Abstract

Using classical three-dimensional ensembles, we demonstrate that nonsequential double ionization of HeH+ molecules in an intense laser field can be manipulated by controlling the alignment of the molecular axis relative to the laser field. Both the symmetry of the correlated electron momentum spectrum in the direction parallel to the laser field and the total double ionization yield strongly depend on the angle between the molecular axis and the laser field. When the molecular axis is aligned parallel to the laser field, double ionization is most probable and the correlated electron momentum spectrum parallel to the laser field from nonsequential double ionization exhibits the most asymmetry with respect to the minor diagonal.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  16. Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. E. Banyard, M. Dixon, and A. D. Tait, "Influence of electron correlation on vibrational and rotational constants for HeH+," J. Phys. B 5, L160-L163 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, "Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. L. Haan and Z. S. Smith, "Classical explanation for electrons above energy 2Up in strong-field double ionization at 390 nm," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053412 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, "Slow-down collisions and nonsequential double ionization in classical simulations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. Zeidler, A. B. Bardon, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Alignment independence of the instantaneous ionization rate for nitrogen molecules," J. Phys. B 39, L159-L166 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dörr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Wang, "Double ionization of HeH+ molecules in intense laser fields," Opt. Express 16, 17070-17075 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, "Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, "Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan and Z. S. Smith, "Classical explanation for electrons above energy 2Up in strong-field double ionization at 390 nm," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu, "Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zeidler, A. B. Bardon, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Alignment independence of the instantaneous ionization rate for nitrogen molecules," J. Phys. B 39, L159-L166 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Controlling attosecond double ionization dynamics via molecular alignment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, "Phase dependence of enhanced ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, "Theory of molecular tunneling ionization," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, "Slow-down collisions and nonsequential double ionization in classical simulations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, "S-matrix analysis of coincident measurement of two-electron energy distribution for double ionization of He in an intense laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 193003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

K. E. Banyard, M. Dixon, and A. D. Tait, "Influence of electron correlation on vibrational and rotational constants for HeH+," J. Phys. B 5, L160-L163 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Alnaser, A. S.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, "Phase dependence of enhanced ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banyard, K. E.

K. E. Banyard, M. Dixon, and A. D. Tait, "Influence of electron correlation on vibrational and rotational constants for HeH+," J. Phys. B 5, L160-L163 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bardon, A. B.

D. Zeidler, A. B. Bardon, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Alignment independence of the instantaneous ionization rate for nitrogen molecules," J. Phys. B 39, L159-L166 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Controlling attosecond double ionization dynamics via molecular alignment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, "S-matrix analysis of coincident measurement of two-electron energy distribution for double ionization of He in an intense laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 193003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benis, E. P.

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breen, L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu, "Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, "Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cocke, C. L.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. J.

D. Zeidler, A. B. Bardon, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Alignment independence of the instantaneous ionization rate for nitrogen molecules," J. Phys. B 39, L159-L166 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Controlling attosecond double ionization dynamics via molecular alignment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, R.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schröter, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deipenwisch, J.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dixon, M.

K. E. Banyard, M. Dixon, and A. D. Tait, "Influence of electron correlation on vibrational and rotational constants for HeH+," J. Phys. B 5, L160-L163 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, A.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. B. Bardon, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Alignment independence of the instantaneous ionization rate for nitrogen molecules," J. Phys. B 39, L159-L166 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Controlling attosecond double ionization dynamics via molecular alignment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörr, M.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dörr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreischuh, A.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, "Slow-down collisions and nonsequential double ionization in classical simulations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eremina, E.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergler, Th.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faisal, F. H. M.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, "S-matrix analysis of coincident measurement of two-electron energy distribution for double ionization of He in an intense laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 193003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuerstein, B.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, D.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haan, S. L.

S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, "Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan and Z. S. Smith, "Classical explanation for electrons above energy 2Up in strong-field double ionization at 390 nm," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, "Slow-down collisions and nonsequential double ionization in classical simulations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höhr, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagutzki, O.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kammer, S.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamta, G. L.

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, "Phase dependence of enhanced ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karim, A.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, P.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, "Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Q.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Wang, "Double ionization of HeH+ molecules in intense laser fields," Opt. Express 16, 17070-17075 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, "Theory of molecular tunneling ionization," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu, "Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, "Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu, "Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dörr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Wang, "Double ionization of HeH+ molecules in intense laser fields," Opt. Express 16, 17070-17075 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maharjan, C. M.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meckel, M.

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergel, V.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dörr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshammer, R.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dörr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumayer, P.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osipov, T.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panfili, R.

R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, "Slow-down collisions and nonsequential double ionization in classical simulations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranitovic, P.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rottke, H.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudenko, A.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dörr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, C.

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schätzel, M. G.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schöffler, M

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schöffler, M.

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schössler, S.

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schröter, C. D.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shan, B.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, M.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dörr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, Z. S.

S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, "Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan and Z. S. Smith, "Classical explanation for electrons above energy 2Up in strong-field double ionization at 390 nm," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smolarski, M.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielberger, L.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. B. Bardon, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Alignment independence of the instantaneous ionization rate for nitrogen molecules," J. Phys. B 39, L159-L166 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Controlling attosecond double ionization dynamics via molecular alignment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tait, A. D.

K. E. Banyard, M. Dixon, and A. D. Tait, "Influence of electron correlation on vibrational and rotational constants for HeH+," J. Phys. B 5, L160-L163 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. M.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, "Theory of molecular tunneling ionization," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trump, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschuch, S.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dörr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dörr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulrich, B.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dyke, J. S.

S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, "Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. B. Bardon, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Alignment independence of the instantaneous ionization rate for nitrogen molecules," J. Phys. B 39, L159-L166 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Controlling attosecond double ionization dynamics via molecular alignment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, M.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, S.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Weber, Th.

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wech, A.

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weckenbrock, M.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittmann, M.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S. P.

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, "Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

Ye, D. F.

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu, "Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. B. Bardon, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Alignment independence of the instantaneous ionization rate for nitrogen molecules," J. Phys. B 39, L159-L166 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Controlling attosecond double ionization dynamics via molecular alignment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, Z. X.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, "Theory of molecular tunneling ionization," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (2)

K. E. Banyard, M. Dixon, and A. D. Tait, "Influence of electron correlation on vibrational and rotational constants for HeH+," J. Phys. B 5, L160-L163 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. B. Bardon, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Alignment independence of the instantaneous ionization rate for nitrogen molecules," J. Phys. B 39, L159-L166 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, "Theory of molecular tunneling ionization," Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, "Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan and Z. S. Smith, "Classical explanation for electrons above energy 2Up in strong-field double ionization at 390 nm," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053412 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (17)

R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, "Slow-down collisions and nonsequential double ionization in classical simulations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, "S-matrix analysis of coincident measurement of two-electron energy distribution for double ionization of He in an intense laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 193003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, "Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke,W. Sandner,M. G.  Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G.  Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu, "Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, "Controlling attosecond double ionization dynamics via molecular alignment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, "Phase dependence of enhanced ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C.  D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M . Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B . Corkum, and R. Dörner, "Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte,C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dörr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Saugout and C. Cornaggia, "Temporal separation of H2 double-ionization channels using intense ultrashort 10-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 041406(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(color online). The density distribution of trajectories of the initial ensemble for θ=0° in position (a) x, and (b) z space, respectively. The ensemble size is 1.6×106 trajectories.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(color online). Electron correlation for the double ionization of HeH+ at laser intensity 4×1014 W/cm2 and wavelength 800 nm for θ=0°. Horizontal axis: momentum of electron a parallel to the laser polarization direction. Vertical axis: momentum of electron b parallel to the laser polarization direction. An ensemble size of 4×105 is used.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(color online). Plot (a): Electron correlation from Fig. 2 for events only due to the (e, 2e) mechanism. Plot (b): Histograms of the counts of double ionization trajectories from plot (a) vs laser phase at the time of closest recollision. The black and red solid curves indicate the laser electric field and the drift momentum that the electrons acquire from the laser field after recollision, respectively. Plot (c): Histograms of the counts of the recolliding electrons from plot (a) vs the returning kinetic energy when they reach r=7 a.u. before recollision. The blue and red bands represent trajectories that the recolliding electrons from the positive and the negative z axis, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(color online). Electron correlation for the double ionization of HeH+ at laser intensity 4×1014 W/cm2 and wavelength 800 nm for (a) θ=45° and (b) θ=90°. Horizontal axis: momentum of electron a parallel to the laser polarization direction. Vertical axis: momentum of electron b parallel to the laser polarization direction. An ensemble size of 1.6×106 is used.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(color online). The probability of double ionization of HeH+ at laser intensity 4×1014 W/cm2 and wavelength 800 nm as a function of θ. The blue solid line is drawn to guide the eye.

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