Abstract

In this paper, we present a scene-based nouniformity correction (NUC) method using a modified adaptive least mean square (LMS) algorithm with a novel gating operation on the updates. The gating is designed to significantly reduce ghosting artifacts produced by many scene-based NUC algorithms by halting updates when temporal variation is lacking. We define the algorithm and present a number of experimental results to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in comparison to several previously published methods including other LMS and constant statistics based methods. The experimental results include simulated imagery and a real infrared image sequence. We show that the proposed method significantly reduces ghosting artifacts, but has a slightly longer convergence time.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of non-uniformity on infrared focal plane arrays performance," Opt. Eng. 24(5), 855-862 (1985).
  2. Y. M. Chiang and J. G. Harris, "An Analog Integrated Circuit for Continuous-time Gain and Offset Calibration of Sensor Arrays," J. Analog Integrated Circuits Signal Proc. 12, 231-238 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. G. Harris and Y.-M. Chiang, "Minimizing the Ghosting Artifact in Scene-Based Nonuniformity Correction," in SPIE Conference on Infrared Imaging Systems: Design Analysis, Modeling, and Testing IX, vol. 3377 (Orlando, Florida, 1998).
  4. M. M. Hayat, S. N. Torres, E. E. Armstrong, S. C. Cain, and B. J. Yasuda, "Statistical Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal-plane Arrays," Appl. Opt. 38(5), 772-780 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. N. Torres and M. M. Hayat, "Kalman Filtering for Adaptive Nonuniformity Correction in Infrared Focal Plane Arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(3), 470-480 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Scribner, K. A. Sarkady, M. R. Kruer, J. T. Caulfield, J. D. Hunt, and C. Herman, "Adaptive Nonuniformity Correction for IR Focal Plane Arrays using Neural Networks," in Proceedings of the SPIE: Infrared Sensors: Detectors, Electronics, and Signal Processing, T. S. Jayadev, ed., vol. 1541, pp. 100-109 (1991).
  7. D. A. Scribner, K. A. Sarkady, M. R. Kruer, J. T. Caulfield, J. Hunt, M. Colbert, and M. Descour, "Adaptive Retina-like Preprocessing for Imaging Detector Arrays," vol. 3, pp. 1955-1960 (IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, San Francisco, CA, 1993).
  8. S. N. Torres, E. M. Vera, R. A. Reeves, and S. K. Sobarzo, "Adaptive Scene-Based Nonuniformity Correction Method for Infrared Focal Plane Arrays," in SPIE Conference on Infrared Imaging Systems: Design Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XIV, vol. 5076 (Orlando, Florida, 2003).
  9. E. M. Vera and S. N. Torres, "Fast Adaptive Nonuniformity Correction for Infrared Focal-Plane Array Detectors," EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 13, 1994-2004 (2005).
  10. B. Narayanan, R. C. Hardie, and R. A. Muse, "Scene-based nonuniformity correction technique that exploits knowledge of the focal-plane array readout architecture," Appl. Opt. 44(17), 3482-3491 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. C. Hardie, M. M. Hayat, E. E. Armstrong, and B. J. Yasuda, "Scene-based Nonuniformity Correction with Video Sequences and Registration," Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1241-1250 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. M. Ratliff, M. M. Hayat, and R. C. Hardie, "An Algebraic Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal Plane Arrays," J.Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(9), 1737-1747 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. C. Hardie and D. R. Droege, "A MAP Estimator for Simultaneous Super-Resolution and Detector Nonuniformity Correction," EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, Article ID 893542007 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

R. C. Hardie and D. R. Droege, "A MAP Estimator for Simultaneous Super-Resolution and Detector Nonuniformity Correction," EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, Article ID 893542007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. M. Vera and S. N. Torres, "Fast Adaptive Nonuniformity Correction for Infrared Focal-Plane Array Detectors," EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 13, 1994-2004 (2005).

B. Narayanan, R. C. Hardie, and R. A. Muse, "Scene-based nonuniformity correction technique that exploits knowledge of the focal-plane array readout architecture," Appl. Opt. 44(17), 3482-3491 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

2000

R. C. Hardie, M. M. Hayat, E. E. Armstrong, and B. J. Yasuda, "Scene-based Nonuniformity Correction with Video Sequences and Registration," Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1241-1250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. M. Hayat, S. N. Torres, E. E. Armstrong, S. C. Cain, and B. J. Yasuda, "Statistical Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal-plane Arrays," Appl. Opt. 38(5), 772-780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. M. Chiang and J. G. Harris, "An Analog Integrated Circuit for Continuous-time Gain and Offset Calibration of Sensor Arrays," J. Analog Integrated Circuits Signal Proc. 12, 231-238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of non-uniformity on infrared focal plane arrays performance," Opt. Eng. 24(5), 855-862 (1985).

Armstrong, E. E.

R. C. Hardie, M. M. Hayat, E. E. Armstrong, and B. J. Yasuda, "Scene-based Nonuniformity Correction with Video Sequences and Registration," Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1241-1250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hayat, S. N. Torres, E. E. Armstrong, S. C. Cain, and B. J. Yasuda, "Statistical Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal-plane Arrays," Appl. Opt. 38(5), 772-780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barone, F. R.

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of non-uniformity on infrared focal plane arrays performance," Opt. Eng. 24(5), 855-862 (1985).

Cain, S. C.

M. M. Hayat, S. N. Torres, E. E. Armstrong, S. C. Cain, and B. J. Yasuda, "Statistical Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal-plane Arrays," Appl. Opt. 38(5), 772-780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, Y. M.

Y. M. Chiang and J. G. Harris, "An Analog Integrated Circuit for Continuous-time Gain and Offset Calibration of Sensor Arrays," J. Analog Integrated Circuits Signal Proc. 12, 231-238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Droege, D. R.

R. C. Hardie and D. R. Droege, "A MAP Estimator for Simultaneous Super-Resolution and Detector Nonuniformity Correction," EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, Article ID 893542007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hardie, R. C.

R. C. Hardie and D. R. Droege, "A MAP Estimator for Simultaneous Super-Resolution and Detector Nonuniformity Correction," EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, Article ID 893542007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Narayanan, R. C. Hardie, and R. A. Muse, "Scene-based nonuniformity correction technique that exploits knowledge of the focal-plane array readout architecture," Appl. Opt. 44(17), 3482-3491 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Ratliff, M. M. Hayat, and R. C. Hardie, "An Algebraic Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal Plane Arrays," J.Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(9), 1737-1747 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hardie, M. M. Hayat, E. E. Armstrong, and B. J. Yasuda, "Scene-based Nonuniformity Correction with Video Sequences and Registration," Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1241-1250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. G.

Y. M. Chiang and J. G. Harris, "An Analog Integrated Circuit for Continuous-time Gain and Offset Calibration of Sensor Arrays," J. Analog Integrated Circuits Signal Proc. 12, 231-238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hayat, M. M.

S. N. Torres and M. M. Hayat, "Kalman Filtering for Adaptive Nonuniformity Correction in Infrared Focal Plane Arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(3), 470-480 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Ratliff, M. M. Hayat, and R. C. Hardie, "An Algebraic Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal Plane Arrays," J.Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(9), 1737-1747 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hardie, M. M. Hayat, E. E. Armstrong, and B. J. Yasuda, "Scene-based Nonuniformity Correction with Video Sequences and Registration," Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1241-1250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hayat, S. N. Torres, E. E. Armstrong, S. C. Cain, and B. J. Yasuda, "Statistical Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal-plane Arrays," Appl. Opt. 38(5), 772-780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kruer, M. R.

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of non-uniformity on infrared focal plane arrays performance," Opt. Eng. 24(5), 855-862 (1985).

Milton, A. F.

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of non-uniformity on infrared focal plane arrays performance," Opt. Eng. 24(5), 855-862 (1985).

Muse, R. A.

Narayanan, B.

Ratliff, B. M.

Torres, S. N.

E. M. Vera and S. N. Torres, "Fast Adaptive Nonuniformity Correction for Infrared Focal-Plane Array Detectors," EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 13, 1994-2004 (2005).

S. N. Torres and M. M. Hayat, "Kalman Filtering for Adaptive Nonuniformity Correction in Infrared Focal Plane Arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(3), 470-480 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hayat, S. N. Torres, E. E. Armstrong, S. C. Cain, and B. J. Yasuda, "Statistical Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal-plane Arrays," Appl. Opt. 38(5), 772-780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vera, E. M.

E. M. Vera and S. N. Torres, "Fast Adaptive Nonuniformity Correction for Infrared Focal-Plane Array Detectors," EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 13, 1994-2004 (2005).

Yasuda, B. J.

R. C. Hardie, M. M. Hayat, E. E. Armstrong, and B. J. Yasuda, "Scene-based Nonuniformity Correction with Video Sequences and Registration," Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1241-1250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hayat, S. N. Torres, E. E. Armstrong, S. C. Cain, and B. J. Yasuda, "Statistical Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal-plane Arrays," Appl. Opt. 38(5), 772-780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Applied Optics

R. C. Hardie, M. M. Hayat, E. E. Armstrong, and B. J. Yasuda, "Scene-based Nonuniformity Correction with Video Sequences and Registration," Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1241-1250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hayat, S. N. Torres, E. E. Armstrong, S. C. Cain, and B. J. Yasuda, "Statistical Algorithm for Nonuniformity Correction in Focal-plane Arrays," Appl. Opt. 38(5), 772-780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing

R. C. Hardie and D. R. Droege, "A MAP Estimator for Simultaneous Super-Resolution and Detector Nonuniformity Correction," EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, Article ID 893542007 (2007).
[CrossRef]

EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing

E. M. Vera and S. N. Torres, "Fast Adaptive Nonuniformity Correction for Infrared Focal-Plane Array Detectors," EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 13, 1994-2004 (2005).

J. Analog Integrated Circuits Signal Proc.

Y. M. Chiang and J. G. Harris, "An Analog Integrated Circuit for Continuous-time Gain and Offset Calibration of Sensor Arrays," J. Analog Integrated Circuits Signal Proc. 12, 231-238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, and M. R. Kruer, "Influence of non-uniformity on infrared focal plane arrays performance," Opt. Eng. 24(5), 855-862 (1985).

Other

J. G. Harris and Y.-M. Chiang, "Minimizing the Ghosting Artifact in Scene-Based Nonuniformity Correction," in SPIE Conference on Infrared Imaging Systems: Design Analysis, Modeling, and Testing IX, vol. 3377 (Orlando, Florida, 1998).

D. A. Scribner, K. A. Sarkady, M. R. Kruer, J. T. Caulfield, J. D. Hunt, and C. Herman, "Adaptive Nonuniformity Correction for IR Focal Plane Arrays using Neural Networks," in Proceedings of the SPIE: Infrared Sensors: Detectors, Electronics, and Signal Processing, T. S. Jayadev, ed., vol. 1541, pp. 100-109 (1991).

D. A. Scribner, K. A. Sarkady, M. R. Kruer, J. T. Caulfield, J. Hunt, M. Colbert, and M. Descour, "Adaptive Retina-like Preprocessing for Imaging Detector Arrays," vol. 3, pp. 1955-1960 (IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, San Francisco, CA, 1993).

S. N. Torres, E. M. Vera, R. A. Reeves, and S. K. Sobarzo, "Adaptive Scene-Based Nonuniformity Correction Method for Infrared Focal Plane Arrays," in SPIE Conference on Infrared Imaging Systems: Design Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XIV, vol. 5076 (Orlando, Florida, 2003).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Mean absolute error versus frame number for the various SBNUC algorithms using simulated nonuniformity data.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated nonuniformity image results (Media 1). (a) Uncorrupted image (b) image with simulated gain and bias nonuniformity (c) corrected using the gated CS method (d) corrected with LMS (e) corrected with adaptive LMS (f) corrected with proposed gated adaptive LMS.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absolute error images for (a) gated CS SBNUC (b) gated adaptive LMS SBNUC.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Infrared image results shown with unsharp masking enhancement. (a) Raw image with residual nonuniformity (b) CS method (c) gated CS method (d) LMS (e) adaptive LMS (f) gated adaptive LMS.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Corrected images using offset-only SBNUC shown with unsharp masking enhancement. (a) Gated CS (b) gated adaptive LMS.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Hysteresis MAD images for various SBNUC algorithms. (a) CS (MAD=89.26)(b) gated CS (MAD=59.60) (c) change and intensity gated CS (MAD=44.77) (d) LMS (MAD=26.56) (e) adaptive LMS (MAD=7.86) (f) gated adaptive LMS (MAD=7.36).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Hysteresis MAD images for offset-only SBNUC with (a) gated CS (MAD=58.82) (b) gated adaptive LMS (MAD=4.79).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Infrared image results with extreme pixel values. (a) Raw image. Corrected using the (b) CS method (c) gated CS method (d) change and intensity gated CS method (e) LMS (f) gated adaptive LMS.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Infrared image results with no prior black body correction. (a) Raw image with no black body correction (b) output after bias destriping correction (c) gated CS method (d) gated adaptive LMS.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Quantitative analysis of gated SBNUC method on real infrared imagery.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Yij(n)=αij(n)Xij(n)+bij(n)+ηij(n),
X̂ij(n)=ĝij(n)Yij(n)+ôij(n),
ĝij(n)=1 Ŝij (n),
ôij(n)=M̂ij(n)Ŝij(n),
M̂ij(n)={(1α)Yij(n)+αM̂ij(n1)Yij(n)Yij(n1)>TM̂ij(n1)otherwise ,
Ŝij(n)={(1α)Yij(n)M̂ij(n)+αŜij(n1)Yij(n)Yij(n1)>TŜij(n1)otherwise,
Eij(n)=X̂ij(n)Bij(n),
ĝij(n+1)=ĝij(n)εij(n)Eij(n)Yij(n),
ôij(n+1)=ôij(n)εij(n)Eij(n),
εij(n)=K1+M2σYij(n)2,
εij(n)={K1+M2σYij(n)2Bij(n)Zij(n)>T0else
Zij(n+1)={Bij(n)Bij(n)Zij(n)>TZij(n)else,
ρ=X̂*h1X̂1 ,

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