Abstract

Ca0.28Ba0.72Nb2O6 (CBN-28) waveguides based on thin film technology were fabricated on SiO2/(100) Si substrates. By using X-ray diffraction, we confirmed the preferential c-axis orientation of the CBN structures. An effective unclamped electro-optic r33 coefficient of 12 pm/V was measured in CBN thin films by using an ellipsometric technique in reflection geometry. In addition, by means of a Fabry-Perot technique, the propagation losses of our strip loaded waveguides were estimated to be as low as 4.8 dB/cm and 6.5 dB/cm at telecommunication wavelengths for the fundamental TE and TM modes, respectively.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. J. Walker and R. A. McKee, "Thin-film perovskites-ferroelectric materials for integrated optics," Nanostruct. Mater. 7, 221-227 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric epitaxial thin films for integrated optics," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 659-679 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Helsten, L. Razzari, M. Ferrera, P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker and R. Morandotti, "Pockels response in calcium barium niobate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Eßer, M. Burianek, D. Klimm and M. Mühlberg, "Single crystal growth of the tetragonal tungsten bronze CaxBa1?xNb2O6 (x=0.28; CBN-28)," J. Cryst. Growth 240, 1-5 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Vasquez, M. D. Ewbank and P. R. Neurgaonkar, "Photorefractive properties of doped strontium-barium niobate," Opt. Commun. 80, 253-258 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Tayebati, D. Trivedi and M. Tabat, "Pulsed laser deposition of SBN:75 thin films with electro-optic coefficient of 844 pm/V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1023-1025 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. Glass, "Investigation of the electrical properties of Sr1?xBaxNb2O6 with special reference to pyroelectric detection," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699-4713 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, R. Morandotti and M. Chaker, "Epitaxial CBN growth for fast electro-optic tunable devices," Proc. SPIE 5970, 597011 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker, R. Morandotti and G. Rioux, "Structural and optical properties of epitaxial CaxBa1?xNb2O6 thin films grown on MgO by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033510 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Eßer, M. Burianek, P. Held, J. Stade, S. Bulut, C. Wickleder and M. Mühlberg, "Optical characterization and crystal structure of the novel bronze type CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (x = 0.28; CBN-28)," Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 457-464 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. K. Lotgering, "Topotactical reactions with ferrimagnetic oxides having hexagonal crystal structures-I," J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 9, 113-123 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H.-F. Cheng, "Structural and optical properties of laser deposited ferroelectric (Sr0.2Ba0.8)TiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7965-7971 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Bardal, Th. Matthee, J. Weaker and K. Samwer, "Initial stages of epitaxial growth of Y-stabilized ZrO2 thin films on a-SiOx/Si(001) substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 2902-2910 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P.-A. Chollet, G. Gadret and F. Kajzar, "Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1-19 (1993).
  17. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics (Oxford University Press, 2007), Chap. 9.1.
  18. L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu and S. S. Lau, "Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using the Fabry-Perot method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 536-538 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D. Xu, S. Janz and D. Christodoulides, "Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Eng. 46, 104602 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker, R. Morandotti and G. Rioux, "Structural and optical properties of epitaxial CaxBa1?xNb2O6 thin films grown on MgO by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D. Xu, S. Janz and D. Christodoulides, "Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Eng. 46, 104602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric epitaxial thin films for integrated optics," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 659-679 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Helsten, L. Razzari, M. Ferrera, P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker and R. Morandotti, "Pockels response in calcium barium niobate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, R. Morandotti and M. Chaker, "Epitaxial CBN growth for fast electro-optic tunable devices," Proc. SPIE 5970, 597011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, P. Held, J. Stade, S. Bulut, C. Wickleder and M. Mühlberg, "Optical characterization and crystal structure of the novel bronze type CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (x = 0.28; CBN-28)," Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 457-464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, D. Klimm and M. Mühlberg, "Single crystal growth of the tetragonal tungsten bronze CaxBa1?xNb2O6 (x=0.28; CBN-28)," J. Cryst. Growth 240, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

F. J. Walker and R. A. McKee, "Thin-film perovskites-ferroelectric materials for integrated optics," Nanostruct. Mater. 7, 221-227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Tayebati, D. Trivedi and M. Tabat, "Pulsed laser deposition of SBN:75 thin films with electro-optic coefficient of 844 pm/V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1023-1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H.-F. Cheng, "Structural and optical properties of laser deposited ferroelectric (Sr0.2Ba0.8)TiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7965-7971 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. Bardal, Th. Matthee, J. Weaker and K. Samwer, "Initial stages of epitaxial growth of Y-stabilized ZrO2 thin films on a-SiOx/Si(001) substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 2902-2910 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu and S. S. Lau, "Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using the Fabry-Perot method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 536-538 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P.-A. Chollet, G. Gadret and F. Kajzar, "Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1-19 (1993).

1991 (1)

R. A. Vasquez, M. D. Ewbank and P. R. Neurgaonkar, "Photorefractive properties of doped strontium-barium niobate," Opt. Commun. 80, 253-258 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. M. Glass, "Investigation of the electrical properties of Sr1?xBaxNb2O6 with special reference to pyroelectric detection," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699-4713 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

F. K. Lotgering, "Topotactical reactions with ferrimagnetic oxides having hexagonal crystal structures-I," J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 9, 113-123 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Bardal, A.

A. Bardal, Th. Matthee, J. Weaker and K. Samwer, "Initial stages of epitaxial growth of Y-stabilized ZrO2 thin films on a-SiOx/Si(001) substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 2902-2910 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bulut, S.

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, P. Held, J. Stade, S. Bulut, C. Wickleder and M. Mühlberg, "Optical characterization and crystal structure of the novel bronze type CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (x = 0.28; CBN-28)," Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 457-464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burianek, M.

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, P. Held, J. Stade, S. Bulut, C. Wickleder and M. Mühlberg, "Optical characterization and crystal structure of the novel bronze type CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (x = 0.28; CBN-28)," Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 457-464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, D. Klimm and M. Mühlberg, "Single crystal growth of the tetragonal tungsten bronze CaxBa1?xNb2O6 (x=0.28; CBN-28)," J. Cryst. Growth 240, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker, R. Morandotti and G. Rioux, "Structural and optical properties of epitaxial CaxBa1?xNb2O6 thin films grown on MgO by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Helsten, L. Razzari, M. Ferrera, P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker and R. Morandotti, "Pockels response in calcium barium niobate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, R. Morandotti and M. Chaker, "Epitaxial CBN growth for fast electro-optic tunable devices," Proc. SPIE 5970, 597011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chastaing, E.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P.-A. Chollet, G. Gadret and F. Kajzar, "Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1-19 (1993).

Cheben, P.

D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D. Xu, S. Janz and D. Christodoulides, "Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Eng. 46, 104602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.-F.

H.-F. Cheng, "Structural and optical properties of laser deposited ferroelectric (Sr0.2Ba0.8)TiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7965-7971 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chollet, P.-A.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P.-A. Chollet, G. Gadret and F. Kajzar, "Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1-19 (1993).

Christodoulides, D.

D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D. Xu, S. Janz and D. Christodoulides, "Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Eng. 46, 104602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duchesne, D.

D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D. Xu, S. Janz and D. Christodoulides, "Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Eng. 46, 104602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P.-A. Chollet, G. Gadret and F. Kajzar, "Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1-19 (1993).

Durand, C.

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker, R. Morandotti and G. Rioux, "Structural and optical properties of epitaxial CaxBa1?xNb2O6 thin films grown on MgO by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Helsten, L. Razzari, M. Ferrera, P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker and R. Morandotti, "Pockels response in calcium barium niobate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, R. Morandotti and M. Chaker, "Epitaxial CBN growth for fast electro-optic tunable devices," Proc. SPIE 5970, 597011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eßer, M.

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, P. Held, J. Stade, S. Bulut, C. Wickleder and M. Mühlberg, "Optical characterization and crystal structure of the novel bronze type CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (x = 0.28; CBN-28)," Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 457-464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, D. Klimm and M. Mühlberg, "Single crystal growth of the tetragonal tungsten bronze CaxBa1?xNb2O6 (x=0.28; CBN-28)," J. Cryst. Growth 240, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ewbank, M. D.

R. A. Vasquez, M. D. Ewbank and P. R. Neurgaonkar, "Photorefractive properties of doped strontium-barium niobate," Opt. Commun. 80, 253-258 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, M.

R. Helsten, L. Razzari, M. Ferrera, P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker and R. Morandotti, "Pockels response in calcium barium niobate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gadret, G.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P.-A. Chollet, G. Gadret and F. Kajzar, "Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1-19 (1993).

Gaidi, M.

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker, R. Morandotti and G. Rioux, "Structural and optical properties of epitaxial CaxBa1?xNb2O6 thin films grown on MgO by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Helsten, L. Razzari, M. Ferrera, P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker and R. Morandotti, "Pockels response in calcium barium niobate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, R. Morandotti and M. Chaker, "Epitaxial CBN growth for fast electro-optic tunable devices," Proc. SPIE 5970, 597011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Glass, "Investigation of the electrical properties of Sr1?xBaxNb2O6 with special reference to pyroelectric detection," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699-4713 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Held, P.

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, P. Held, J. Stade, S. Bulut, C. Wickleder and M. Mühlberg, "Optical characterization and crystal structure of the novel bronze type CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (x = 0.28; CBN-28)," Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 457-464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Helsten, R.

R. Helsten, L. Razzari, M. Ferrera, P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker and R. Morandotti, "Pockels response in calcium barium niobate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D. Xu, S. Janz and D. Christodoulides, "Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Eng. 46, 104602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P.-A. Chollet, G. Gadret and F. Kajzar, "Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1-19 (1993).

Klimm, D.

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, D. Klimm and M. Mühlberg, "Single crystal growth of the tetragonal tungsten bronze CaxBa1?xNb2O6 (x=0.28; CBN-28)," J. Cryst. Growth 240, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D. Xu, S. Janz and D. Christodoulides, "Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Eng. 46, 104602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. S.

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu and S. S. Lau, "Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using the Fabry-Perot method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 536-538 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Levy, Y.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P.-A. Chollet, G. Gadret and F. Kajzar, "Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1-19 (1993).

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q. Z.

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu and S. S. Lau, "Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using the Fabry-Perot method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 536-538 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lotgering, F. K.

F. K. Lotgering, "Topotactical reactions with ferrimagnetic oxides having hexagonal crystal structures-I," J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 9, 113-123 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Matthee, Th.

A. Bardal, Th. Matthee, J. Weaker and K. Samwer, "Initial stages of epitaxial growth of Y-stabilized ZrO2 thin films on a-SiOx/Si(001) substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 2902-2910 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McKee, R. A.

F. J. Walker and R. A. McKee, "Thin-film perovskites-ferroelectric materials for integrated optics," Nanostruct. Mater. 7, 221-227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker, R. Morandotti and G. Rioux, "Structural and optical properties of epitaxial CaxBa1?xNb2O6 thin films grown on MgO by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D. Xu, S. Janz and D. Christodoulides, "Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Eng. 46, 104602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Helsten, L. Razzari, M. Ferrera, P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker and R. Morandotti, "Pockels response in calcium barium niobate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, R. Morandotti and M. Chaker, "Epitaxial CBN growth for fast electro-optic tunable devices," Proc. SPIE 5970, 597011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mühlberg, M.

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, P. Held, J. Stade, S. Bulut, C. Wickleder and M. Mühlberg, "Optical characterization and crystal structure of the novel bronze type CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (x = 0.28; CBN-28)," Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 457-464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, D. Klimm and M. Mühlberg, "Single crystal growth of the tetragonal tungsten bronze CaxBa1?xNb2O6 (x=0.28; CBN-28)," J. Cryst. Growth 240, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ndione, P. F.

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker, R. Morandotti and G. Rioux, "Structural and optical properties of epitaxial CaxBa1?xNb2O6 thin films grown on MgO by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Helsten, L. Razzari, M. Ferrera, P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker and R. Morandotti, "Pockels response in calcium barium niobate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, R. Morandotti and M. Chaker, "Epitaxial CBN growth for fast electro-optic tunable devices," Proc. SPIE 5970, 597011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, P. R.

R. A. Vasquez, M. D. Ewbank and P. R. Neurgaonkar, "Photorefractive properties of doped strontium-barium niobate," Opt. Commun. 80, 253-258 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pappert, S. A.

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu and S. S. Lau, "Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using the Fabry-Perot method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 536-538 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

R. Helsten, L. Razzari, M. Ferrera, P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker and R. Morandotti, "Pockels response in calcium barium niobate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rioux, G.

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker, R. Morandotti and G. Rioux, "Structural and optical properties of epitaxial CaxBa1?xNb2O6 thin films grown on MgO by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robin, P.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P.-A. Chollet, G. Gadret and F. Kajzar, "Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1-19 (1993).

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Samwer, K.

A. Bardal, Th. Matthee, J. Weaker and K. Samwer, "Initial stages of epitaxial growth of Y-stabilized ZrO2 thin films on a-SiOx/Si(001) substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 2902-2910 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stade, J.

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, P. Held, J. Stade, S. Bulut, C. Wickleder and M. Mühlberg, "Optical characterization and crystal structure of the novel bronze type CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (x = 0.28; CBN-28)," Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 457-464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tabat, M.

P. Tayebati, D. Trivedi and M. Tabat, "Pulsed laser deposition of SBN:75 thin films with electro-optic coefficient of 844 pm/V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1023-1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tayebati, P.

P. Tayebati, D. Trivedi and M. Tabat, "Pulsed laser deposition of SBN:75 thin films with electro-optic coefficient of 844 pm/V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1023-1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, D.

P. Tayebati, D. Trivedi and M. Tabat, "Pulsed laser deposition of SBN:75 thin films with electro-optic coefficient of 844 pm/V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1023-1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vasquez, R. A.

R. A. Vasquez, M. D. Ewbank and P. R. Neurgaonkar, "Photorefractive properties of doped strontium-barium niobate," Opt. Commun. 80, 253-258 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Walker, F. J.

F. J. Walker and R. A. McKee, "Thin-film perovskites-ferroelectric materials for integrated optics," Nanostruct. Mater. 7, 221-227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weaker, J.

A. Bardal, Th. Matthee, J. Weaker and K. Samwer, "Initial stages of epitaxial growth of Y-stabilized ZrO2 thin films on a-SiOx/Si(001) substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 2902-2910 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, B. W.

B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric epitaxial thin films for integrated optics," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 659-679 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wickleder, C.

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, P. Held, J. Stade, S. Bulut, C. Wickleder and M. Mühlberg, "Optical characterization and crystal structure of the novel bronze type CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (x = 0.28; CBN-28)," Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 457-464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D. Xu, S. Janz and D. Christodoulides, "Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Eng. 46, 104602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L. S.

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu and S. S. Lau, "Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using the Fabry-Perot method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 536-538 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. K. L.

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu and S. S. Lau, "Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using the Fabry-Perot method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 536-538 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric epitaxial thin films for integrated optics," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 659-679 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Helsten, L. Razzari, M. Ferrera, P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker and R. Morandotti, "Pockels response in calcium barium niobate thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 261101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Tayebati, D. Trivedi and M. Tabat, "Pulsed laser deposition of SBN:75 thin films with electro-optic coefficient of 844 pm/V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1023-1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Yu, Q. Z. Liu, S. A. Pappert, P. K. L. Yu and S. S. Lau, "Laser spectral linewidth dependence on waveguide loss measurements using the Fabry-Perot method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 536-538 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, P. Held, J. Stade, S. Bulut, C. Wickleder and M. Mühlberg, "Optical characterization and crystal structure of the novel bronze type CaxBa1-xNb2O6 (x = 0.28; CBN-28)," Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 457-464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

H.-F. Cheng, "Structural and optical properties of laser deposited ferroelectric (Sr0.2Ba0.8)TiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7965-7971 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Bardal, Th. Matthee, J. Weaker and K. Samwer, "Initial stages of epitaxial growth of Y-stabilized ZrO2 thin films on a-SiOx/Si(001) substrates," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 2902-2910 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, "Investigation of the electrical properties of Sr1?xBaxNb2O6 with special reference to pyroelectric detection," J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699-4713 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, M. Chaker, R. Morandotti and G. Rioux, "Structural and optical properties of epitaxial CaxBa1?xNb2O6 thin films grown on MgO by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

M. Eßer, M. Burianek, D. Klimm and M. Mühlberg, "Single crystal growth of the tetragonal tungsten bronze CaxBa1?xNb2O6 (x=0.28; CBN-28)," J. Cryst. Growth 240, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. (1)

F. K. Lotgering, "Topotactical reactions with ferrimagnetic oxides having hexagonal crystal structures-I," J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 9, 113-123 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B (1)

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P.-A. Chollet, G. Gadret and F. Kajzar, "Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1-19 (1993).

Nanostruct. Mater. (1)

F. J. Walker and R. A. McKee, "Thin-film perovskites-ferroelectric materials for integrated optics," Nanostruct. Mater. 7, 221-227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. A. Vasquez, M. D. Ewbank and P. R. Neurgaonkar, "Photorefractive properties of doped strontium-barium niobate," Opt. Commun. 80, 253-258 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Duchesne, P. Cheben, R. Morandotti, B. Lamontagne, D. Xu, S. Janz and D. Christodoulides, "Group-index birefringence and loss measurements in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Eng. 46, 104602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. F. Ndione, M. Gaidi, C. Durand, R. Morandotti and M. Chaker, "Epitaxial CBN growth for fast electro-optic tunable devices," Proc. SPIE 5970, 597011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics (Oxford University Press, 2007), Chap. 9.1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

XRD pattern in logarithmic scale of a CBN thin film deposited on (a) a p-type (100) Si substrate and (b) an undoped SiO2/(100) Si multilayer structure (the measurements were performed after the sample was annealed at 650 °C).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modulated and normalized signal intensity as a function of the incidence angle. The modulation is performed around three different biasing points: A, B and O, as defined in ref. [16]. For more details about the electro-optical characterization procedure, see ref. [3].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy view of the fabricated waveguide. (b) Schematic illustration of the strip-loaded waveguide geometry used in the simulations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental Fabry-Perot fringe patterns for the fundamental TE (a) and TM (b) modes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulated (a, b) and experimental (c, d) near field images of the fundamental modes of the waveguide at a wavelength of 1550 nm; (a, c) TE modes and (b, d) TM modes. Note the scale on the experimental images is larger due to diffraction limitations of the imaging system.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔII0 =1(rs+rp)2 [rs2+rp22rsrpcos(Ψsp)rs'2rp'2+2rs'rp'cos(Ψsp')E0]
α=1L ln [Rγ+1γ+1]

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