Abstract

We present a wide-field method for obtaining three-dimensional images of turbid media. By projecting patterns of light of varying spatial frequencies on a sample, we reconstruct quantitative, depth resolved images of absorption contrast. Images are reconstructed using a fast analytic inversion formula and a novel correction to the diffusion approximation for increased accuracy near boundaries. The method provides more accurate quantification of optical absorption and higher resolution than standard diffuse reflectance measurements.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  2. B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  4. V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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  23. H. P. Tuan, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).
  24. B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 38(13), 2950–2961 (1999).
  25. J. C. Schotland and V. A. Markel, “Fourier-Laplace structure of the inverse scattering problem for the radiative transport equation,” Inverse Problems and Imaging 1, 147–154 (2007).
  26. G. Y. Panasyuk, J. C. Schotland, and V. A. Markel, “Radiative Transport Equation in Rotated Reference Frames,” J. Phys. A 39(1), 115–137 (2006).
  27. V. A. Markel, “Modified spherical hamonics method for solving the radiative transport equation,” Waves Random Media 14(1), L13–L19 (2004).

2009

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[PubMed]

D. Abookasis, C. C. Lay, M. S. Mathews, M. E. Linskey, R. D. Frostig, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cortical absorption, scattering, and hemodynamic response during ischemic stroke using spatially modulated near-infrared illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024033 (2009).
[PubMed]

V. Lukic, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography with structured illumination,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 983–985 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008

2007

J. C. Schotland and V. A. Markel, “Fourier-Laplace structure of the inverse scattering problem for the radiative transport equation,” Inverse Problems and Imaging 1, 147–154 (2007).

2006

G. Y. Panasyuk, J. C. Schotland, and V. A. Markel, “Radiative Transport Equation in Rotated Reference Frames,” J. Phys. A 39(1), 115–137 (2006).

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, K. Hwang, J. C. Rasmussen, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fully adaptive FEM based fluorescence optical tomography from time-dependent measurements with area illumination and detection,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1299–1310 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005

Z. M. Wang, G. Y. Panasyuk, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Experimental demonstration of an analytic method for image reconstruction in optical diffusion tomography with large data sets,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3338–3340 (2005).

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[PubMed]

G. Y. Panasyuk, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Superresolution and corrections to the diffusion approximation in optical tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101111 (2005).

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004

V. A. Markel, “Modified spherical hamonics method for solving the radiative transport equation,” Waves Random Media 14(1), L13–L19 (2004).

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Symmetries, inversion formulas, and image reconstruction for optical tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 056616 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003

2002

2001

2000

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broadband absorption spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady-state methods,” Appl. Opt. 39(34), 6498–6507 (2000).

H. P. Tuan, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).

1999

Abookasis, D.

D. Abookasis, C. C. Lay, M. S. Mathews, M. E. Linskey, R. D. Frostig, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cortical absorption, scattering, and hemodynamic response during ischemic stroke using spatially modulated near-infrared illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024033 (2009).
[PubMed]

Anderson, E.

H. P. Tuan, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).

Arridge, S.

Arridge, S. R.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[PubMed]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bangerth, W.

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, K. Hwang, J. C. Rasmussen, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fully adaptive FEM based fluorescence optical tomography from time-dependent measurements with area illumination and detection,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1299–1310 (2006).
[PubMed]

Bassi, A.

Berger, A. J.

Bevilacqua, F.

Boas, D. A.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
[PubMed]

Cerussi, A. E.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
[PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broadband absorption spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady-state methods,” Appl. Opt. 39(34), 6498–6507 (2000).

Coquoz, O.

H. P. Tuan, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).

Cubeddu, R.

Cuccia, D. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. in press.

D’Andrea, C.

Durkin, A. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. in press.

Fishkin, J. B.

H. P. Tuan, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).

Frostig, R. D.

D. Abookasis, C. C. Lay, M. S. Mathews, M. E. Linskey, R. D. Frostig, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cortical absorption, scattering, and hemodynamic response during ischemic stroke using spatially modulated near-infrared illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024033 (2009).
[PubMed]

Gibson, A. P.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, “Advances in optical imaging of the newborn infant brain,” Psychophysiology 40(4), 501–510 (2003).
[PubMed]

Hwang, K.

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, K. Hwang, J. C. Rasmussen, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fully adaptive FEM based fluorescence optical tomography from time-dependent measurements with area illumination and detection,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1299–1310 (2006).
[PubMed]

Jakubowski, D.

Joshi, A.

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, K. Hwang, J. C. Rasmussen, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fully adaptive FEM based fluorescence optical tomography from time-dependent measurements with area illumination and detection,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1299–1310 (2006).
[PubMed]

Konecky, S. D.

Lay, C. C.

D. Abookasis, C. C. Lay, M. S. Mathews, M. E. Linskey, R. D. Frostig, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cortical absorption, scattering, and hemodynamic response during ischemic stroke using spatially modulated near-infrared illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024033 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lee, K.

Linskey, M. E.

D. Abookasis, C. C. Lay, M. S. Mathews, M. E. Linskey, R. D. Frostig, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cortical absorption, scattering, and hemodynamic response during ischemic stroke using spatially modulated near-infrared illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024033 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lukic, V.

Markel, V.

Markel, V. A.

V. Lukic, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography with structured illumination,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 983–985 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. C. Schotland and V. A. Markel, “Fourier-Laplace structure of the inverse scattering problem for the radiative transport equation,” Inverse Problems and Imaging 1, 147–154 (2007).

G. Y. Panasyuk, J. C. Schotland, and V. A. Markel, “Radiative Transport Equation in Rotated Reference Frames,” J. Phys. A 39(1), 115–137 (2006).

Z. M. Wang, G. Y. Panasyuk, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Experimental demonstration of an analytic method for image reconstruction in optical diffusion tomography with large data sets,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3338–3340 (2005).

G. Y. Panasyuk, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Superresolution and corrections to the diffusion approximation in optical tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101111 (2005).

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Symmetries, inversion formulas, and image reconstruction for optical tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 056616 (2004).
[PubMed]

V. A. Markel, “Modified spherical hamonics method for solving the radiative transport equation,” Waves Random Media 14(1), L13–L19 (2004).

V. A. Markel, V. Mital, and J. C. Schotland, “Inverse problem in optical diffusion tomography. III. Inversion formulas and singular-value decomposition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(5), 890–902 (2003).

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Inverse problem in optical diffusion tomography. II. Role of boundary conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(3), 558–566 (2002).

J. C. Schotland and V. A. Markel, “Inverse scattering with diffusing waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(11), 2767–2777 (2001).

Mathews, M. S.

D. Abookasis, C. C. Lay, M. S. Mathews, M. E. Linskey, R. D. Frostig, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cortical absorption, scattering, and hemodynamic response during ischemic stroke using spatially modulated near-infrared illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024033 (2009).
[PubMed]

McBride, T. O.

Mital, V.

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

Osterberg, U. L.

Panasyuk, G. Y.

S. D. Konecky, G. Y. Panasyuk, K. Lee, V. Markel, A. G. Yodh, and J. C. Schotland, “Imaging complex structures with diffuse light,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5048–5060 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. Y. Panasyuk, J. C. Schotland, and V. A. Markel, “Radiative Transport Equation in Rotated Reference Frames,” J. Phys. A 39(1), 115–137 (2006).

Z. M. Wang, G. Y. Panasyuk, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Experimental demonstration of an analytic method for image reconstruction in optical diffusion tomography with large data sets,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3338–3340 (2005).

G. Y. Panasyuk, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Superresolution and corrections to the diffusion approximation in optical tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101111 (2005).

Paulsen, K. D.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
[PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 38(13), 2950–2961 (1999).

Pogue, B. W.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
[PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, J. Prewitt, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Spatially variant regularization improves diffuse optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 38(13), 2950–2961 (1999).

Prewitt, J.

Rasmussen, J. C.

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, K. Hwang, J. C. Rasmussen, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fully adaptive FEM based fluorescence optical tomography from time-dependent measurements with area illumination and detection,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1299–1310 (2006).
[PubMed]

Ripoll, J.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

Schotland, J. C.

V. Lukic, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography with structured illumination,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 983–985 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. D. Konecky, G. Y. Panasyuk, K. Lee, V. Markel, A. G. Yodh, and J. C. Schotland, “Imaging complex structures with diffuse light,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5048–5060 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. C. Schotland and V. A. Markel, “Fourier-Laplace structure of the inverse scattering problem for the radiative transport equation,” Inverse Problems and Imaging 1, 147–154 (2007).

G. Y. Panasyuk, J. C. Schotland, and V. A. Markel, “Radiative Transport Equation in Rotated Reference Frames,” J. Phys. A 39(1), 115–137 (2006).

Z. M. Wang, G. Y. Panasyuk, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Experimental demonstration of an analytic method for image reconstruction in optical diffusion tomography with large data sets,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3338–3340 (2005).

G. Y. Panasyuk, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Superresolution and corrections to the diffusion approximation in optical tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101111 (2005).

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Symmetries, inversion formulas, and image reconstruction for optical tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 056616 (2004).
[PubMed]

V. A. Markel, V. Mital, and J. C. Schotland, “Inverse problem in optical diffusion tomography. III. Inversion formulas and singular-value decomposition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(5), 890–902 (2003).

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Inverse problem in optical diffusion tomography. II. Role of boundary conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(3), 558–566 (2002).

J. C. Schotland and V. A. Markel, “Inverse scattering with diffusing waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(11), 2767–2777 (2001).

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, K. Hwang, J. C. Rasmussen, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fully adaptive FEM based fluorescence optical tomography from time-dependent measurements with area illumination and detection,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1299–1310 (2006).
[PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

D. Abookasis, C. C. Lay, M. S. Mathews, M. E. Linskey, R. D. Frostig, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cortical absorption, scattering, and hemodynamic response during ischemic stroke using spatially modulated near-infrared illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024033 (2009).
[PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
[PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Berger, A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broadband absorption spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady-state methods,” Appl. Opt. 39(34), 6498–6507 (2000).

H. P. Tuan, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. in press.

Tuan, H. P.

H. P. Tuan, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).

Valentini, G.

Wang, L. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

Wang, Z. M.

Weber, J. R.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. in press.

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. D. Konecky, G. Y. Panasyuk, K. Lee, V. Markel, A. G. Yodh, and J. C. Schotland, “Imaging complex structures with diffuse light,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5048–5060 (2008).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Y. Panasyuk, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Superresolution and corrections to the diffusion approximation in optical tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 101111 (2005).

Inverse Problems and Imaging

J. C. Schotland and V. A. Markel, “Fourier-Laplace structure of the inverse scattering problem for the radiative transport equation,” Inverse Problems and Imaging 1, 147–154 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. in press.

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[PubMed]

D. Abookasis, C. C. Lay, M. S. Mathews, M. E. Linskey, R. D. Frostig, and B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cortical absorption, scattering, and hemodynamic response during ischemic stroke using spatially modulated near-infrared illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024033 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. A

G. Y. Panasyuk, J. C. Schotland, and V. A. Markel, “Radiative Transport Equation in Rotated Reference Frames,” J. Phys. A 39(1), 115–137 (2006).

Med. Phys.

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, K. Hwang, J. C. Rasmussen, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fully adaptive FEM based fluorescence optical tomography from time-dependent measurements with area illumination and detection,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1299–1310 (2006).
[PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, “Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2443–2451 (2008).
[PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(3), 313–320 (2005).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(4), R1–R43 (2005).
[PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Symmetries, inversion formulas, and image reconstruction for optical tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 056616 (2004).
[PubMed]

Psychophysiology

J. C. Hebden, “Advances in optical imaging of the newborn infant brain,” Psychophysiology 40(4), 501–510 (2003).
[PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

H. P. Tuan, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, “Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(6), 2500–2513 (2000).

Waves Random Media

V. A. Markel, “Modified spherical hamonics method for solving the radiative transport equation,” Waves Random Media 14(1), L13–L19 (2004).

Other

D. J. Cuccia, D. Abookasis, R. D. Frostig, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative in vivo imaging of tissue absorption, scattering, and hemoglobin concentration in rat cortex using spatially-modulated structured light,” in In Vivo Optical Imaging of Brain Function, 2nd ed., R. D. Frostig, ed. (CRC, 2009).

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http://www.bli.uci.edu/ntroi/phantoms.php , retrieved April 24th, 2009.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. Broadband light from a lamp is projected on the sample using a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and detected at discrete wavelengths using a liquid crystal tunable filter and CCD. Crossed polarizers eliminate specular reflections.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of a reconstructed image of a single absorbing tube located 3 mm below the surface of a tissue simulating phantom. (a) Schematic of the tissue simulating phantom. (b) Volume rendering of the three-dimensional reconstructed image. (c) Slices through the reconstructed image at depths of d = 1-5 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Line profiles of the reconstructed images of a single absorbing tube at depths of (a) 2mm and (b) 3 mm. Solid line corresponds to tomographic reconstruction, and dotted lines correspond to pixel by pixel fitting to a homogeneous model. Curves are normalized to facilitate comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of tissue simulating phantom with four absorbing tubes located at a depth of z0 = 2 mm, and with lateral separations of d1 = 5 mm, d2 = 4 mm, and d3 = 3 mm. (b) Image and line profile of the reconstructed image using the tomographic method. (c) Image and line profile of the image produced by fitting to a homogeneous model.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of measured (reconstructed) vs. expected (known) contrast for absorbing tubes whose contrast ranged from 3:1 to 100:1 at depths of (a,b) 2 mm and (c,d) 3 mm. The tomographic method was used in (a) and (c), whereas (b) and (d) were calculated by fitting to a homogeneous model. Error bars denote the standard deviation of voxels within a region of interest (see text). The dotted line represents the known value.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Depth profiles of the three-dimensional images. For clarity only contrasts of 5x (dashed line), 10x (dash-dot line), 20x (dotted line), 30x (solid line with dots), and 50x (solid line) are shown. The grey area corresponds to the range in depth were the maximum values of absorption occur.

Equations (18)

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s^I(r,s^)+(μa+μs)I(r,s^)μsd2s'A(s^,s^')I(r,s^')=S(r,s^)  .
I(r,s^)=c4πΦ(r)+34πJs^  .
G(r,s^,r',s^')=c4π(1+s^r)(1s^'r')G(r,r') ,
[D+ cμa] G(r,r') = δ(rr') ,
G(r,r')+n^G(r,r')=0  .
G(r,r')=1(2π)2d2q g(q,z,z')exp[i(q(ρ'ρ))] ,
g(q,z,z')=Dexp[Q(q)|zz'|]Q(q)+1
φ(k,rd,s^d)=d3r d2s I(r,s^) G(r,s^,rd,s^d) δμa(r) ,
I(r,s^)=d3r'd2s' G(r',s^',r,s^)S(r',s^')  .
S(r,s^)=I0exp(ikρ)δ(z)δ(s^+n^)  .
φ(k,ρd)=c I04π(1+)2d3r K(k,ρd;r) c δμa(r) ,
K(k,ρd;r)=1(2π)2d2q κ(k,q;z) exp[i(kq)ρ+iqρd] ,
κ(k,q;z)=(D)2[123(kq+Q(k)Q(q))]exp[(Q(k)+Q(q)) z](Q(k)+1)(Q(q)+1)  .
S(k,ρ,θ)=I02(1+Mcos(kρ+θ)) δ(z) δ(s^+n^)  .
Itot=13(2I2I1I3)+i3(I1I3)  .
A=23{(I1I2)2+(I2I3)2+(I3I1)2}1/2 ,
ϕ=tan1{3(I1I3)/(2I2I1I3)}  .
φRytov=Itot(0){log(A/A(0))+i(ϕϕ(0))}  .

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