Abstract

We describe a compact modulator based on a photonic crystal nanocavity whose resonance is electrically controlled through an integrated p-i-n junction. The sub-micron size of the nanocavity promises very low capacitance, high bandwidth, and efficient on-chip integration in optical interconnects.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. B. Miller, "Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 - 1185 (2009).
  2. J. Meindl, "Interconnect opportunities for gigascale integration," Micro. IEEE 23(3), 28-35 (2003).
  3. M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on Silicon-challenges and opportunities," J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222-4238 (2005).
  4. J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2008).
  5. H. Takano, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14(8), 3491-3496 (2006).
  6. T. Matsumoto, T. Asatsuma, and T. Baba, "Experimental demonstration of a wavelength demultiplexer based on negative-refractive photonic-crystal components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091117 (2007).
  7. N. Hitoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Ultra-fast photonic crystal/quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks," Opt. Express 12, 6606-6614 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  8. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photonics 1, 49-52 (2006).
  9. Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Materials 6, 862 - 865 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  10. I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007).
  11. D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-8880 (2008).
  12. X. Chen, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Zhao, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, "Capacitor-embedded 0.54 pJ/bit silicon-slot photonic crystal waveguide modulator," Opt. Lett. 34(5), 602-604 (2009).
  13. A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).
  14. D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
  15. M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Simultaneous Inhibition and Redistribution of Spontaneous Light Emission in Photonic Crystals," Science 308(5726), 1296-1298 (2005).
  16. J. Talghader and J. S. Smith, "Thermal dependence of the refractive index of GaAs and AlAs measured using semiconductor multilayer optical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 335 (1995).
  17. F. G. D. Corte, G. Cocorullo, M. Lodice, and I. Rendina, "Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1614 (2000).
  18. S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries," Phys. Rev. E 65(066611) (2002).
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  20. J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and D.-H. Jang, "Roomtemperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2982-2984 (2000).
  21. C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).
  22. G. Vecchi, F. Raineri, I. Sagnes, A. Yacomotti, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, K.-H. Lee, R. Braive, L. L. Gratiet, S. Guilet, G. Beaudoin, A. Taneau, S. Bouchoule, A. Levenson, and R. Raj, "Continuous-wave operation of photonic band-edge laser near 1.55 um on silicon wafer," Opt. Express 15(12), 7551-7556 (2007).
  23. B. B. Bakir, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. D. Cioccio, and J.-M. Fedeli, "Room-temperature InAs/InP Quantum Dots laser operation based on heterogeneous "2.5 D" Photonic Crystal," Opt. Express 14(20), 9269-9276 (2006).
  24. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15(2), 430-436 (2007).
  25. Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon 2, 242 - 246 (2008).
  26. R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).
  27. S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, J. Joannopoulos, and H. Haus, "Channel drop filters in photonic crystals," Opt. Express 3(1), 4-11 (1998).
  28. E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, "Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photoniccrystal microcavity," Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1093-1095 (2004).
  29. M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648-4650 (2003).
  30. D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  31. A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).
  32. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. D. Alamo, "Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).
  33. D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, "Band-Gap¯Resonant Nonlinear Refraction in III-V Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(3), 197-200 (1981).
  34. D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, C. Klingshirn, G. Livescu, and D. A. B. Miller, "Modulation of absorption in field-effect quantum well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1664-1676 (1988).
  35. H. Casey, D. D. Sell, and K. W. Wecht, "Concentration dependence of the absorption coefficient for n- and p-type GaAs between 1.3 and 1.6 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 250 (1975).
  36. T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).

2009

D. A. B. Miller, "Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 - 1185 (2009).

X. Chen, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Zhao, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, "Capacitor-embedded 0.54 pJ/bit silicon-slot photonic crystal waveguide modulator," Opt. Lett. 34(5), 602-604 (2009).

2008

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-8880 (2008).

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon 2, 242 - 246 (2008).

2007

T. Matsumoto, T. Asatsuma, and T. Baba, "Experimental demonstration of a wavelength demultiplexer based on negative-refractive photonic-crystal components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091117 (2007).

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Materials 6, 862 - 865 (2007).
[PubMed]

I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15(2), 430-436 (2007).

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[PubMed]

G. Vecchi, F. Raineri, I. Sagnes, A. Yacomotti, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, K.-H. Lee, R. Braive, L. L. Gratiet, S. Guilet, G. Beaudoin, A. Taneau, S. Bouchoule, A. Levenson, and R. Raj, "Continuous-wave operation of photonic band-edge laser near 1.55 um on silicon wafer," Opt. Express 15(12), 7551-7556 (2007).

2006

H. Takano, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14(8), 3491-3496 (2006).

B. B. Bakir, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. D. Cioccio, and J.-M. Fedeli, "Room-temperature InAs/InP Quantum Dots laser operation based on heterogeneous "2.5 D" Photonic Crystal," Opt. Express 14(20), 9269-9276 (2006).

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photonics 1, 49-52 (2006).

2005

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Simultaneous Inhibition and Redistribution of Spontaneous Light Emission in Photonic Crystals," Science 308(5726), 1296-1298 (2005).

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on Silicon-challenges and opportunities," J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222-4238 (2005).

2004

2003

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648-4650 (2003).

J. Meindl, "Interconnect opportunities for gigascale integration," Micro. IEEE 23(3), 28-35 (2003).

2002

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries," Phys. Rev. E 65(066611) (2002).

2001

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).

2000

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and D.-H. Jang, "Roomtemperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2982-2984 (2000).

F. G. D. Corte, G. Cocorullo, M. Lodice, and I. Rendina, "Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1614 (2000).

1998

1995

J. Talghader and J. S. Smith, "Thermal dependence of the refractive index of GaAs and AlAs measured using semiconductor multilayer optical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 335 (1995).

1990

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. D. Alamo, "Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).

1988

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, C. Klingshirn, G. Livescu, and D. A. B. Miller, "Modulation of absorption in field-effect quantum well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1664-1676 (1988).

1981

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, "Band-Gap¯Resonant Nonlinear Refraction in III-V Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(3), 197-200 (1981).

1975

H. Casey, D. D. Sell, and K. W. Wecht, "Concentration dependence of the absorption coefficient for n- and p-type GaAs between 1.3 and 1.6 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 250 (1975).

Alamo, J. A. D.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. D. Alamo, "Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).

Altug, H.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-8880 (2008).

Arakawa, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).

Asakawa, K.

Asano, T.

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Materials 6, 862 - 865 (2007).
[PubMed]

H. Takano, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14(8), 3491-3496 (2006).

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Simultaneous Inhibition and Redistribution of Spontaneous Light Emission in Photonic Crystals," Science 308(5726), 1296-1298 (2005).

Asatsuma, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Asatsuma, and T. Baba, "Experimental demonstration of a wavelength demultiplexer based on negative-refractive photonic-crystal components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091117 (2007).

Aspar, B.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

Baba, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Asatsuma, and T. Baba, "Experimental demonstration of a wavelength demultiplexer based on negative-refractive photonic-crystal components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091117 (2007).

Bakir, B. B.

Bar-Joseph, I.

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, C. Klingshirn, G. Livescu, and D. A. B. Miller, "Modulation of absorption in field-effect quantum well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1664-1676 (1988).

Beaudoin, G.

Bennett, B. R.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. D. Alamo, "Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).

Bouchoule, S.

Braive, R.

Casey, H.

H. Casey, D. D. Sell, and K. W. Wecht, "Concentration dependence of the absorption coefficient for n- and p-type GaAs between 1.3 and 1.6 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 250 (1975).

Chalcraft, A. R. A.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Chang, T. Y.

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, C. Klingshirn, G. Livescu, and D. A. B. Miller, "Modulation of absorption in field-effect quantum well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1664-1676 (1988).

Chemla, D. S.

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, C. Klingshirn, G. Livescu, and D. A. B. Miller, "Modulation of absorption in field-effect quantum well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1664-1676 (1988).

Chen, R. T.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.-S.

Chow, E.

Cioccio, L. D.

Cocorullo, G.

F. G. D. Corte, G. Cocorullo, M. Lodice, and I. Rendina, "Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1614 (2000).

Corte, F. G. D.

F. G. D. Corte, G. Cocorullo, M. Lodice, and I. Rendina, "Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1614 (2000).

Cryan, M. J.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).

Döhler, G. H.

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

Ellis, B.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-8880 (2008).

Englund, D.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-8880 (2008).

I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007).

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).

Fan, S.

Faraon, A.

Fattal, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fink, Y.

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries," Phys. Rev. E 65(066611) (2002).

Fix, R.

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

Fox, A. M.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Simultaneous Inhibition and Redistribution of Spontaneous Light Emission in Photonic Crystals," Science 308(5726), 1296-1298 (2005).

Fushman, I.

I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007).

Gammon, D.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).

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B. B. Bakir, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. D. Cioccio, and J.-M. Fedeli, "Room-temperature InAs/InP Quantum Dots laser operation based on heterogeneous "2.5 D" Photonic Crystal," Opt. Express 14(20), 9269-9276 (2006).

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

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Gratiet, L. L.

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon 2, 242 - 246 (2008).

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J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and D.-H. Jang, "Roomtemperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2982-2984 (2000).

Haus, H.

Hitoshi, N.

Hollinger, G.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

Hopkinson, M.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Hübner, M. C.

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

Hwang, J.-K.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and D.-H. Jang, "Roomtemperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2982-2984 (2000).

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S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries," Phys. Rev. E 65(066611) (2002).

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Inoue, K.

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C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

Jang, D.-H.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and D.-H. Jang, "Roomtemperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2982-2984 (2000).

Jiang, W.

Joannopoulos, J.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries," Phys. Rev. E 65(066611) (2002).

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries," Phys. Rev. E 65(066611) (2002).

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R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

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Karle, T. J.

Katzer, D. S.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).

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D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, C. Klingshirn, G. Livescu, and D. A. B. Miller, "Modulation of absorption in field-effect quantum well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1664-1676 (1988).

Krauss, T. F.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Kuo, J. M.

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, C. Klingshirn, G. Livescu, and D. A. B. Miller, "Modulation of absorption in field-effect quantum well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1664-1676 (1988).

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T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photonics 1, 49-52 (2006).

Lam, S.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Lee, K.-H.

Lee, Y.-H.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and D.-H. Jang, "Roomtemperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2982-2984 (2000).

Letartre, X.

B. B. Bakir, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. D. Cioccio, and J.-M. Fedeli, "Room-temperature InAs/InP Quantum Dots laser operation based on heterogeneous "2.5 D" Photonic Crystal," Opt. Express 14(20), 9269-9276 (2006).

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

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Li, X.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).

Lipson, M.

Liu, H.-Y.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Livescu, G.

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, C. Klingshirn, G. Livescu, and D. A. B. Miller, "Modulation of absorption in field-effect quantum well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1664-1676 (1988).

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F. G. D. Corte, G. Cocorullo, M. Lodice, and I. Rendina, "Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1614 (2000).

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M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648-4650 (2003).

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R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

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D. A. B. Miller, "Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 - 1185 (2009).

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D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, "Band-Gap¯Resonant Nonlinear Refraction in III-V Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(3), 197-200 (1981).

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Monat, C.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

Monnier, P.

Nagashima, T.

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Materials 6, 862 - 865 (2007).
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D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).

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Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Materials 6, 862 - 865 (2007).
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H. Takano, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14(8), 3491-3496 (2006).

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Simultaneous Inhibition and Redistribution of Spontaneous Light Emission in Photonic Crystals," Science 308(5726), 1296-1298 (2005).

Notomi, M.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photonics 1, 49-52 (2006).

O’Brien, D.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

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A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).

Ohkouchi, S.

Oulton, R.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Park, D.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).

Park, H.-K.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and D.-H. Jang, "Roomtemperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2982-2984 (2000).

Petroff, P.

I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007).

Piermarocchi, C.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).

Pocas, S.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

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A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).

Prise, M. E.

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, "Band-Gap¯Resonant Nonlinear Refraction in III-V Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(3), 197-200 (1981).

Qiu, Y.

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648-4650 (2003).

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Raj, R.

Rarity, J. G.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).

Regreny, P.

B. B. Bakir, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. D. Cioccio, and J.-M. Fedeli, "Room-temperature InAs/InP Quantum Dots laser operation based on heterogeneous "2.5 D" Photonic Crystal," Opt. Express 14(20), 9269-9276 (2006).

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

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F. G. D. Corte, G. Cocorullo, M. Lodice, and I. Rendina, "Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1614 (2000).

Reuter, D.

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

Rojo-Romeo, P.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

Ryu, H.-Y.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and D.-H. Jang, "Roomtemperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2982-2984 (2000).

Sagnes, I.

Sahin, M.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Sanvitto, D.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Scherer, A.

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648-4650 (2003).

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R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

Seassal, C.

B. B. Bakir, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. D. Cioccio, and J.-M. Fedeli, "Room-temperature InAs/InP Quantum Dots laser operation based on heterogeneous "2.5 D" Photonic Crystal," Opt. Express 14(20), 9269-9276 (2006).

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

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D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, "Band-Gap¯Resonant Nonlinear Refraction in III-V Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(3), 197-200 (1981).

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Sham, L. J.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).

Shinya, A.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photonics 1, 49-52 (2006).

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Skolnick, M. S.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Skorobogatiy, M. A.

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries," Phys. Rev. E 65(066611) (2002).

Smith, J. S.

J. Talghader and J. S. Smith, "Thermal dependence of the refractive index of GaAs and AlAs measured using semiconductor multilayer optical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 335 (1995).

Smith, S. D.

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, "Band-Gap¯Resonant Nonlinear Refraction in III-V Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(3), 197-200 (1981).

Solomon, G.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).

Song, B.-S.

Song, D.-S.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and D.-H. Jang, "Roomtemperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2982-2984 (2000).

Song, H.-W.

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and D.-H. Jang, "Roomtemperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2982-2984 (2000).

Soref, R. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. D. Alamo, "Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).

Steel, D. G.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).

Stievater, T. H.

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).

Stoltz, N.

I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007).

Stufler, S.

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

Sugimoto, Y.

Sugiya, T.

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Materials 6, 862 - 865 (2007).
[PubMed]

Szymanski, D.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Takahashi, S.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Simultaneous Inhibition and Redistribution of Spontaneous Light Emission in Photonic Crystals," Science 308(5726), 1296-1298 (2005).

Takano, H.

Talghader, J.

J. Talghader and J. S. Smith, "Thermal dependence of the refractive index of GaAs and AlAs measured using semiconductor multilayer optical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 335 (1995).

Tanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photonics 1, 49-52 (2006).

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Materials 6, 862 - 865 (2007).
[PubMed]

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Simultaneous Inhibition and Redistribution of Spontaneous Light Emission in Photonic Crystals," Science 308(5726), 1296-1298 (2005).

N. Hitoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Ultra-fast photonic crystal/quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks," Opt. Express 12, 6606-6614 (2004).
[PubMed]

Taneau, A.

Taniyama, H.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photonics 1, 49-52 (2006).

Upham, J.

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Materials 6, 862 - 865 (2007).
[PubMed]

Vecchi, G.

Viktorovitch, P.

B. B. Bakir, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. D. Cioccio, and J.-M. Fedeli, "Room-temperature InAs/InP Quantum Dots laser operation based on heterogeneous "2.5 D" Photonic Crystal," Opt. Express 14(20), 9269-9276 (2006).

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

Villeneuve, P.

Vitzethum, M.

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon 2, 242 - 246 (2008).

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-8880 (2008).

I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007).

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).

Waks, E.

I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007).

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).

Watanabe, Y.

Wecht, K. W.

H. Casey, D. D. Sell, and K. W. Wecht, "Concentration dependence of the absorption coefficient for n- and p-type GaAs between 1.3 and 1.6 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 250 (1975).

Weisberg, O.

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries," Phys. Rev. E 65(066611) (2002).

Whittaker, D. M.

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

Wieck, A.

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

Xia, F.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon 2, 242 - 246 (2008).

Xu, Q.

Yacomotti, A.

Yamamoto, Y.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).

Yu, S.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).

Zhang, B.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).

Zhao, Y.

Zrenner, A.

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

Zussy, M.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007).

A. R. A. Chalcraft, S. Lam, D. O’Brien, T. F. Krauss, M. Sahin, D. Szymanski, D. Sanvitto, R. Oulton, M. S. Skolnick, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, H.-Y. Liu, and M. Hopkinson, "Mode structure of the L3 photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241117 (2007).

J. Talghader and J. S. Smith, "Thermal dependence of the refractive index of GaAs and AlAs measured using semiconductor multilayer optical cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 335 (1995).

F. G. D. Corte, G. Cocorullo, M. Lodice, and I. Rendina, "Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1614 (2000).

J.-K. Hwang, H.-Y. Ryu, D.-S. Song, I.-Y. Han, H.-W. Song, H.-K. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and D.-H. Jang, "Roomtemperature triangular-lattice two-dimensional photonic band gap lasers operating at 1.54?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2982-2984 (2000).

T. Matsumoto, T. Asatsuma, and T. Baba, "Experimental demonstration of a wavelength demultiplexer based on negative-refractive photonic-crystal components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091117 (2007).

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M. C. Hübner, S. Stufler, A. Zrenner, S. Malzer, and G. H. Döhler, "Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121115 (2006).

M. Lon?ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648-4650 (2003).

Electron. Lett.

C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55 um," Electron. Lett. 37(12), 764-766 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. S. Chemla, I. Bar-Joseph, J. M. Kuo, T. Y. Chang, C. Klingshirn, G. Livescu, and D. A. B. Miller, "Modulation of absorption in field-effect quantum well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1664-1676 (1988).

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. D. Alamo, "Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Casey, D. D. Sell, and K. W. Wecht, "Concentration dependence of the absorption coefficient for n- and p-type GaAs between 1.3 and 1.6 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 46, 250 (1975).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Laser Photon. Rev.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Ultrafast Photonic Crystal Lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 1863-8880 (2008).

Micro, IEEE

J. Meindl, "Interconnect opportunities for gigascale integration," Micro. IEEE 23(3), 28-35 (2003).

Nat. Photon

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon 2, 242 - 246 (2008).

Nature Materials

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Materials 6, 862 - 865 (2007).
[PubMed]

Nature Photonics

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photonics 1, 49-52 (2006).

Opt. Express

N. Hitoshi, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Ultra-fast photonic crystal/quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks," Opt. Express 12, 6606-6614 (2004).
[PubMed]

H. Takano, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14(8), 3491-3496 (2006).

B. B. Bakir, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Viktorovitch, M. Zussy, L. D. Cioccio, and J.-M. Fedeli, "Room-temperature InAs/InP Quantum Dots laser operation based on heterogeneous "2.5 D" Photonic Crystal," Opt. Express 14(20), 9269-9276 (2006).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15(2), 430-436 (2007).

D. Englund, A. Faraon, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Generation and transfer of single photons on a photonic crystal chip," Opt. Express 15, 5550-8 (2007).
[PubMed]

G. Vecchi, F. Raineri, I. Sagnes, A. Yacomotti, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, K.-H. Lee, R. Braive, L. L. Gratiet, S. Guilet, G. Beaudoin, A. Taneau, S. Bouchoule, A. Levenson, and R. Raj, "Continuous-wave operation of photonic band-edge laser near 1.55 um on silicon wafer," Opt. Express 15(12), 7551-7556 (2007).

S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, J. Joannopoulos, and H. Haus, "Channel drop filters in photonic crystals," Opt. Express 3(1), 4-11 (1998).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries," Phys. Rev. E 65(066611) (2002).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vu?kovi?, "Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(13), 133603 (2001).

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, "Band-Gap¯Resonant Nonlinear Refraction in III-V Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47(3), 197-200 (1981).

Proc. IEEE

D. A. B. Miller, "Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 - 1185 (2009).

Science

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Simultaneous Inhibition and Redistribution of Spontaneous Light Emission in Photonic Crystals," Science 308(5726), 1296-1298 (2005).

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).

Other

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2008).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The photonic crystal circuit. (a) The resonant electromagnetic mode; shown here is the magnetic field component in the z-direction, simulated by FDTD. The cavity energy loss rate is κ and the cavity-waveguide coupling rate κ; the cavity and grating intensity loss are collected with efficiencies ηc ,ηg , respectively. (b) Steady-state change in hole density Δp [top] and electron density Δn [bottom], and associated index change Δnr (p)[Δnr (n)], under 3V forward bias. (c) Steady-state change in temperature, ΔT, and associated index change Δnr T), under 3V forward bias.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) SEM of the full structure including the contact pad, which connects to the membrane via a bridge across an air trench. The contact pad and bridge are deposited on to of an insulating layer of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). (b) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the PPC circuit. The circuit consists of an input grating coupler; input waveguide; cavity; output waveguide; and output grating coupler.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) PL when the cavity is pumped by a focused laser at 633 nm. The fundamental mode is polarized in the y-direction (90°). (b) PL when the cavity is pumped and a pinhole in the image plane is scanned across the length of the device. (c) The spectra at the top coupler; the cavity; and the bottom coupler. The intensity through the bottom coupler is slightly larger because the second-order grating has four periods, whereas the top grating only has three. The spectra in (b,c) are acquired using a diffraction grating with lower resolution than in (a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Electroluminescence spectrum as the pulsed bias voltage is swept from -2 to 4.5V. (b) The EL spectra corresponding to the dashed lines in (a) show that the cavity resonance splits into two discernable peaks at higher voltage. (c) Measured current under pulsed excitation. (d) When a 10µs square-wave voltage with amplitude 3V is applied across the cavity, the cavity refractive index shifts by both free carrier injection and temperature change, which are estimated in this plot. (e) Expected electroluminescence when the cavity is pumped with the same 10µs long square-wave. The cavity first rapidly blue-shifts away from the cold-cavity resonance λ0 due to free carrier injection, and then red-shifts over a longer time scale ~5µs due to heating.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Setup for cavity transmission experiment. The laser at wavelength λs is coupled into the input grating; through the cavity; and out-coupled through through the bottom grating, which is selected with a pinhole. (b) The signal is modulated at vm and measured using lock-in detection, yielding the demodulate signal voltage VLI . We measured VLI for λs red-detuned and blue-detuned from the zero-voltage cavity frequency. (c) Cavity transmission measured in time on a spectrometer. (c) PL collected from cavity as function of the frequency of electrical control pulses at a forward bias of 3V. (d) PL under electrical injection at 80kHz; 200kHz; and 370kHz.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Membrane

Equations (16)

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Δ n r = Δ n r ( n , p ) + Δ n r ( T ) ,
Δ n r ( n , p ) Δ n r ( n , p ) BF + Δ n r ( n , p ) FC
= 5.4 · 10 21 ( Δ n · cm 3 ) 2.5 · 10 21 ( Δ p · cm 3 )
Δ n r ( T ) = 8.4 . 10 4 Δ T ,
Δ ω c ω c 2 Δ ε ∣∣ E ∣∣ 2 ε ∣∣ E ∣∣ 2
Δ λ c λ c Δ n n 0 ,
Δ n ( n , p , T ) = Δ n ( n , p ) BF + Δ n ( n , p ) FC + Δ n ( T )
Δ n r ( n , p ) BF 2 × 10 21 ( Δ n + Δ p )
Δ n r ( n , p ) FC = e 2 λ 2 8 π 2 c 2 ε 0 n 0 ( Δ n m e + Δ p m h )
3.4 × 10 21 Δ n 5.0 × 10 22 Δ p
Δ n r ( T ) = n 0 · α ( T T 0 ) ,
Δ n r ( n , p , T ) = 5.4 × 10 21 Δ n 2.5 × 10 21 Δ p + 8.5 × 10 4 Δ T
d c d t = i ω c c 2 κ c κ c + 2 κ ( a in + b in ) + p ( t )
a out = a in + 2 κ c
b out = b in + 2 κ c
T ( ω ) = b out 2 b in 2 = 1 + ( κ i Δ ) 2 κ 2 ,

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