[PubMed]

A. Devor, E. M. C. Hillman, P. Tian, C. Waeber, I. C. Teng, L. Ruvinskaya, M. H. Shalinsky, H. Zhu, R. H. Haslinger, S. N. Narayanan, I. Ulbert, A. K. Dunn, E. H. Lo, B. R. Rosen, A. M. Dale, D. Kleinfeld, and D. A. Boas, “Stimulus-induced changes in blood flow and 2-deoxyglucose uptake dissociate in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex,” J. Neurosci. 28(53), 14347–14357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

K. Ohki, S. Chung, Y. H. Ch’ng, P. Kara, and R. C. Reid, “Functional imaging with cellular resolution reveals precise micro-architecture in visual cortex,” Nature 433(7026), 597–603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (5)

M. Jones, J. Berwick, D. Johnston, and J. Mayhew, “Concurrent optical imaging spectroscopy and laser-Doppler flowmetry: the relationship between blood flow, oxygenation, and volume in rodent barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 13(61), 1002–1015 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation,” Neuroimage 35(1), 89–104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multispectral imaging system diagram. Multispectral image acquisition begins with a TTL Stimulus Trigger signal sent from the stimulus control computer to the trigger port of the clock generator (red arrow). The 1M60 CCD camera then begins acquiring frames according to the clock signal (dashed red arrow) generated by the clock generator. When the 1M60 acquires frames, it outputs the EXSYNC signal in real-time (black arrow), which is sent to the interrupt ports of the Arduino Diecimila microcontroller. Using a custom strobe function, downsampled strobe signals are generated by the Arduino and sent to the LED drivers which strobe the LEDs (green and blue arrows, example timing diagram shown bottom right). The strobe signals are recorded by the stimulus control computer, along with physiological signals such as blood pressure and ventilation signals from the animal (yellow arrows). System in figure is configured to quantify the concentrations of HbO2, HbR, and HbT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gray scale image of exposed rat somatosensory cortex. Images showing concentrations of HbO2, HbR, and HbT at t = 11 seconds (corresponds to dotted line on time course). Time courses showing the average change in HbO2, HbR, and HbT concentration across the entire field of view. Timing of hindpaw stimulus is shown in grey region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) RGB image created using baseline 470 nm and 530 nm images allow veins (blue) and arteries (red) to be easily distinguished. Selected regions are shown in more detail in (b)-(f). (b) Mixing of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin from different vein branches combining into a single larger vein. (c) Cross sections of vein and artery used for vessel diameter analysis shown in (d). (d) Time courses of vessel diameters. (e) Matrix of line scans showing movement of red blood cells as dark stripes. (f) Time course of blood flow velocity in veins i and ii labeled in (a). Data was collected at 60 fps and averaged across 20 trials. 4 sec stimulus started at t = 6 sec.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Left: Exposed somatosensory cortex under 530 nm illumination. Right: The same field of view under 490 nm illumination (with 500 nm long pass emission filter) showing fluorescence of Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 AM calcium indicator. The heterogeneity of the fluorescence signal is due to the discrete nature of the calcium indicator injection sites. (b) Time courses of the selected regions of the cortex indicated by green and blue boxes in (a). Duration of electrical hindpaw stimulation is shown in gray. Inset shows close-up of individual calcium “spikes”. (Note that a signal decrease at 530 nm corresponds to an increase in HbT concentration) (c) Top: Images of the calcium indicator fluorescence during the evolution of the single calcium spike indicated in (b:inset) over a period of 270 ms. Bottom: Images of the change in HbT concentration calculated from the 530 nm reflectance signal showing the evolution of the hemodynamic response over a period of 6 seconds. Data was taken at 30 fps and 25 ms exposure, time averaged across 10 trials.

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