Abstract

Nanopatterned aluminum nitride (NP-AlN) templates were used to enhance the light extraction efficiency of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Here, the NP-AlN interlayer between the sapphire substrate and GaN-based LED was used as an effective light outcoupling layer at the direction of bottom side and as a buffer layer for growth of GaN LEDs. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the formation of stacking faults and voids could help reduce the threading dislocations. Micro Raman spectra also revealed that the GaN-based epilayer grown on the NP-AlN template had smaller residual stress than that grown on a planar sapphire substrate. The normalized electroluminescence (EL) spectra at the top and bottom sides of device revealed that the enhancement of the bottom side emission of the LED with the NP-AlN interlayer was more notable than a planar sapphire substrate due to the graded-refractive-index (GRIN) effect of the NP-AlN.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (5)

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, Yu. Peichen, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, and S. J. Cheng, “Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Sang, Z. X. Qin, H. Fang, T. Dai, Z. J. Yang, B. Shen, G. Y. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Reduction in threading dislocation densities in AlN epilayer by introducing a pulsed atomic-layer epitaxial buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Fabrication of nano-patterned sapphire substrates and their application to the improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(11), 115106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fisher, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-Y. Kang, E. Wu, and D.-M. Wang, “Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Lughi and D. R. Clarke, “Defect and stress characterization of AlN films by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Xiao, K. W. Kim, S. M. Bedair, and J. M. Zavada, “Design of white light-emitting diodes using InGaN/AlInGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 672–674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. K. Sheu, C. J. Pen, G. C. Chi, C. H. Kuo, L. W. Wu, C. Chen, H. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “White-light emission from InGaN-GaN multi quantum-well light-emitting diodes with Si and Zn codoped active well layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 450–452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Yu, H.-L. Liu, J.-J. Wu, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Peng, and Y.-F. Chen, “Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(12), 2791–2798 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, K. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, J. H. Song, and P. W. Yu, “Effect of buffer layers and stacking faults on the reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN overlayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(5), 2617 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi, “Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2439–2445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bedair, S. M.

D. Xiao, K. W. Kim, S. M. Bedair, and J. M. Zavada, “Design of white light-emitting diodes using InGaN/AlInGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 672–674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.

J. K. Sheu, C. J. Pen, G. C. Chi, C. H. Kuo, L. W. Wu, C. Chen, H. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “White-light emission from InGaN-GaN multi quantum-well light-emitting diodes with Si and Zn codoped active well layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 450–452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. L.

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, Yu. Peichen, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, and S. J. Cheng, “Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

J. K. Sheu, C. J. Pen, G. C. Chi, C. H. Kuo, L. W. Wu, C. Chen, H. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “White-light emission from InGaN-GaN multi quantum-well light-emitting diodes with Si and Zn codoped active well layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 450–452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Yu, H.-L. Liu, J.-J. Wu, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Peng, and Y.-F. Chen, “Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(12), 2791–2798 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-H.

C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Yu, H.-L. Liu, J.-J. Wu, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Peng, and Y.-F. Chen, “Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(12), 2791–2798 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-H.

C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Yu, H.-L. Liu, J.-J. Wu, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Peng, and Y.-F. Chen, “Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(12), 2791–2798 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-C.

C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Yu, H.-L. Liu, J.-J. Wu, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Peng, and Y.-F. Chen, “Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(12), 2791–2798 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-F.

C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Yu, H.-L. Liu, J.-J. Wu, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Peng, and Y.-F. Chen, “Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(12), 2791–2798 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, S. J.

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, Yu. Peichen, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, and S. J. Cheng, “Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, C. J. Pen, G. C. Chi, C. H. Kuo, L. W. Wu, C. Chen, H. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “White-light emission from InGaN-GaN multi quantum-well light-emitting diodes with Si and Zn codoped active well layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 450–452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W.-T.

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, Yu. Peichen, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, and S. J. Cheng, “Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, K. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, J. H. Song, and P. W. Yu, “Effect of buffer layers and stacking faults on the reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN overlayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(5), 2617 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, J.

Choi, J. H.

Chu, J. T.

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, D. R.

V. Lughi and D. R. Clarke, “Defect and stress characterization of AlN films by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, T.

L. W. Sang, Z. X. Qin, H. Fang, T. Dai, Z. J. Yang, B. Shen, G. Y. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Reduction in threading dislocation densities in AlN epilayer by introducing a pulsed atomic-layer epitaxial buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Demangeot, F.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Domnich, V.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dovidenko, K.

K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi, “Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2439–2445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fisher, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

L. W. Sang, Z. X. Qin, H. Fang, T. Dai, Z. J. Yang, B. Shen, G. Y. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Reduction in threading dislocation densities in AlN epilayer by introducing a pulsed atomic-layer epitaxial buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, A. M.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fisher, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fonstad, C. G.

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frandon, J.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Fabrication of nano-patterned sapphire substrates and their application to the improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(11), 115106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, K.-F.

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gogotsi, Y.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-W.

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imada, Y.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

Kang, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Kang, E. Wu, and D.-M. Wang, “Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, K. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, J. H. Song, and P. W. Yu, “Effect of buffer layers and stacking faults on the reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN overlayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(5), 2617 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. W.

D. Xiao, K. W. Kim, S. M. Bedair, and J. M. Zavada, “Design of white light-emitting diodes using InGaN/AlInGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 672–674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. K.

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuball, M.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

J. K. Sheu, C. J. Pen, G. C. Chi, C. H. Kuo, L. W. Wu, C. Chen, H. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “White-light emission from InGaN-GaN multi quantum-well light-emitting diodes with Si and Zn codoped active well layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 450–452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, Yu. Peichen, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, and S. J. Cheng, “Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. M.

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, Yu. Peichen, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, and S. J. Cheng, “Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, J. S.

Lee, J. Y.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, K. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, J. H. Song, and P. W. Yu, “Effect of buffer layers and stacking faults on the reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN overlayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(5), 2617 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Lee, K. D.

Lee, T.-X.

Lee, W.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fisher, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Li, J.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Fabrication of nano-patterned sapphire substrates and their application to the improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(11), 115106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, Yu. Peichen, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, and S. J. Cheng, “Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Limb, J.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fisher, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-L.

C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Yu, H.-L. Liu, J.-J. Wu, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Peng, and Y.-F. Chen, “Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(12), 2791–2798 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. P.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fisher, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, Yu. Peichen, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, and S. J. Cheng, “Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lughi, V.

V. Lughi and D. R. Clarke, “Defect and stress characterization of AlN films by Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mont, F. W.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Narayan, J.

K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi, “Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2439–2445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohuchi, Y.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okagawa, H.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oktyabrsky, S.

K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi, “Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2439–2445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peichen, Yu.

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, Yu. Peichen, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, and S. J. Cheng, “Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pen, C. J.

J. K. Sheu, C. J. Pen, G. C. Chi, C. H. Kuo, L. W. Wu, C. Chen, H. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “White-light emission from InGaN-GaN multi quantum-well light-emitting diodes with Si and Zn codoped active well layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 450–452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.-Y.

C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Yu, H.-L. Liu, J.-J. Wu, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Peng, and Y.-F. Chen, “Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(12), 2791–2798 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinquier, C.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, F. A.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fisher, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poxson, D. J.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Puech, P.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z. X.

L. W. Sang, Z. X. Qin, H. Fang, T. Dai, Z. J. Yang, B. Shen, G. Y. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Reduction in threading dislocation densities in AlN epilayer by introducing a pulsed atomic-layer epitaxial buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi, “Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(5), 2439–2445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J.-H.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fisher, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sang, L. W.

L. W. Sang, Z. X. Qin, H. Fang, T. Dai, Z. J. Yang, B. Shen, G. Y. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Reduction in threading dislocation densities in AlN epilayer by introducing a pulsed atomic-layer epitaxial buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, B.

L. W. Sang, Z. X. Qin, H. Fang, T. Dai, Z. J. Yang, B. Shen, G. Y. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Reduction in threading dislocation densities in AlN epilayer by introducing a pulsed atomic-layer epitaxial buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, C. J. Pen, G. C. Chi, C. H. Kuo, L. W. Wu, C. Chen, H. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “White-light emission from InGaN-GaN multi quantum-well light-emitting diodes with Si and Zn codoped active well layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 450–452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, K. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, J. H. Song, and P. W. Yu, “Effect of buffer layers and stacking faults on the reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN overlayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(5), 2617 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

J. K. Sheu, C. J. Pen, G. C. Chi, C. H. Kuo, L. W. Wu, C. Chen, H. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “White-light emission from InGaN-GaN multi quantum-well light-emitting diodes with Si and Zn codoped active well layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 450–452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-C.

Tadatomo, K.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekawa, T.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.-M.

D.-Y. Kang, E. Wu, and D.-M. Wang, “Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Fabrication of nano-patterned sapphire substrates and their application to the improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(11), 115106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, Yu. Peichen, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, and S. J. Cheng, “Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. D.

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

D.-Y. Kang, E. Wu, and D.-M. Wang, “Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 231102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.-J.

C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Yu, H.-L. Liu, J.-J. Wu, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Peng, and Y.-F. Chen, “Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(12), 2791–2798 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L. W.

J. K. Sheu, C. J. Pen, G. C. Chi, C. H. Kuo, L. W. Wu, C. Chen, H. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “White-light emission from InGaN-GaN multi quantum-well light-emitting diodes with Si and Zn codoped active well layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 450–452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. H.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fisher, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, D.

D. Xiao, K. W. Kim, S. M. Bedair, and J. M. Zavada, “Design of white light-emitting diodes using InGaN/AlInGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(5), 672–674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

L. W. Sang, Z. X. Qin, H. Fang, T. Dai, Z. J. Yang, B. Shen, G. Y. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Reduction in threading dislocation densities in AlN epilayer by introducing a pulsed atomic-layer epitaxial buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Fabrication of nano-patterned sapphire substrates and their application to the improvement of the performance of GaN-based LEDs,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(11), 115106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, K. S. Kim, G. M. Yang, J. H. Song, and P. W. Yu, “Effect of buffer layers and stacking faults on the reduction of threading dislocation density in GaN overlayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(5), 2617 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. J.

L. W. Sang, Z. X. Qin, H. Fang, T. Dai, Z. J. Yang, B. Shen, G. Y. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Reduction in threading dislocation densities in AlN epilayer by introducing a pulsed atomic-layer epitaxial buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.-C.

C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Yu, H.-L. Liu, J.-J. Wu, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Peng, and Y.-F. Chen, “Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(12), 2791–2798 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, H. H.

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, Yu. Peichen, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, and S. J. Cheng, “Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, D.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fisher, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. C.

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D. P.

L. W. Sang, Z. X. Qin, H. Fang, T. Dai, Z. J. Yang, B. Shen, G. Y. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, J. Xu, and D. P. Yu, “Reduction in threading dislocation densities in AlN epilayer by introducing a pulsed atomic-layer epitaxial buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.-Y.

C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Chen, M.-Y. Yu, H.-L. Liu, J.-J. Wu, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, J.-Y. Peng, and Y.-F. Chen, “Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(12), 2791–2798 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, P. W.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of process flow with corresponding SEM images: (a) 300 nm-thick AlN film grown on a c-face (0001) sapphire substrate, (b) fabrication of nanoscale patterns for etching masks through a bi-layer resist structure using nanoimprint lithography, (c) NP-AlN with a diameter of 500 nm, a pitch of 700 nm, and a depth of 300 nm, and (d) the blue LED grown on the NP-AlN substrate using an MOCVD system. The left SEM images are tilt view and right SEM images are cross-sectional view of (a), (b), and (c). In the case of (d), the left image is the cross-sectional view and the corresponding magnified image (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional TEM images of the GaN epilayer grown (a) on a planar sapphire substrate and (b) on the NP-AlN template. The insets show the high-magnification images.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Representative bright field TEM image and (b) the corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. (c) Bright field TEM image of a GaN on the NP-AlN and (d) high-resolution image of the red dotted box in (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Room-temperature Raman spectra of a GaN layer grown on a planar sapphire substrate and the NP-AlN. The inset shows an enlarged view of the spectral region at the E2 (high) optical phonon mode of the GaN epilayer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The EL spectra of LEDs with and without the NP-AlN interlayer measured using the (a) top and (b) bottom photodiode detector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3D-FDTD simulation results of light propagation of LEDs (a) with and (b) without the NP-AlN interlayer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Room-temperature L–I–V characteristics and (b) EL peak energy as a function of injection current for LEDs with and without the NP-AlN interlayer.

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