Abstract

We present measurements of the complete terahertz (THz) electric near-field distribution, Ex, Ey and Ez, in both the time- and frequency-domains, for subwavelength apertures and subsections of subwavelength aperture arrays. Measuring the individual components of the THz near-field with subwavelength spatial resolution, as they emerge from these structures, illustrates how the field interacts with the apertures. We observe the small but measurable y- and z-components of the electric field for both single apertures and arrays. Resonant contributions, attributed to Bloch modes, are detected and we observe the presence of a longitudinal field component, Ez, within the different array apertures, which can be attributed to a diffractive effect. These measurements illustrate in detail the individual THz field components emerging from subwavelength apertures and provide a direct measure of two important mechanisms that contribute to the net transmission of light through arrays.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
  2. A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "The role of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).
  3. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).
  4. A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).
  5. Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, "Enhanced Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes: The Role of Localized Waveguide Resonances," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 233901 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  6. J. Masson, A. Podzorov, and G. Gallot, "Anomalies in the disappearance of the extraordinary electromagnetic transmission in subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 16, 4719-4730 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  7. K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).
  8. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature (London) 445, 39-46 (2007).
  9. R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A New Generation of Sensors Based on Extraordinary Optical Transmission," Acct. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).
  10. T. Ribaudo, E. A. Shaner, S. S. Howard, C. Gmachl, X. J. Wang, F.-S. Choa, and D. Wasserman, "Active control and spatial mapping of mid-infrared propagating surface plasmons," Opt. Express 17, 7019-7024 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  11. C.-C. Chen, "Transmission of Microwave Through Perforated Flat Plates of Finite Thickness," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-21, 1-6 (1973).
  12. R. Ulrich and M. Tacke, "Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1973).
  13. A. Mitsuishi, Y. Otsuka, S. Fujita, and H. Yoshinaga, "Metal Mesh Filters in the Far Infrared Region," Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 2, 574-577 (1963).
  14. C.-C. Chen, "Transmission Through a Conducting Screen Perforated Periodically with Apertures," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-18, 627-632 (1970).
  15. J. G’omez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306 (2003).
  16. D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, "Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 896-898 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  17. H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Resonantly enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures," Opt. Express 12, 1004-1010 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  18. E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G’omez Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, "Optical Control over Surface-Plasmon-Polariton-Assisted THz Transmission through a Slit Aperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123901 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  19. A. K. Azad, Y. Zhao, W. Zhang, and M. He, "Effect of dielectric properties of metals on terahertz transmission in subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 31, 2637-2639 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  20. D. Qu and D. Grischkowsky, "Observation of a New Type of THz Resonance of Surface Plasmons Propagating on Metal-Film Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 196804 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  21. H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Influence of aperture shape on the transmission properties of a periodic array of subwavelength apertures," Opt. Express 12, 3664-3672 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  22. S. Ducourtieux, S. Gr’esillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).
  23. M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, K. J. Ahn, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, "Near field imaging of terahertz focusing onto rectangular apertures," Opt. Express 16, 20484-20489 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  24. O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, "Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907-909 (2001).
  25. A. Bitzer and M. Walther, "Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008).
  26. A. Bitzer, H. Merbold, A. Thoman, T. Feurer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, "Terahertz near-field imaging of electric and magnetic resonances of a planar metamaterial," Opt. Express 17, 3826-3834 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  27. A. J. L. Adam, J. M. Brok, M. A. Seo, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. Nagel, and P. C. M. Planken, "Advanced terahertz electric near-field measurements at sub-wavelength diameter metallic apertures," Opt. Express 16, 7407-7417 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  28. M. Mrejen, A. Israel, H. Taha, M. Palchan, and A. Lewis, "Near-field characterization of extraordinary optical transmission in sub-wavelength aperture arrays," Opt. Express 15, 9129-9138 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  29. H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano Lett. 6, 2104-2108 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  30. S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).
  31. G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. C. J. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
  32. R. Chakkittakandy, J. A. Corver, and P. C. M. Planken, "Quasi-near field terahertz generation and detection," Opt. Express 16, 12794-12805 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  33. N. C. J. van der Valk, T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Full mathematical description of electro-optic detection in optically isotropic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 622-631 (2004).
  34. M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, "Fourier-transform terahertz near-field imaging of one-dimensional slit arrays: mapping of electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and Poynting vectors," Opt. Express 15, 11781-11789 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  35. C. J. Bouwkamp, "On Bethe’s Theory Of Diffraction By Small Holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321-332 (1950).
  36. J. Bravo-Abad, L. Mart’?n-Moreno, F. J. Garc’?a-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. G’omez Rivas, "Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes," Phys. Rev. B 76, 241102 (2007).
  37. R. W. Wood, "Anomalous Diffraction Gratings," Phys. Rev. 48, 928-936 (1935).
  38. T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).
  39. J. B. Pendry, L. Mart’?n-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  40. F. J. Garc’?a de Abajo, "Colloquium: Light scattering by particle and hole arrays," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267-1290 (2007).
  41. R. Gordon, "Bethe’s aperture theory for arrays," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053806 (2007).
  42. H. Liu and P. Lalanne, "Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission," Nature (London) 452, 728-731 (2008).

2009

2008

A. J. L. Adam, J. M. Brok, M. A. Seo, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. Nagel, and P. C. M. Planken, "Advanced terahertz electric near-field measurements at sub-wavelength diameter metallic apertures," Opt. Express 16, 7407-7417 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. Chakkittakandy, J. A. Corver, and P. C. M. Planken, "Quasi-near field terahertz generation and detection," Opt. Express 16, 12794-12805 (2008).
[PubMed]

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G’omez Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, "Optical Control over Surface-Plasmon-Polariton-Assisted THz Transmission through a Slit Aperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123901 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, K. J. Ahn, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, "Near field imaging of terahertz focusing onto rectangular apertures," Opt. Express 16, 20484-20489 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, "Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008).

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A New Generation of Sensors Based on Extraordinary Optical Transmission," Acct. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).

J. Masson, A. Podzorov, and G. Gallot, "Anomalies in the disappearance of the extraordinary electromagnetic transmission in subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 16, 4719-4730 (2008).
[PubMed]

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, "Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission," Nature (London) 452, 728-731 (2008).

2007

F. J. Garc’?a de Abajo, "Colloquium: Light scattering by particle and hole arrays," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267-1290 (2007).

R. Gordon, "Bethe’s aperture theory for arrays," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053806 (2007).

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Mart’?n-Moreno, F. J. Garc’?a-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. G’omez Rivas, "Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes," Phys. Rev. B 76, 241102 (2007).

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature (London) 445, 39-46 (2007).

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, "Fourier-transform terahertz near-field imaging of one-dimensional slit arrays: mapping of electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and Poynting vectors," Opt. Express 15, 11781-11789 (2007).
[PubMed]

M. Mrejen, A. Israel, H. Taha, M. Palchan, and A. Lewis, "Near-field characterization of extraordinary optical transmission in sub-wavelength aperture arrays," Opt. Express 15, 9129-9138 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano Lett. 6, 2104-2108 (2006).
[PubMed]

A. K. Azad, Y. Zhao, W. Zhang, and M. He, "Effect of dielectric properties of metals on terahertz transmission in subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 31, 2637-2639 (2006).
[PubMed]

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, "Enhanced Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes: The Role of Localized Waveguide Resonances," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 233901 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "The role of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).

2004

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, "Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 896-898 (2004).
[PubMed]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Resonantly enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures," Opt. Express 12, 1004-1010 (2004).
[PubMed]

D. Qu and D. Grischkowsky, "Observation of a New Type of THz Resonance of Surface Plasmons Propagating on Metal-Film Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 196804 (2004).
[PubMed]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Influence of aperture shape on the transmission properties of a periodic array of subwavelength apertures," Opt. Express 12, 3664-3672 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. Ducourtieux, S. Gr’esillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).

N. C. J. van der Valk, T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Full mathematical description of electro-optic detection in optically isotropic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 622-631 (2004).

J. B. Pendry, L. Mart’?n-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003

J. G’omez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 201306 (2003).

2002

S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. C. J. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).

2001

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, "Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907-909 (2001).

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

1999

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).

1973

C.-C. Chen, "Transmission of Microwave Through Perforated Flat Plates of Finite Thickness," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-21, 1-6 (1973).

R. Ulrich and M. Tacke, "Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1973).

1970

C.-C. Chen, "Transmission Through a Conducting Screen Perforated Periodically with Apertures," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-18, 627-632 (1970).

1963

A. Mitsuishi, Y. Otsuka, S. Fujita, and H. Yoshinaga, "Metal Mesh Filters in the Far Infrared Region," Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 2, 574-577 (1963).

1950

C. J. Bouwkamp, "On Bethe’s Theory Of Diffraction By Small Holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321-332 (1950).

1935

R. W. Wood, "Anomalous Diffraction Gratings," Phys. Rev. 48, 928-936 (1935).

Adam, A. J. L.

Ahn, K. J.

Azad, A. K.

Bainier, C.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Gr’esillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).

Bitzer, A.

A. Bitzer, H. Merbold, A. Thoman, T. Feurer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, "Terahertz near-field imaging of electric and magnetic resonances of a planar metamaterial," Opt. Express 17, 3826-3834 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, "Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008).

Bouwkamp, C. J.

C. J. Bouwkamp, "On Bethe’s Theory Of Diffraction By Small Holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321-332 (1950).

Bravo-Abad, J.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Mart’?n-Moreno, F. J. Garc’?a-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. G’omez Rivas, "Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes," Phys. Rev. B 76, 241102 (2007).

Brok, J. M.

Brolo, A. G.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A New Generation of Sensors Based on Extraordinary Optical Transmission," Acct. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).

Cao, H.

Chakkittakandy, R.

Chen, C.-C.

C.-C. Chen, "Transmission of Microwave Through Perforated Flat Plates of Finite Thickness," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-21, 1-6 (1973).

C.-C. Chen, "Transmission Through a Conducting Screen Perforated Periodically with Apertures," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-18, 627-632 (1970).

Choa, F.-S.

Corver, J. A.

Cory, H.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Gr’esillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).

Courjon, D.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Gr’esillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).

Degiron, A.

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "The role of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).

Ducourtieux, S.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Gr’esillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature (London) 445, 39-46 (2007).

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "The role of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).

Enoch, S.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).

Federici, J. F.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, "Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907-909 (2001).

Feurer, T.

Fujita, S.

A. Mitsuishi, Y. Otsuka, S. Fujita, and H. Yoshinaga, "Metal Mesh Filters in the Far Infrared Region," Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 2, 574-577 (1963).

Gallot, G.

Gao, H.

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano Lett. 6, 2104-2108 (2006).
[PubMed]

Garc’ia de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. Garc’?a de Abajo, "Colloquium: Light scattering by particle and hole arrays," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267-1290 (2007).

Garc’ia-Vidal, F. J.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Mart’?n-Moreno, F. J. Garc’?a-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. G’omez Rivas, "Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes," Phys. Rev. B 76, 241102 (2007).

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G’omez Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, "Optical Control over Surface-Plasmon-Polariton-Assisted THz Transmission through a Slit Aperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123901 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Mart’?n-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[PubMed]

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature (London) 445, 39-46 (2007).

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).

Gmachl, C.

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A New Generation of Sensors Based on Extraordinary Optical Transmission," Acct. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).

R. Gordon, "Bethe’s aperture theory for arrays," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053806 (2007).

Gr’esillon, S.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Gr’esillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, "Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 896-898 (2004).
[PubMed]

D. Qu and D. Grischkowsky, "Observation of a New Type of THz Resonance of Surface Plasmons Propagating on Metal-Film Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 196804 (2004).
[PubMed]

Grupp, D. E.

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).

He, M.

Helm, H.

Hendry, E.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G’omez Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, "Optical Control over Surface-Plasmon-Polariton-Assisted THz Transmission through a Slit Aperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123901 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Mart’?n-Moreno, F. J. Garc’?a-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. G’omez Rivas, "Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes," Phys. Rev. B 76, 241102 (2007).

Henzie, J.

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano Lett. 6, 2104-2108 (2006).
[PubMed]

Hohng, S. C.

S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).

Howard, S. S.

Hsu, J. W. P.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, "Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907-909 (2001).

Israel, A.

Jeoung, S. C.

Kang, J. H.

Kavanagh, K. L.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A New Generation of Sensors Based on Extraordinary Optical Transmission," Acct. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).

Kim, D. S.

Kim, J.

S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).

Kim, T. J.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).

Klein Koerkamp, K. J.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).

Krishnan, A.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

Kuipers, L.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).

Lalanne, P.

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, "Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission," Nature (London) 452, 728-731 (2008).

Lee, J. W.

Lee, M.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, "Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907-909 (2001).

Lewis, A.

Lezec, H. J.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).

Lienau, Ch.

S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).

Liu, H.

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, "Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission," Nature (London) 452, 728-731 (2008).

M¨uller, R.

S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).

Malyarchuk, V.

S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).

Mart’in-Moreno, L.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Mart’?n-Moreno, F. J. Garc’?a-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. G’omez Rivas, "Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes," Phys. Rev. B 76, 241102 (2007).

J. B. Pendry, L. Mart’?n-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

E. Hendry, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. G’omez Rivas, M. Bonn, A. P. Hibbins, and M. J. Lockyear, "Optical Control over Surface-Plasmon-Polariton-Assisted THz Transmission through a Slit Aperture," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123901 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

Masson, J.

Merbold, H.

Mitrofanov, O.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, "Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907-909 (2001).

Mitsuishi, A.

A. Mitsuishi, Y. Otsuka, S. Fujita, and H. Yoshinaga, "Metal Mesh Filters in the Far Infrared Region," Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 2, 574-577 (1963).

Mrejen, M.

Nagel, M.

Nahata, A.

Odom, T. W.

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano Lett. 6, 2104-2108 (2006).
[PubMed]

Otsuka, Y.

A. Mitsuishi, Y. Otsuka, S. Fujita, and H. Yoshinaga, "Metal Mesh Filters in the Far Infrared Region," Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 2, 574-577 (1963).

Palchan, M.

Park, J. W.

S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).

Park, Q. H.

Pendry, J.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, L. Mart’?n-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[PubMed]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, "Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907-909 (2001).

Planken, P. C. M.

Podzorov, A.

Qiu, M.

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, "Enhanced Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes: The Role of Localized Waveguide Resonances," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 233901 (2006).
[PubMed]

Qu, D.

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, "Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 896-898 (2004).
[PubMed]

D. Qu and D. Grischkowsky, "Observation of a New Type of THz Resonance of Surface Plasmons Propagating on Metal-Film Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 196804 (2004).
[PubMed]

Ribaudo, T.

Rivoal, J. C.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Gr’esillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, "Enhanced Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes: The Role of Localized Waveguide Resonances," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 233901 (2006).
[PubMed]

Ryu, H. Y.

S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).

Schouten, R. N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. C. J. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).

Segerink, F. B.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).

Seo, M. A.

Shaner, E. A.

Sinton, D.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A New Generation of Sensors Based on Extraordinary Optical Transmission," Acct. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).

Tacke, M.

R. Ulrich and M. Tacke, "Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1973).

Taha, H.

Thio, T.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, "Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 24, 256-258 (1999).

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998).

Thoman, A.

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich and M. Tacke, "Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1973).

van der Valk, N. C. J.

N. C. J. van der Valk, T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Full mathematical description of electro-optic detection in optically isotropic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 622-631 (2004).

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. C. J. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).

van Hulst, N. F.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183901 (2004).

Vannier, C.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Gr’esillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).

Walther, M.

A. Bitzer, H. Merbold, A. Thoman, T. Feurer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, "Terahertz near-field imaging of electric and magnetic resonances of a planar metamaterial," Opt. Express 17, 3826-3834 (2009).
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A. Bitzer and M. Walther, "Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008).

Wang, X. J.

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Wenckebach, T.

Wenckebach, W. Th.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. C. J. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).

West, K. W.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, "Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907-909 (2001).

Wolff, P. A.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, "Anomalous Diffraction Gratings," Phys. Rev. 48, 928-936 (1935).

Wynn, J. D.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, "Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907-909 (2001).

Yoo, K. H.

S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).

Yoon, Y. C.

S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).

Yoshinaga, H.

A. Mitsuishi, Y. Otsuka, S. Fujita, and H. Yoshinaga, "Metal Mesh Filters in the Far Infrared Region," Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 2, 574-577 (1963).

Zhang, W.

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. C. J. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).

Zhao, Y.

Acct. Chem. Res.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A New Generation of Sensors Based on Extraordinary Optical Transmission," Acct. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Ulrich and M. Tacke, "Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1973).

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. F. Federici, "Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907-909 (2001).

A. Bitzer and M. Walther, "Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 231101 (2008).

S. C. Hohng, Y. C. Yoon, D. S. Kim, V. Malyarchuk, R. M¨uller, Ch. Lienau, J. W. Park, K. H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, and Q. H. Park, "Light emission from the shadows: Surface plasmon nano-optics at near and far fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3239-3241 (2002).

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Ducourtieux, S. Gr’esillon, J. C. Rivoal, C. Vannier, C. Bainier, D. Courjon, and H. Cory, "Imaging subwavelength holes in chromium films in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Comparison between experiments and calculation," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 35-43 (2004).

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C.-C. Chen, "Transmission of Microwave Through Perforated Flat Plates of Finite Thickness," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-21, 1-6 (1973).

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A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, "The role of localized surface plasmon modes in the enhanced transmission of periodic subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. A. Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S90-S96 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Japanese J. Appl. Phys.

A. Mitsuishi, Y. Otsuka, S. Fujita, and H. Yoshinaga, "Metal Mesh Filters in the Far Infrared Region," Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 2, 574-577 (1963).

Nano Lett.

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano Lett. 6, 2104-2108 (2006).
[PubMed]

Nature (London)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature (London) 445, 39-46 (2007).

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, "Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission," Nature (London) 452, 728-731 (2008).

Opt. Commun.

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (4050 KB)     

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Near-field Imaging Setup (b) Microscope image of an array subsection with 90µm periodicity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

THz electric near-field for a single, isolated, circular aperture (d=150µm) at 0.2 THz. Figures (a)–(c): |Ex |, |Ey |, and | Ez |. Scan area=315µm×315µm. Figure (d): Vector field plot illustrating measured transverse components of THz electric near-field. Figure (e): Vector field plot calculated from Bouwkamp’s model.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ey (ωt=0) for a square aperture at 0.25 THz. Aperture dimensions: 200µmx 200µm. Scan Area: 400µmx 400µm. Bright color corresponds to positive field amplitude and dark color to negative field amplitude. The incident field polarization is indicated.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Peak-peak amplitude images of Ez for circular apertures having three different diameters. From left to right: d=150µm, 60µm and 20µm; scan area=315µmx 315µm, 190µmx 190µm, 60µmx60µm, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

THz electric near-field for the P=90µm, subwavelength aperture array. Figures (a)–(c): time-domain, field amplitude images of an array subsection in the middle of the array. In each case, the images correspond to times when the THz field is maximum. Array dimesions: ~1.4mm per side. Scan dimensions: ~200µmx 200µm. The incident THz field polarization is indicated on the left.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Amplitude and phase images of P=90µm array for ν=0.47 THz and ν=1.0 THz. The color bar in each phase image corresponds to a range of angles from -180° to +180°.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of transmission for a single 60µm-diameter aperture in the center of the P=90µm array (solid line) and for a single, isolated aperture having the same diameter (dotted line); both data sets correspond to a single pixel on the upper aperture edge and are normalized to the incident THz field. The single aperture was made in a 500 nm-thick gold layer that was deposited on a ~500µm GaP crystal. The array data were recorded in a nitrogen-purged environment, while the single aperture data were not.

Fig. 8. (a)
Fig. 8. (a)

Time-domain data for two pixels, one at the aperture edge (red) and the other within the aperture (blue). (Media 1)Inset shows an image of Ez at a time of 3.81 ps; EIncident is linearly polarized in the sample plane, vertical relative to the image. Data are windowed before the first etalon pulse. Raw data from the aperture edge are displayed as a dotted red line; the solid red line shows the same data after windowing.

Fig. 8. (b)
Fig. 8. (b)

|Ez |, normalized to the incident THz field. The red (blue) curve corresponds to spectral information for the red (blue) time-domain pulse in (a).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Time- and frequency-domain data for Ez from a single aperture in the middle of the P=90µm array.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Ex spectrum from a single pixel within an aperture in the middle of P=160µm array. Data were recorded in a nitrogen-purged environment. Arrows indicate peaks in transmission corresponding to predicted SPP modes.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Amplitude and phase images for the P=160µm array at 0.579 THz. Scan area: 350µmx 350µm. White lines indicate approximate aperture positions.

Equations (2)

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λ=αom2+n2εd
λ=αom2+n2(εmεdεm+εd)12αom2+n2εd

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