Abstract

Recent developments in the field of the autonomous underwater vehicles allow the wide usage of these platforms as part of scientific experiments, monitoring campaigns and more. The vehicles are often equipped with sensors measuring temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Chl a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence, phycoerithrin (PE) fluorescence and spectral volume scattering function at 117 degrees, providing users with high resolution, real time data. However, calibration of these instruments can be problematic. Most in situ calibrations are performed by deploying complementary instrument packages or water samplers in the proximity of the glider. Laboratory calibrations of the mounted sensors are difficult due to the placement of the instruments within the body of the vehicle. For the laboratory calibrations of the Slocum glider instruments we developed a small calibration chamber where we can perform precise calibrations of the optical instruments aboard our glider, as well as sensors from other deployment platforms. These procedures enable us to obtain pre- and post-deployment calibrations for optical fluorescence instruments, which may differ due to the biofouling and other physical damage that can occur during long-term glider deployments. We found that biofouling caused significant changes in the calibration scaling factors of fluorescent sensors, suggesting the need for consistent and repetitive calibrations for gliders as proposed in this paper.

© 2009 OSA

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2008

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

K. Niewiadomska, H. Claustre, L. Prieur, and F. d’Ortenzio, “Submesoscale physical-biogeochemical coupling across the Ligurian current (northwestern Mediterranean) using a bio-optical glider,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2210–2225 (2008).

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurfacechlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).

R. E. Davis, M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, J. T. Sherman, and B. Hodges, “Glider surveillance of physics and biology in the southern California Current System,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2151–2168 (2008).

2007

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the 'clearest' natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

2006

C. Belzile, C. S. Roesler, J. P. Christensen, N. Shakhova, and I. Semiletov, “Fluorescence measured using the WETStar DOM fluorometer as a proxy for dissolved matter absorption,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67(3), 441–449 (2006).

2003

R. M. W. Amon, G. Budeus, and B. Meon, “Dissolved organic carbon distribution and origin in the Nordic Seas: Exchanges with the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic,” J. Geophysical Research-Oceans 108, (2003).
[PubMed]

T. D. Dickey, “Emerging ocean observations for interdisciplinary data assimilation systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 40, 5–48 (2003).

J. J. Cullen and R. F. Davis, “The blank can make a big difference in oceanographic measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Bull. 12, 29–35 (2003).

R. L. Townsin, “The ship hull fouling penalty,” Biofouling 19(1Suppl), 9–15 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, and B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: The “biofilm gel effect,”,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).

1997

K. Wróbel and K. Wróbel, “Determination of aspartame and phenylalanine in diet soft drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography with direct spectrofluorimetric detection,” J. Chromatogr. A 773(1-2), 163–168 (1997).

1990

K. Hayakawa, T. Schilpp, K. Imai, T. Higuchi, and O. S. Wong, “Determination of aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and aspartylphenylalanine in aspartame-containing samples using a precolumn derivatization HPLC method,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 38(5), 1256–1260 (1990).

1982

J. J. Cullen, F. M. H. Reid, and E. Stewart, “Phytoplankton in the Surface and Chlorophyll Maximum off Southern-California in August of 1978,” J. Plankton Res. 4(3), 665–694 (1982).

Allison, M. A.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, and B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: The “biofilm gel effect,”,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).

Amon, R. M. W.

R. M. W. Amon, G. Budeus, and B. Meon, “Dissolved organic carbon distribution and origin in the Nordic Seas: Exchanges with the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic,” J. Geophysical Research-Oceans 108, (2003).
[PubMed]

Babin, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

Belzile, C.

C. Belzile, C. S. Roesler, J. P. Christensen, N. Shakhova, and I. Semiletov, “Fluorescence measured using the WETStar DOM fluorometer as a proxy for dissolved matter absorption,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67(3), 441–449 (2006).

Boss, E.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).

Brickley, P.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).

Budeus, G.

R. M. W. Amon, G. Budeus, and B. Meon, “Dissolved organic carbon distribution and origin in the Nordic Seas: Exchanges with the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic,” J. Geophysical Research-Oceans 108, (2003).
[PubMed]

Christensen, J. P.

C. Belzile, C. S. Roesler, J. P. Christensen, N. Shakhova, and I. Semiletov, “Fluorescence measured using the WETStar DOM fluorometer as a proxy for dissolved matter absorption,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67(3), 441–449 (2006).

Claustre, H.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

K. Niewiadomska, H. Claustre, L. Prieur, and F. d’Ortenzio, “Submesoscale physical-biogeochemical coupling across the Ligurian current (northwestern Mediterranean) using a bio-optical glider,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2210–2225 (2008).

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the 'clearest' natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

Cullen, J. J.

J. J. Cullen and R. F. Davis, “The blank can make a big difference in oceanographic measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Bull. 12, 29–35 (2003).

J. J. Cullen, F. M. H. Reid, and E. Stewart, “Phytoplankton in the Surface and Chlorophyll Maximum off Southern-California in August of 1978,” J. Plankton Res. 4(3), 665–694 (1982).

d’Ortenzio, F.

K. Niewiadomska, H. Claustre, L. Prieur, and F. d’Ortenzio, “Submesoscale physical-biogeochemical coupling across the Ligurian current (northwestern Mediterranean) using a bio-optical glider,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2210–2225 (2008).

Davis, R. E.

R. E. Davis, M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, J. T. Sherman, and B. Hodges, “Glider surveillance of physics and biology in the southern California Current System,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2151–2168 (2008).

Davis, R. F.

J. J. Cullen and R. F. Davis, “The blank can make a big difference in oceanographic measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Bull. 12, 29–35 (2003).

Decho, A. W.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, and B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: The “biofilm gel effect,”,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).

Dickey, T. D.

T. D. Dickey, “Emerging ocean observations for interdisciplinary data assimilation systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 40, 5–48 (2003).

Eriksen, C. C.

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurfacechlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).

Franz, B. A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

Freeman, S. A.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the 'clearest' natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

Hayakawa, K.

K. Hayakawa, T. Schilpp, K. Imai, T. Higuchi, and O. S. Wong, “Determination of aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and aspartylphenylalanine in aspartame-containing samples using a precolumn derivatization HPLC method,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 38(5), 1256–1260 (1990).

Higuchi, T.

K. Hayakawa, T. Schilpp, K. Imai, T. Higuchi, and O. S. Wong, “Determination of aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and aspartylphenylalanine in aspartame-containing samples using a precolumn derivatization HPLC method,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 38(5), 1256–1260 (1990).

Hodges, B.

R. E. Davis, M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, J. T. Sherman, and B. Hodges, “Glider surveillance of physics and biology in the southern California Current System,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2151–2168 (2008).

Huot, Y.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the 'clearest' natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

Imai, K.

K. Hayakawa, T. Schilpp, K. Imai, T. Higuchi, and O. S. Wong, “Determination of aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and aspartylphenylalanine in aspartame-containing samples using a precolumn derivatization HPLC method,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 38(5), 1256–1260 (1990).

Kaczmarek, S.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

Kawaguchi, T.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, and B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: The “biofilm gel effect,”,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).

Lee, C. M.

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurfacechlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).

Lewis, M. R.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

Louchard, E. M.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, and B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: The “biofilm gel effect,”,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).

Meon, B.

R. M. W. Amon, G. Budeus, and B. Meon, “Dissolved organic carbon distribution and origin in the Nordic Seas: Exchanges with the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic,” J. Geophysical Research-Oceans 108, (2003).
[PubMed]

Niewiadomska, K.

K. Niewiadomska, H. Claustre, L. Prieur, and F. d’Ortenzio, “Submesoscale physical-biogeochemical coupling across the Ligurian current (northwestern Mediterranean) using a bio-optical glider,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2210–2225 (2008).

Ohman, M. D.

R. E. Davis, M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, J. T. Sherman, and B. Hodges, “Glider surveillance of physics and biology in the southern California Current System,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2151–2168 (2008).

Perry, M. J.

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurfacechlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).

Prieur, L.

K. Niewiadomska, H. Claustre, L. Prieur, and F. d’Ortenzio, “Submesoscale physical-biogeochemical coupling across the Ligurian current (northwestern Mediterranean) using a bio-optical glider,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2210–2225 (2008).

Reid, F. M. H.

J. J. Cullen, F. M. H. Reid, and E. Stewart, “Phytoplankton in the Surface and Chlorophyll Maximum off Southern-California in August of 1978,” J. Plankton Res. 4(3), 665–694 (1982).

Reid, R. P.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, and B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: The “biofilm gel effect,”,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).

Reynolds, R. A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

Riser, S.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).

Roesler, C. S.

C. Belzile, C. S. Roesler, J. P. Christensen, N. Shakhova, and I. Semiletov, “Fluorescence measured using the WETStar DOM fluorometer as a proxy for dissolved matter absorption,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67(3), 441–449 (2006).

Rottgers, R.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

Rudnick, D. L.

R. E. Davis, M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, J. T. Sherman, and B. Hodges, “Glider surveillance of physics and biology in the southern California Current System,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2151–2168 (2008).

Sackmann, B. S.

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurfacechlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).

Schilpp, T.

K. Hayakawa, T. Schilpp, K. Imai, T. Higuchi, and O. S. Wong, “Determination of aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and aspartylphenylalanine in aspartame-containing samples using a precolumn derivatization HPLC method,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 38(5), 1256–1260 (1990).

Sciandra, A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

Semiletov, I.

C. Belzile, C. S. Roesler, J. P. Christensen, N. Shakhova, and I. Semiletov, “Fluorescence measured using the WETStar DOM fluorometer as a proxy for dissolved matter absorption,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67(3), 441–449 (2006).

Shakhova, N.

C. Belzile, C. S. Roesler, J. P. Christensen, N. Shakhova, and I. Semiletov, “Fluorescence measured using the WETStar DOM fluorometer as a proxy for dissolved matter absorption,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67(3), 441–449 (2006).

Sherman, J. T.

R. E. Davis, M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, J. T. Sherman, and B. Hodges, “Glider surveillance of physics and biology in the southern California Current System,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2151–2168 (2008).

Stephens, F. C.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, and B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: The “biofilm gel effect,”,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).

Stewart, E.

J. J. Cullen, F. M. H. Reid, and E. Stewart, “Phytoplankton in the Surface and Chlorophyll Maximum off Southern-California in August of 1978,” J. Plankton Res. 4(3), 665–694 (1982).

Stramska, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the 'clearest' natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

Strutton, P. G.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).

Swift, D.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).

Taylor, B. B.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, and B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: The “biofilm gel effect,”,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).

Taylor, L.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).

Townsin, R. L.

R. L. Townsin, “The ship hull fouling penalty,” Biofouling 19(1Suppl), 9–15 (2003).
[PubMed]

Twardowski, M. S.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the 'clearest' natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

Voss, K. J.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, and B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: The “biofilm gel effect,”,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).

Wheatcroft, R. A.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, and B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: The “biofilm gel effect,”,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).

Wong, O. S.

K. Hayakawa, T. Schilpp, K. Imai, T. Higuchi, and O. S. Wong, “Determination of aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and aspartylphenylalanine in aspartame-containing samples using a precolumn derivatization HPLC method,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 38(5), 1256–1260 (1990).

Wróbel, K.

K. Wróbel and K. Wróbel, “Determination of aspartame and phenylalanine in diet soft drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography with direct spectrofluorimetric detection,” J. Chromatogr. A 773(1-2), 163–168 (1997).

K. Wróbel and K. Wróbel, “Determination of aspartame and phenylalanine in diet soft drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography with direct spectrofluorimetric detection,” J. Chromatogr. A 773(1-2), 163–168 (1997).

Zaneveld, R.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).

Biofouling

R. L. Townsin, “The ship hull fouling penalty,” Biofouling 19(1Suppl), 9–15 (2003).
[PubMed]

Biogeosciences

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5, 171–201 (2008).

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the 'clearest' natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

Dissolved organic carbon distribution and origin in the Nordic Seas: Exchanges with the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic,” J. Geophysical Research-Oceans

R. M. W. Amon, G. Budeus, and B. Meon, “Dissolved organic carbon distribution and origin in the Nordic Seas: Exchanges with the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic,” J. Geophysical Research-Oceans 108, (2003).
[PubMed]

Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.

C. Belzile, C. S. Roesler, J. P. Christensen, N. Shakhova, and I. Semiletov, “Fluorescence measured using the WETStar DOM fluorometer as a proxy for dissolved matter absorption,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 67(3), 441–449 (2006).

J. Agric. Food Chem.

K. Hayakawa, T. Schilpp, K. Imai, T. Higuchi, and O. S. Wong, “Determination of aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and aspartylphenylalanine in aspartame-containing samples using a precolumn derivatization HPLC method,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 38(5), 1256–1260 (1990).

J. Chromatogr. A

K. Wróbel and K. Wróbel, “Determination of aspartame and phenylalanine in diet soft drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography with direct spectrofluorimetric detection,” J. Chromatogr. A 773(1-2), 163–168 (1997).

J. Mar. Syst.

T. D. Dickey, “Emerging ocean observations for interdisciplinary data assimilation systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 40, 5–48 (2003).

J. Plankton Res.

J. J. Cullen, F. M. H. Reid, and E. Stewart, “Phytoplankton in the Surface and Chlorophyll Maximum off Southern-California in August of 1978,” J. Plankton Res. 4(3), 665–694 (1982).

Limnol. Oceanogr.

K. Niewiadomska, H. Claustre, L. Prieur, and F. d’Ortenzio, “Submesoscale physical-biogeochemical coupling across the Ligurian current (northwestern Mediterranean) using a bio-optical glider,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2210–2225 (2008).

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurfacechlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, and B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: The “biofilm gel effect,”,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).

R. E. Davis, M. D. Ohman, D. L. Rudnick, J. T. Sherman, and B. Hodges, “Glider surveillance of physics and biology in the southern California Current System,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2151–2168 (2008).

Limnol. Oceanogr. Bull.

J. J. Cullen and R. F. Davis, “The blank can make a big difference in oceanographic measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Bull. 12, 29–35 (2003).

Other

D. Ian, Walsh, Wet Labs, 620 Applegate St., Philomath, Oregon, 97370 (personal communication, 2008)

C. S. Roesler, and E. Boss, “In situ measurement of the inherent optical properties (IOPs) and potential for harmful algal bloom detection and coastal ecosystem observations,” in Real-Time Coastal Observing Systems for Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Bloom, M. Babin, C. S. Roesler, and J. J. Cullen, eds. (UNESCO Publishing: Paris, France, 2008), pp. 153–206.

M. Lehaitre, L. Delauney, and C. Compère, "Biofouling and Underwater measurements,” in Real-Time Coastal Observing Systems for Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Bloom, M. Babin, C. S. Roesler, and J. J. Cullen, eds. (UNESCO Publishing: Paris, France, 2008), pp. 463–494.

C. S. Roesler, “Phytoplankton dynamics in the Gulf of Maine: Secrets revealed by seven years of hourly optical observations on a moored array, “presented at the Ocean Optics Conference XIX. Braga, Italy, 2008.

B. H. Jones, G. Toro-Farmer, I. Cetinic, N. Nezlin, and M. Ragan, “Validation of MODIS alghoritms for remotely sensed coastal ocean color using autonomous vehicles,” presented at the Ocean Optics Conference XIX. Braga, Italy, 2008.

E. Boss, and S. Maritorena, “Chapter 3, Uncertainties in the Products of Ocean-Colour Remote Sensing, “ in Remote Sensing of Inherent Optical Properties: Fundamentals, Tests of Algorithms, and Applications, Z.-P. Lee, ed.(IOCCG: Dartmouth, Canada, 2006).

T. R. Parsons, Y. Maita, and C. M. Lalli, Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis (Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press. 1984).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Slocum glider with science bay where optical instruments are located, (b) calibration chamber, (c) calibration chamber with glider mounted on it, ready for calibration

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variability of Dark Counts as a function of temperature, observed for (a) CDOM fluorescence sensor and (b) chlorophyll fluorescence sensor deployed on the gliders, triangles -field deployment (instruments on H glider), and circles lab measurements (instruments on R glider). Circled triangles are measurements collected on the top or bottom of the dive. Dashed line represents in laboratory predetermined mean values at 20°C, while dotted lines represent standard deviation range for the same DC values.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the factory and in house calibrations for glider deployed fluorometers. X axis presents the instrument output minus dark counts values, and y-axis presents concentration of the standard. Dashed line with triangles represents in-house calibration points for the H glider, while solid line with circles calibrations for R glider. Dashed line (H) and solid line (R) with no markers are factory calibration values. A) CDOM fluorescence sensor and B) chlorophyll fluorescence sensor deployed on the glider.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Biological growth found on body of HeHaPe glider after 3 weeks of deployment in Southern California Bight. Black squares highlight goose-neck barnacles growing on the sides one of the ECO pucks, near the optical window.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of pre (all values equal 0), post A (without optical window cleaning) and post B (with cleaning of the optical windows) scale factors values for R 10 days deployment (filled circles) and H 10 day deployment (black triangles), and H 3 week deployment (open triangles) expressed as percentage difference from the initial pre calibration. Panel A – CDOM fluorometer, Panel B Chlorophyll fluorometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Selected profile from the 7th day of the 10-day H glider deployment. Panel A shows CDOM data and panel B shows the chlorophyll data for the same profile. Black solid lines indicate values calculated using factory calibration; black solid lines with circles indicate the pre-deployment calibration; dashed lines – confidence values; black solid line with triangles using a temporal derived calibration, dotted lines – confidence values.

Equations (1)

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[constituent]=scale factor*(outputdark counts)

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