Abstract

We demonstrate the possibility to excite second-harmonic (SH) active Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals with two distinct laser sources at 800 and 1550 nm, and we show, by a complementary experimental and numerical study, how the wavelength flexibility inherent to non-phase-matched SH nanoparticles can be efficiently exploited to increase imaging penetration depth of markers embedded in biological samples.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Pu, M. Centurion, and D. Psaltis, "Harmonic holography: a new holographic principle", Appl. Opt. 47, A103- A110 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Nano- FROG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object", Opt. Express 16, 10405-10411 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, "Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses", Opt. Express 17, 4652-4658 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, "Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe", Nature 447, 1098-U8 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, "Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine", J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721-10724 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, "Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging", Opt. Express 17, 2880-2891 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. 87, 399-403 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder", J. Alloys Comp. 416, 261-264 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Le Floc’h, S. Brasselet, J. F. Roch, and J. Zyss, "Monitoring of orientation in molecular ensembles by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy", J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12403-12410 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Extermann, P. Bejot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. D.O.I. 10.1007/s00340-009-3569-x, (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.Q. Zheng, "Mcml - monte-carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues", Computer Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. F. Bohren, and D. R. Huffmann, "Absorption and Scattering by Small Particles", Wiley Science paperback, (Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).
  15. X. Y. Ma, J.Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm", Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Parsa, S. L. Jacques, and N. S. Nishioka, "Optical-properties of rat-liver between 350 and 2200 nm", Appl. Opt. 28, 2325-2330 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Time-resolved fluorescence and photon migration studies in biomedical and model random media", Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227-292 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on raman free induction decay", Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (4)

Y. Pu, M. Centurion, and D. Psaltis, "Harmonic holography: a new holographic principle", Appl. Opt. 47, A103- A110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Nano- FROG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object", Opt. Express 16, 10405-10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, "Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine", J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721-10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, "Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe", Nature 447, 1098-U8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder", J. Alloys Comp. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

V. Le Floc’h, S. Brasselet, J. F. Roch, and J. Zyss, "Monitoring of orientation in molecular ensembles by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy", J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12403-12410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Ma, J.Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm", Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on raman free induction decay", Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Time-resolved fluorescence and photon migration studies in biomedical and model random media", Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227-292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.Q. Zheng, "Mcml - monte-carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues", Computer Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Time-resolved fluorescence and photon migration studies in biomedical and model random media", Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227-292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bejot, P.

J. Extermann, P. Bejot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. D.O.I. 10.1007/s00340-009-3569-x, (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonacina, L.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Nano- FROG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object", Opt. Express 16, 10405-10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, P. Bejot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. D.O.I. 10.1007/s00340-009-3569-x, (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Book, L. D.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on raman free induction decay", Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bouillot, J.

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder", J. Alloys Comp. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boutou, V.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, S.

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brock, R. S.

X. Y. Ma, J.Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm", Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Centurion, M.

Chauvat, D.

P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, "Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses", Opt. Express 17, 4652-4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Courvoisier, F.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Nano- FROG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object", Opt. Express 16, 10405-10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Das, B. B.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Time-resolved fluorescence and photon migration studies in biomedical and model random media", Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227-292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Extermann, J.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Nano- FROG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object", Opt. Express 16, 10405-10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, P. Bejot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. D.O.I. 10.1007/s00340-009-3569-x, (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gacoin, T.

P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, "Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses", Opt. Express 17, 4652-4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galez, C.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Nano- FROG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object", Opt. Express 16, 10405-10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder", J. Alloys Comp. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Extermann, P. Bejot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. D.O.I. 10.1007/s00340-009-3569-x, (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

Hsieh, C. L.

Hu, X. H.

X. Y. Ma, J.Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm", Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, K. M.

X. Y. Ma, J.Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm", Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.Q. Zheng, "Mcml - monte-carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues", Computer Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Parsa, S. L. Jacques, and N. S. Nishioka, "Optical-properties of rat-liver between 350 and 2200 nm", Appl. Opt. 28, 2325-2330 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kachynski, A. V.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, "Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine", J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721-10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiselev, D.

Kuzmin, A. N.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, "Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine", J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721-10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, Y.

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder", J. Alloys Comp. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le Dantec, R.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Nano- FROG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object", Opt. Express 16, 10405-10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder", J. Alloys Comp. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Extermann, P. Bejot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. D.O.I. 10.1007/s00340-009-3569-x, (2009).
[CrossRef]

Le Xuan, L.

P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, "Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses", Opt. Express 17, 4652-4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liphardt, J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, "Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe", Nature 447, 1098-U8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Time-resolved fluorescence and photon migration studies in biomedical and model random media", Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227-292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.Q.

X. Y. Ma, J.Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm", Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. Y.

X. Y. Ma, J.Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm", Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marquier, F.

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazingue, T.

J. Extermann, P. Bejot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. D.O.I. 10.1007/s00340-009-3569-x, (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, Y.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Nano- FROG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object", Opt. Express 16, 10405-10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder", J. Alloys Comp. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Extermann, P. Bejot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. D.O.I. 10.1007/s00340-009-3569-x, (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, Y.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, "Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe", Nature 447, 1098-U8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

Nyk, M.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, "Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine", J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721-10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Onorato, R. M.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, "Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe", Nature 447, 1098-U8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parsa, P.

Pauzauskie, P. J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, "Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe", Nature 447, 1098-U8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perruchas, S.

P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, "Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses", Opt. Express 17, 4652-4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, "Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine", J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721-10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Pu, Y.

Radenovic, A.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, "Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe", Nature 447, 1098-U8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radzewicz, C.

Roch, J. F.

P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, "Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses", Opt. Express 17, 4652-4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roy, I.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, "Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine", J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721-10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, "Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe", Nature 447, 1098-U8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slablab, A.

P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, "Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses", Opt. Express 17, 4652-4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tard, C.

P. Wnuk, L. Le Xuan, A. Slablab, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, J. F. Roch, D. Chauvat, and C. Radzewicz, "Coherent nonlinear emission from a single KTP nanoparticle with broadband femtosecond pulses", Opt. Express 17, 4652-4658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villeval, P.

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on raman free induction decay", Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. H.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.Q. Zheng, "Mcml - monte-carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues", Computer Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wnuk, P.

Wolf, J. P.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Nano- FROG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object", Opt. Express 16, 10405-10411 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Extermann, P. Bejot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. D.O.I. 10.1007/s00340-009-3569-x, (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on raman free induction decay", Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

X. Y. Ma, J.Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm", Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. D.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, "Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe", Nature 447, 1098-U8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.Q.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.Q. Zheng, "Mcml - monte-carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues", Computer Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Time-resolved coherent anti-stokes raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on raman free induction decay", Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505-1507 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Le Xuan, S. Brasselet, F. Treussart, J. F. Roch, F. Marquier, D. Chauvat, S. Perruchas, C. Tard, and T. Gacoin, "Balanced homodyne detection of second-harmonic generation from isolated subwavelength emitters", Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Computer Meth. Programs Biomed. (1)

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.Q. Zheng, "Mcml - monte-carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues", Computer Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Comp. (1)

C. Galez, Y. Mugnier, J. Bouillot, Y. Lambert, and R. Le Dantec, "Synthesis and characterisation of Fe(IO3)3 nanosized powder", J. Alloys Comp. 416, 261-264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

V. Le Floc’h, S. Brasselet, J. F. Roch, and J. Zyss, "Monitoring of orientation in molecular ensembles by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy", J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 12403-12410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, "Zinc oxide nanocrystals for nonresonant nonlinear optical microscopy in biology and medicine", J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10721-10724 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, "Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe", Nature 447, 1098-U8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Med. Bio. (1)

X. Y. Ma, J.Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, "Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm", Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165-4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Time-resolved fluorescence and photon migration studies in biomedical and model random media", Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227-292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, "Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy", Small 4, 1332-1336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. 87, 399-403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Extermann, P. Bejot, L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, T. Mazingue, C. Galez, and J. P. Wolf, "An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization", Appl. Phys. B - Lasers Opt. D.O.I. 10.1007/s00340-009-3569-x, (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Bohren, and D. R. Huffmann, "Absorption and Scattering by Small Particles", Wiley Science paperback, (Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left: NIR and IR light (red arrow) are focused by the objective onto the SHRIMP particle, placed on the upper side of a system of two microscope substrates of thickness t delimiting a diffusive layer (DL) (polystyrene beads suspension or liver section) of variable thickness d. The backwards traveling fraction of SH emission (blow arrow) is epi-collected by the same objective. Images are reconstructed by scanning sample position along x and y axes. Right: Example of the approach used in the Monte Carlo simulation. The incoming photon (red dashed line) is considered effective for SH excitation because, after two scattering events, it enters the SHRIMP region (red circle) with a small angle θIN with respect to normal incidence. On the other hand, the outgoing SH photon (blue dashed line) is not accounted for the signal calculation, as it exits the sample with a large angle exceeding θOUT , i.e. the collection capability of the objective.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Semi-logarithmic spectrum of the second and third harmonic emission (continuous line) from a single Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystal excited by the IR laser. The dotted lines correspond to the calculated frequency doubled and tripled fundamental IR laser spectrum (shown in the inset).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparaison of nanocrystals samples illuminated by NIR (left column) and IR (right column) laser with no diffusive layer [(a), (b)], and with diffusive layer of polystyrene nanospheres suspension in water of 90 µm thickness [(c), (d)], 180 µm thickness [(e), (f)], and 300 µm [(h)]. Panel (g): Result of a Monte Carlo simulation showing the intensity of the epi-detected signal (ISHRIMP ) as a function of the penetration depth for NIR (▫) and IR excitation (∘). Experimental values measured on microscopic Fe(IO3)3 structures by NIR (▪) and IR (∙) are also reported on the plot as additional reference.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of excitation of Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals through a 20 µm murine liver sample: (a) NIR excitation and (b) IR excitation. (c) Monte Carlo simulations of the epidetected signal fom a SHRIMP excited and epi-detected through a layer of murine liver as a function of thickness calculated for various excitation wavelengths: NIR (▫), IR (∘), and 1320 nm (▪). Inset: Semi-logarithmic representation of the same dataset.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Monte Carlo Input Parameters

Metrics