Abstract

Polyhedral nanostructures are widely used to enable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). In practice, vertices of such structures are almost always truncated due to limitations of nanofabrication processes. This paper studies the effects of vertex truncation of polyhedral nanostructures on the characteristics of LSPR sensing. The optical properties and sensing performance of triangular nanoplates with truncated vertices are investigated using electrodynamics analysis and verified by experiment. The experimental results correlated with simulation analysis demonstrate that the fabricated triangular nanoplate array has a truncation ratio, defined as the length of truncation along an edge of the triangle over the edge length, of approximately 12.8%. This significantly influences optical properties of the nanostructures, resulting in poorer sensing performance. These insights can be used to guide the design and fabrication of nanostructures for high performance LSPR sensors.

© 2009 OSA

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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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2009 (1)

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Fabrication and characterization of rhombic silver nanoparticles for biosensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 769–774 (2009).

2008 (6)

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Aluminum Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(36), 13958–13963 (2008).

J. Becker, I. Zins, A. Jakab, Y. Khalavka, O. Schubert, and C. Sönnichsen, “Plasmonic focusing reduces ensemble linewidth of silver-coated gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1719–1723 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Li, Z. S. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. Y. Li, and X. F. Yu, “Optical properties of Au/Ag core/shell nanoshuttles,” Opt. Express 16(18), 14288–14293 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).

2007 (5)

K. A. Willets and R. P. V. Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).

P. K. Jain, I. H. El-sayed, and M. A. El-sayed, “Au nanoparticles target cancer,” Nano Today 2(1), 18–29 (2007).

F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 729–732 (2007).
[PubMed]

B. J. Wiley, Y. Chen, J. M. McLellan, Y. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, D. Ginger, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanobars and nanorice,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1032–1036 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. M. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, J. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Comparison of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering on sharp and truncated silver nanocubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 427(1-3), 122–126 (2006).

2005 (3)

Y. Xia, N. J. Halas, and G. Editors, “Shape-Controlled Synthesis and Surface Plasmonic Properties of Metallic Nanostructures,” MRS Bull. 30, 338–348 (2005).

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).

2001 (2)

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).

C. L. Haynes and R. P. V. Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: a versatile nanofabrication tool for studies of size-dependent nanoparticle optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).

1949 (1)

V. F. Weisskopf, “Recent development in the theory of the electron,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 21(2), 305–315 (1949).

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[PubMed]

Becker, J.

J. Becker, I. Zins, A. Jakab, Y. Khalavka, O. Schubert, and C. Sönnichsen, “Plasmonic focusing reduces ensemble linewidth of silver-coated gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1719–1723 (2008).
[PubMed]

Chan, G. H.

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Aluminum Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(36), 13958–13963 (2008).

Chang, S. H.

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[PubMed]

Chau, L. K.

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).

Chen, C. D.

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).

Chen, J.

J. M. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, J. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Comparison of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering on sharp and truncated silver nanocubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 427(1-3), 122–126 (2006).

Chen, Y.

B. J. Wiley, Y. Chen, J. M. McLellan, Y. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, D. Ginger, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanobars and nanorice,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1032–1036 (2007).
[PubMed]

Cheng, S. F.

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).

Du, C. L.

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Fabrication and characterization of rhombic silver nanoparticles for biosensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 769–774 (2009).

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).

Duyne, R. P. V.

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Aluminum Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(36), 13958–13963 (2008).

K. A. Willets and R. P. V. Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).

C. L. Haynes and R. P. V. Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: a versatile nanofabrication tool for studies of size-dependent nanoparticle optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).

Editors, G.

Y. Xia, N. J. Halas, and G. Editors, “Shape-Controlled Synthesis and Surface Plasmonic Properties of Metallic Nanostructures,” MRS Bull. 30, 338–348 (2005).

El-sayed, I. H.

P. K. Jain, I. H. El-sayed, and M. A. El-sayed, “Au nanoparticles target cancer,” Nano Today 2(1), 18–29 (2007).

El-sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, I. H. El-sayed, and M. A. El-sayed, “Au nanoparticles target cancer,” Nano Today 2(1), 18–29 (2007).

Fu, Y. Q.

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Fabrication and characterization of rhombic silver nanoparticles for biosensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 769–774 (2009).

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).

Ginger, D.

B. J. Wiley, Y. Chen, J. M. McLellan, Y. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, D. Ginger, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanobars and nanorice,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1032–1036 (2007).
[PubMed]

Hafner, J. H.

F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 729–732 (2007).
[PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

Y. Xia, N. J. Halas, and G. Editors, “Shape-Controlled Synthesis and Surface Plasmonic Properties of Metallic Nanostructures,” MRS Bull. 30, 338–348 (2005).

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[PubMed]

Hao, F.

F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 729–732 (2007).
[PubMed]

Haynes, C. L.

C. L. Haynes and R. P. V. Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: a versatile nanofabrication tool for studies of size-dependent nanoparticle optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, I. H. El-sayed, and M. A. El-sayed, “Au nanoparticles target cancer,” Nano Today 2(1), 18–29 (2007).

Jakab, A.

J. Becker, I. Zins, A. Jakab, Y. Khalavka, O. Schubert, and C. Sönnichsen, “Plasmonic focusing reduces ensemble linewidth of silver-coated gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1719–1723 (2008).
[PubMed]

Jin, J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).

Khalavka, Y.

J. Becker, I. Zins, A. Jakab, Y. Khalavka, O. Schubert, and C. Sönnichsen, “Plasmonic focusing reduces ensemble linewidth of silver-coated gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1719–1723 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kim, S. W.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kim, Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lazarides, A. A.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).

Li, F.

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).

Li, K. Y.

Li, M.

Li, Z. Y.

B. J. Wiley, Y. Chen, J. M. McLellan, Y. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, D. Ginger, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanobars and nanorice,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1032–1036 (2007).
[PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[PubMed]

Malinsky, M. D.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).

McLellan, J. M.

B. J. Wiley, Y. Chen, J. M. McLellan, Y. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, D. Ginger, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanobars and nanorice,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1032–1036 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. M. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, J. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Comparison of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering on sharp and truncated silver nanocubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 427(1-3), 122–126 (2006).

Miller, M. M.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).

Nehl, C. L.

F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 729–732 (2007).
[PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 729–732 (2007).
[PubMed]

Park, I. Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Aluminum Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(36), 13958–13963 (2008).

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[PubMed]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).

Schubert, O.

J. Becker, I. Zins, A. Jakab, Y. Khalavka, O. Schubert, and C. Sönnichsen, “Plasmonic focusing reduces ensemble linewidth of silver-coated gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1719–1723 (2008).
[PubMed]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sherry, L. J.

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[PubMed]

Siekkinen, A.

J. M. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, J. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Comparison of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering on sharp and truncated silver nanocubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 427(1-3), 122–126 (2006).

Sönnichsen, C.

J. Becker, I. Zins, A. Jakab, Y. Khalavka, O. Schubert, and C. Sönnichsen, “Plasmonic focusing reduces ensemble linewidth of silver-coated gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1719–1723 (2008).
[PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[PubMed]

Wang, C. R. C.

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).

Weisskopf, V. F.

V. F. Weisskopf, “Recent development in the theory of the electron,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 21(2), 305–315 (1949).

Wiley, B. J.

B. J. Wiley, Y. Chen, J. M. McLellan, Y. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, D. Ginger, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanobars and nanorice,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1032–1036 (2007).
[PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[PubMed]

Willets, K. A.

K. A. Willets and R. P. V. Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).

Xia, Y.

B. J. Wiley, Y. Chen, J. M. McLellan, Y. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, D. Ginger, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanobars and nanorice,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1032–1036 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. M. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, J. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Comparison of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering on sharp and truncated silver nanocubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 427(1-3), 122–126 (2006).

Y. Xia, N. J. Halas, and G. Editors, “Shape-Controlled Synthesis and Surface Plasmonic Properties of Metallic Nanostructures,” MRS Bull. 30, 338–348 (2005).

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

B. J. Wiley, Y. Chen, J. M. McLellan, Y. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, D. Ginger, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanobars and nanorice,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1032–1036 (2007).
[PubMed]

Yu, X. F.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z. S.

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Aluminum Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(36), 13958–13963 (2008).

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).

Zhu, S. L.

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Fabrication and characterization of rhombic silver nanoparticles for biosensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 769–774 (2009).

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).

Zins, I.

J. Becker, I. Zins, A. Jakab, Y. Khalavka, O. Schubert, and C. Sönnichsen, “Plasmonic focusing reduces ensemble linewidth of silver-coated gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1719–1723 (2008).
[PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Chem. (1)

K. A. Willets and R. P. V. Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. M. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, J. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Comparison of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering on sharp and truncated silver nanocubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 427(1-3), 122–126 (2006).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).

J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

C. L. Haynes and R. P. V. Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: a versatile nanofabrication tool for studies of size-dependent nanoparticle optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the Influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Aluminum Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(36), 13958–13963 (2008).

MRS Bull. (1)

Y. Xia, N. J. Halas, and G. Editors, “Shape-Controlled Synthesis and Surface Plasmonic Properties of Metallic Nanostructures,” MRS Bull. 30, 338–348 (2005).

Nano Lett. (4)

B. J. Wiley, Y. Chen, J. M. McLellan, Y. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, D. Ginger, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanobars and nanorice,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1032–1036 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. Becker, I. Zins, A. Jakab, Y. Khalavka, O. Schubert, and C. Sönnichsen, “Plasmonic focusing reduces ensemble linewidth of silver-coated gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1719–1723 (2008).
[PubMed]

F. Hao, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon resonances of a gold nanostar,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 729–732 (2007).
[PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[PubMed]

Nano Today (1)

P. K. Jain, I. H. El-sayed, and M. A. El-sayed, “Au nanoparticles target cancer,” Nano Today 2(1), 18–29 (2007).

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Fabrication and characterization of rhombic silver nanoparticles for biosensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 769–774 (2009).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

V. F. Weisskopf, “Recent development in the theory of the electron,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 21(2), 305–315 (1949).

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Triangular nanoplate structures. (a) An idealized triangular nanoplate. (b) A triangular nanoplate with truncated vertices. (c) The vertex truncation is assumed to be formed by a symmetric circular arc tangent to each of the two edges. The truncation length, t, is defined as the distance between the vertex of the triangle and the point of tangency.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculation results of a triangular nanoplates array with a truncated length t = 0, 5, 10, 12, 15, 20 and 25 nm, with (a) Extinction spectra distributions and (b) peak wavelength distribution extracted from (a)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Field enhancement of local E-fields of nanostructures with a truncation ratioσof 12.8% (a) and the idealized structure (b). The E-field enhancement profile is presented along the hemline for a truncated structure (c) and the idealized structure (d). The E-fields are excited at their LSPR peak wavelength of 669 nm and 741 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Extinction spectra of an idealized structure in different media and the obtained refractive index curve and (b) Refractive index sensitivity distribution of truncated structures with truncation ratio σ = 0, 3.2%, 6.4%, 7.7%, 9.6%, 12.8%, or 16%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Figure of merit distributions for different truncation ratios

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) the designed nanostructures with sharp vertices and (b) SEM image of the corresponding fabricated nanostructures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Extinction spectra obtained from simulations and experiments: (a) in air, and (b) in ethanol.

Equations (5)

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Hyt=1μ0(ExzEzx),
Ext=1εHyz,
Ezt=1εHyx,
Cext(ω)=Cscat(ω)+Cabs(ω)=Pscat+PabsIinc(ω),
FOM=m/FWHM,

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