Abstract

The first X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) at keV energies will be the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), located at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Scheduled to begin operation in 2009, this first-of-a-kind X-ray source will produce ultra-short X-ray pulses of unprecedented brightness in the 0.8 to 8 keV first harmonic photon energy regime. Much effort has been invested in predicting and modeling the XFEL photon source properties at the undulator exit; however, as most LCLS experiments are ultimately dependent on the beam focal spot properties it is equally as important to understand the XFEL beam at the endstations where the experiments are performed. Here, we use newly available precision surface metrology data from actual LCLS mirrors combined with a scalar diffraction model to predict the LCLS beam properties in the experiment chambers.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  6. R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).
  7. T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, "Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray mirror system," Proc. SPIE 7077,70770E (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, "Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors," to be published in Proc. SPIE 7361 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Mercère et al. "Automatic alignment of a Kirkpatrick-Baez active optic by use of a soft-x-ray Hartmann wavefront sensor," Opt. Lett. 31, 199 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Patterson, and K. A. Nugent "Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray ?elds," Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. G. Paxman and J. R. Fienup "Optical misalignment sensing and image reconstruction using phase diversity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 914 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, "Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray mirror system," Proc. SPIE 7077,70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, "Coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free electron laser," Opt. Commun. 281,1179-1188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, M. Fernández-Perea, and E. M. Gullikson, "Optical constants of magnetron sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV," Appl. Opt. 47, 4633-4639 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, "Soft X-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source," Proc. SPIE 6705, 670500 (2007).

2006 (2)

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Patterson, and K. A. Nugent "Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray ?elds," Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Mercère et al. "Automatic alignment of a Kirkpatrick-Baez active optic by use of a soft-x-ray Hartmann wavefront sensor," Opt. Lett. 31, 199 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Nuhn, "FEL simulations for the LCLS," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 429,249-256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea "Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2961 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1988 (2)

R. G. Paxman and J. R. Fienup "Optical misalignment sensing and image reconstruction using phase diversity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 914 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J.E. Harvey, E.C. Moran and W.P. Zmek "Transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems," Appl. Opt. 8, 1527 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).

Aquila, A. L.

R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, M. Fernández-Perea, and E. M. Gullikson, "Optical constants of magnetron sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV," Appl. Opt. 47, 4633-4639 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

Ayers, J.

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

Baker, S. L.

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

Barnea, Z.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea "Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2961 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergh, M.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bionta, R. M.

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, "Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray mirror system," Proc. SPIE 7077,70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, "Soft X-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source," Proc. SPIE 6705, 670500 (2007).

Cai, Z.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Patterson, and K. A. Nugent "Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray ?elds," Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caleman, C.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chalupský, J.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cihelka, J.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cookson, D. F.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea "Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2961 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández-Perea, M.

Fienup, J. R.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).

Gullikson, E. M.

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, M. Fernández-Perea, and E. M. Gullikson, "Optical constants of magnetron sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV," Appl. Opt. 47, 4633-4639 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gureyev, T. E.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea "Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2961 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajdu, J.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hájková, V.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J.E.

J.E. Harvey, E.C. Moran and W.P. Zmek "Transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems," Appl. Opt. 8, 1527 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S. P.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Juha, L.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jurek, M.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koptyaev, S.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krása, J.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krzywinski, J.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuba, J.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

London, R. A.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McCarville, T. J.

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, "Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray mirror system," Proc. SPIE 7077,70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, "Soft X-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source," Proc. SPIE 6705, 670500 (2007).

McKernan, M. A.

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

Mercère, P.

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moran, E.C.

J.E. Harvey, E.C. Moran and W.P. Zmek "Transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems," Appl. Opt. 8, 1527 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nietubyc, R.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Patterson, and K. A. Nugent "Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray ?elds," Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea "Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2961 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuhn, H.

H. Nuhn, "FEL simulations for the LCLS," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 429,249-256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paganin, D.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea "Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2961 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, D.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Patterson, and K. A. Nugent "Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray ?elds," Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paxman, R. G.

Peele, A. G.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Patterson, and K. A. Nugent "Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray ?elds," Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelka, J. B.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pivovaroff, M.

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, "Soft X-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source," Proc. SPIE 6705, 670500 (2007).

Pivovaroff, M. J.

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, "Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray mirror system," Proc. SPIE 7077,70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quiney, H. M.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Patterson, and K. A. Nugent "Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray ?elds," Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. C.

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

Saldin, E. L.

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, "Coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free electron laser," Opt. Commun. 281,1179-1188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salmassi, F.

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).

Schneidmiller, E. A.

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, "Coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free electron laser," Opt. Commun. 281,1179-1188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sobierajski, R.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

R. Soufli, A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, M. Fernández-Perea, and E. M. Gullikson, "Optical constants of magnetron sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV," Appl. Opt. 47, 4633-4639 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, "Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray mirror system," Proc. SPIE 7077,70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, "Soft X-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source," Proc. SPIE 6705, 670500 (2007).

Stefan, P. M.

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, "Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray mirror system," Proc. SPIE 7077,70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, "Soft X-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source," Proc. SPIE 6705, 670500 (2007).

Stojanovic, N.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tiedtke, K.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toleikis, S.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tronnier, A.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tschentscher, T.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Velyhan, A.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, H.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woods, B.

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, "Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray mirror system," Proc. SPIE 7077,70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yurkov, M. V.

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, "Coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free electron laser," Opt. Commun. 281,1179-1188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zastrau, U.

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zmek, W.P.

J.E. Harvey, E.C. Moran and W.P. Zmek "Transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems," Appl. Opt. 8, 1527 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Patterson, and K. A. Nugent "Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray ?elds," Nat. Phys. 2, 101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

H. Nuhn, "FEL simulations for the LCLS," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 429,249-256 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, "Coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free electron laser," Opt. Commun. 281,1179-1188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

J. Chalupský, L. Juha, J. Kuba, J. Cihelka, V. Hájková, S. Koptyaev, J. Krása, A. Velyhan, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, J. Hajdu, R. M. Bionta, H. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, R. A. London, M. Jurek, J. Krzywinski, R. Nietubyc, J. B. Pelka, R. Sobierajski, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Tronnier, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, K. Tiedtke, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, H. Wabnitz, and U. Zastrau "Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids," Opt. Express 15, 6026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. F. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea "Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2961 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. Pivovaroff, R. M. Bionta, T. J. Mccarville, R. Soufli, and P. M. Stefan, "Soft X-ray mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source," Proc. SPIE 6705, 670500 (2007).

R. Soufli, M. J. Pivovaroff, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, A. L. Aquila, J. Ayers, M. A. McKernan, and R. M. Bionta, "Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser," Proc. SPIE 7077,707716-1 (2008).

T. J. McCarville, P. M. Stefan, B. Woods, R. M. Bionta, R. Soufli, and M. J. Pivovaroff, "Opto-mechanical design considerations for the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray mirror system," Proc. SPIE 7077,70770E (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Born and E. WolfPrinciples of Optics, 7th expanded ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003).

E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, New York, 1999).

D. L. Windt, "topo - surface topography analysis," available at http://www.rxollc.com/idl/index.html.

R. Soufli, S. L. Baker, J. C. Robinson, E. M. Gullikson, T. J. McCarville M. J. Pivovaroff, P. Stefan, S. Hau-Riege, and R. Bionta, "Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors," to be published in Proc. SPIE 7361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

The LCLS Design Study Group, "Linac coherent light source (LCLS) design study report," SLAC-R-521; UC-414; http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/lcls/design report/e-toc.html, December 1998.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout for the LCLS front-end optical system components. A total of four mirrors create two soft x-ray branches that will deliver X-rays in the 0.8 to 2 keV photon energy range to the SXR and AMO hutches. Two additional mirrors create a single x-ray branch line in the 2 to 8 keV (fundamental) photon energy range that will initially deliver photons to the XPP, CXI and MEC hutches. The hard X-ray mirrors are able to deliver beam up to the 24 keV 3rd harmonic of LCLS.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Grazing incidence reduces the magnitude of wavefront error induced by the mirror profile and foreshortens mirror features in the plane of incidence. An important consequence is that isotropic features on the mirror surface will be compressed in one direction, resulting in an anisotropic wavefront error map foreshortened along the plane of incidence.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Figure (left) measured at LLNL for the five SOMS mirror substrates available to be installed at LCLS. Measured PSD curve (right) for SOMS sn4 mirror, with the PSD in the HSFR range shown before (dash line) and after (solid line) coating with B4C. The MSFR and HSFR properties were similar on all five SOMS mirrors. Bottom: rms values for the figure of each SOMS substrate within the central 200 mm-length, derived after subtraction of the best-fit sphere.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated intensity distribution of the FEL beam at the last pop-in intensity monitor before the endstation in hutch 1 (at z=120 m from the undulator exit). Calculation takes into account the measured SOMS figure and roughness of all three SOMS mirrors in the beam path. Vertical banding is due to the SOMS figure error and MSFR, which has been foreshortened in one direction due to grazing incidence of the X-ray beam. Intensity images in the SOMS branch at 0.8 and 2.0 keV are shown on the left and horizontal intensity profiles through the maximum on the right (dashed lines are beam profile calculated using ideal optics with no manufacturing surface imperfections).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Focal plane intensity structure in the plane of highest intensity, calculated based on the predicted SOMS front-end performance, figure 3. Solid lines represent the predicted intensity profile and dashed lines represent the case of perfect optics. Strehl ratios for the above two calculations (actual peak intensity relative to the case of ideal optics) are 0.6 at 0.8 keV and 0.8 at 2 keV

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Figure error (left) measured at LLNL for the four HOMS mirror substrates, and measured PSD (Right) for HOMS #2 Si substrate. . Bottom: rms values for the figure of each HOMS substrate within the central 420 mm-length, derived after subtraction of the best-fit sphere.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Calculated intensity distribution of the FEL beam at the last pop-in intensity monitor before the CXI endstation in hutch 5 (at z=383 m from the undulator exit). Intensity images at at 0.8 and 2.0 keV are shown on the top and horizontal intensity profiles through the maximum are plotted on the bottom Solid lines represent the predicted intensity profile and dashed lines represent the case of perfect optics.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Calculated focal plane intensity distribution at the focus of the CXI endstation using the 1m focal length K-B optics. Solid lines are the predicted intensity profile and dashed lines represent the case of perfect optics. Strehl ratios for the above two calculations (actual peak intensity relative to the case of ideal optics) are 0.57 at 2 keV and 0.94 at 8 keV.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Surface specifications within the clear aperture (CA) of the SOMS mirror substrates.

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Table 2. Mirror elements in the SOMS branch line

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Table 3. Mirror elements in the hard X-ray branch line

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