Abstract

We report about a new type of nonlinear photonic crystal fibers allowing broadband four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation. The microstructured optical fiber has a structured core consisting of a rod of highly nonlinear glass material inserted in a silica tube. This particular structure enables four wave mixing processes with very large frequency detuning (>135 THz), which permitted the generation of a wide supercontinuum spectrum extending over 1650 nm after 2.15 m of propagation length. The comparison with results obtained from germanium-doped holey fibers confirms the important role of the rod material properties regarding nonlinear process and dispersion.

© 2009 OSA

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2008 (6)

S. S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley, and C. Luo, “Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers,” Opt. Commun. 281(5), 1113–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Stone and J. C. Knight, “Visibly “white” light generation in uniform photonic crystal fiber using a microchip laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2670–2675 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2670 .
[CrossRef]

T. Sun, G. Kai, Z. Wang, S. Yuan, and X. Dong, “Enhanced nonlinearity in photonic crystal fiber by germanium doping in the core region,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 6(2), 93–95 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/col/abstract.cfm?URI=col-6-2-93 .
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-10-7161 .
[CrossRef]

B.-W. Liu, M.-L. Hu, X.-H. Fang, Y.-F. Li, L. Chai, C.-Y. Wang, W. Tong, J. Luo, A. A. Voronin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Stabilized soliton self-frequency shift and 0.1- PHz sideband generation in a photonic-crystal fiber with an air-hole-modified core,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14987–14996 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-19-14987 .
[CrossRef]

M. H. Frosz, P. M. Moselund, P. D. Rasmussen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Increasing the blue-shift of a supercontinuum by modifying the fiber glass composition,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21076–21086 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-21076 .
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

C. Lesvigne, V. Couderc, A. Tonello, P. Leproux, A. Barthélémy, S. Lacroix, F. Druon, P. Blandin, M. Hanna, and P. Georges, “Visible supercontinuum generation controlled by intermodal four-wave mixing in microstructured fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2173–2175 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-15-2173 .
[CrossRef]

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, “Microstructured fibers with highly nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(12-13), 1057–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

V. Tombelaine, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Visible supercontinuum generation in holey fibers by dual-wavelength subnanosecond pumping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2466–2468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Brilland, F. Smektala, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, J. Troles, T. Nguyen, N. Traynor, and A. Monteville, “Fabrication of complex structures of Holey Fibers in Chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1280–1285 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1280 .
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, G. Kai, L. Xue, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. Zhang, T. Sun, and X. Dong, “Modal cutoff properties in germanium-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt. 45(9), 2035–2038 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-9-2035 .
[CrossRef]

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350 nm to 3 mum in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4928–4934 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-11-4928 .
[CrossRef]

E. E. Serebryannikov and A. M. Zheltikov, “Nanomanagement of dispersion, nonlinearity, and gain of photonic-crystal fibers: qualitative arguments of the Gaussian-mode theory and nonperturbative numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(8), 1700 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-23-8-1700 .
[CrossRef]

E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, M. Kaivola, K. P. Hansen, and S. C. Buchter, “Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7914–7923 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-17-7914 .
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

An, J. W.

S. S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley, and C. Luo, “Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers,” Opt. Commun. 281(5), 1113–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, T.

Bang, O.

Bartelt, H.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, “Microstructured fibers with highly nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(12-13), 1057–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barthélémy, A.

Blandin, P.

Brantley, C.

S. S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley, and C. Luo, “Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers,” Opt. Commun. 281(5), 1113–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brilland, L.

Buchter, S. C.

Chai, L.

Chartier, T.

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Couderc, V.

C. Lesvigne, V. Couderc, A. Tonello, P. Leproux, A. Barthélémy, S. Lacroix, F. Druon, P. Blandin, M. Hanna, and P. Georges, “Visible supercontinuum generation controlled by intermodal four-wave mixing in microstructured fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2173–2175 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-15-2173 .
[CrossRef]

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, “Microstructured fibers with highly nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(12-13), 1057–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Tombelaine, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Visible supercontinuum generation in holey fibers by dual-wavelength subnanosecond pumping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2466–2468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Domachuk, P.

Dong, X.

Druon, F.

Duligall, J.

Edwards, E.

S. S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley, and C. Luo, “Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers,” Opt. Commun. 281(5), 1113–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A.

Fallnich, C.

Fang, X.-H.

Feng, X.

Florous, N.

Frosz, M. H.

Fulconis, J.

Gebhardt, A.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, “Microstructured fibers with highly nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(12-13), 1057–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

George, A.

George, A. K.

Georges, P.

Gopinath, J.

Grimm, S.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, “Microstructured fibers with highly nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(12-13), 1057–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, M.

Hansen, K. P.

Hasegawa, T.

Hewak, D. W.

Ho, H. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. L. Ho, and D. N. Wang, “Design of photonic crystal fibers with iltra-low, ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoo, Y. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. L. Ho, and D. N. Wang, “Design of photonic crystal fibers with iltra-low, ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M.-L.

Hundertmark, H.

Ippen, E.

Jin, W.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. L. Ho, and D. N. Wang, “Design of photonic crystal fibers with iltra-low, ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N. Y.

Ju, J.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. L. Ho, and D. N. Wang, “Design of photonic crystal fibers with iltra-low, ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kai, G.

Kaivola, M.

Kim, J. H.

S. S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley, and C. Luo, “Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers,” Opt. Commun. 281(5), 1113–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimmelma, O.

Kirchhof, J.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, “Microstructured fibers with highly nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(12-13), 1057–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

Kobelke, J.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, “Microstructured fibers with highly nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(12-13), 1057–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Kracht, D.

Kumar, V. V.

Kumar, V. V. R. K.

Lacroix, S.

Lee, J.

S. S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley, and C. Luo, “Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers,” Opt. Commun. 281(5), 1113–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lehtonen, M.

Leproux, P.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, “Microstructured fibers with highly nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(12-13), 1057–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Lesvigne, V. Couderc, A. Tonello, P. Leproux, A. Barthélémy, S. Lacroix, F. Druon, P. Blandin, M. Hanna, and P. Georges, “Visible supercontinuum generation controlled by intermodal four-wave mixing in microstructured fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2173–2175 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-15-2173 .
[CrossRef]

V. Tombelaine, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Visible supercontinuum generation in holey fibers by dual-wavelength subnanosecond pumping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2466–2468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lesvigne, C.

Li, Y.

Li, Y.-F.

Limpert, J.

Liu, B.-W.

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Ludvigsen, H.

Luo, C.

S. S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley, and C. Luo, “Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers,” Opt. Commun. 281(5), 1113–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Mairaj, A. K.

Monro, T. M.

Monteville, A.

Moselund, P. M.

Nagashima, T.

Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima and M. Ohashi, “Dopant dependence of effective nonlinear refractive index in GeO 2- and F-doped core single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 492–494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T.

Ohashi, M.

K. Nakajima and M. Ohashi, “Dopant dependence of effective nonlinear refractive index in GeO 2- and F-doped core single-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 492–494 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, F.

Omenetto, F. G.

Räikkönen, E.

Rarity, J.

Rasmussen, P. D.

Reeves, W.

Renversez, G.

Ross, M.

Ruffin, P.

S. S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley, and C. Luo, “Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers,” Opt. Commun. 281(5), 1113–1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

Russell, P. St. J.

Saitoh, K.

Schimpf, D.

Schreiber, T.

Schuster, K.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, “Microstructured fibers with highly nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(12-13), 1057–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, “Microstructured fibers with highly nonlinear materials,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(12-13), 1057–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serebryannikov, E. E.

Shen, H.

Smektala, F.

Sotobayashi, H.

Stone, J. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, T.

Taylor, A.

Taylor, A. J.

Thomsen, C. L.

Tombelaine, V.

V. Tombelaine, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Visible supercontinuum generation in holey fibers by dual-wavelength subnanosecond pumping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2466–2468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tonello, A.

Tong, W.

Traynor, N.

Troles, J.

Tünnermann, A.

Urbanczyk, W.

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