Abstract

Upconversion luminescence from erbium ions placed in the near field of subwavelength aperture arrays is used to investigate field enhancement of incident near-infrared light in such nanostructures. We study field enhancement due to the excitation of both propagating and localized surface plasmon resonances in arrays of square and annular apertures in a Au film. The conversion of 1480 nm excitation light to 980 nm emission is shown to be enhanced up to a factor 450 through a subwavelength hole array. The effects of array periodicity and aperture size are investigated. It is shown that a Fano model can describe both far-field transmission and near-field intensity. The upconversion enhancement reveals the wavelength and linewidth of the surface plasmon modes that are responsible for extraordinary transmission in such arrays. Angle-dependent measurements on annular aperture arrays prove that the field enhancement due to localized resonances is independent of the incident angle. These experiments provide insight in the mechanisms responsible for extraordinary transmission and are important for applications that aim to exploit near-field enhancement in nanostructured metal films.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391(6668), 667-669 (1998).
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  4. A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4(10), 2015-2018 (2004).
  5. M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Hangyo, T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, "Effect of a thin dielectric layer on terahertz transmission characteristics for metal hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1210-1212 (2005).
  6. Y. Liu and S. Blair, "Fluorescence enhancement from an array of subwavelength metal apertures," Opt. Lett. 28(7), 507-509 (2003).
  7. A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. D. Cooper, M. G. Moffitt, C.-W. Wang, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface Plasmon-Quantum Dot Coupling from Arrays of Nanoholes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(16), 8307-8313 (2006).
  8. M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S118-S123 (2005).
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  10. W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second Harmonic Generation from a Nanopatterned Isotropic Nonlinear Material," Nano Lett. 6(5), 1027-1030 (2006).
  11. W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Second harmonic generation from patterned GaAs inside a subwavelength metallic hole array," Opt. Express 14(21), 9570-9575 (2006).
  12. P. Lalanne, J. C. Rodier, and J. P. Hugonin, "Surface plasmons of metallic surfaces perforated by nanohole arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), 422-426 (2005).
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  14. F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Mart’?n-Moreno, "Transmission of Light through a Single Rectangular Hole," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
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  18. F. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79(1), 1-8 (2004).
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  20. F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, D. Van Labeke, and O. Lamrous, "Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes," Phys. Rev. B 74(20) (2006).
  21. M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Enhanced transmission with coaxial nanoapertures: Role of cylindrical surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 74(23) (2006).
  22. D. Van Labeke, D. Gérard, B. Guizal, F. I. Baida, and L. Li, "An angle-independent Frequency Selective Surface in the optical range," Opt. Express 14(25), 11945-11951 (2006).
  23. F. Auzel, "Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids," Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139-174 (2004).
  24. G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, "Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 79(3), 1258-1266 (1996).
  25. W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(2), 204-206 (2000).
  26. E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, "Semiconductorlaser-pumped high-power upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6) (2006).
  27. T. Lu, L. Yang, R. V. A. van Loon, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, "On-chip green silica upconversion microlaser," Opt. Lett. 34(4), 482-484 (2009).
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  29. S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-k. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In Vivo and Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Upconverting Nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6(2), 169-174 (2006).
  30. T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. W¨urfel, "Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light," J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117-4122 (2002).
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  32. S. Baluschev, F. Yu, T. Miteva, S. Ahl, A. Yasuda, G. Nelles, W. Knoll, and G. Wegner, "Metal-Enhanced Up-Conversion Fluorescence: Effective Triplet-Triplet Annihilation near Silver Surface," Nano Lett. 5(12), 2482-2484 (2005).
  33. T. Aisaka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Enhancement of upconversion luminescence of Er doped Al2O3v films by Ag island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13) (2008).
  34. V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, D. M. da Silva, and R.  A. Kobayashi, "Surface plasmon-enhanced frequency upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurium-oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 103(9) (2008).
  35. URL: www.srim.org.
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  37. A. Moreau, G. Granet, F. Baida, and D. V. Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength square coaxial aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Express 11(10), 1131-1136 (2003).
  38. J. Kalkman, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, and H. Gersen, "Coupling of Er ions to surface plasmons on Ag," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041113 (2005).
  39. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
  40. W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  41. K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316-4318 (2004).
  42. U. Fano, "Effects of Configuration Interaction on Intensities and Phase Shifts," Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1866-1878 (1961).
  43. M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, "Role ofWood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).
  44. C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331 - 336 (2003).
  45. H. A. Bethe, "Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes," Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163-182 (1944).

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

F. Hallermann, C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, G. Seifert, S. Wackerow, H. Graener, G. v. Plessen, and F. Lederer, "On the use of localized plasmon polaritons in solar cells," Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2844-2861 (2008).

T. Aisaka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Enhancement of upconversion luminescence of Er doped Al2O3v films by Ag island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13) (2008).

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, D. M. da Silva, and R.  A. Kobayashi, "Surface plasmon-enhanced frequency upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurium-oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 103(9) (2008).

2007 (2)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445(7123), 39-46 (2007).

F. J. García de Abajo, "Colloquium: Light scattering by particle and hole arrays," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(4) (2007).

2006 (10)

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second Harmonic Generation from a Nanopatterned Isotropic Nonlinear Material," Nano Lett. 6(5), 1027-1030 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Second harmonic generation from patterned GaAs inside a subwavelength metallic hole array," Opt. Express 14(21), 9570-9575 (2006).

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. D. Cooper, M. G. Moffitt, C.-W. Wang, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface Plasmon-Quantum Dot Coupling from Arrays of Nanoholes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(16), 8307-8313 (2006).

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-k. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In Vivo and Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Upconverting Nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6(2), 169-174 (2006).

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, "Semiconductorlaser-pumped high-power upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6) (2006).

S. M. Orbons and A. Roberts, "Resonance and extraordinary transmission in annular aperture arrays," Opt. Express 14(26), 12623-12628 (2006).

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, D. Van Labeke, and O. Lamrous, "Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes," Phys. Rev. B 74(20) (2006).

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Enhanced transmission with coaxial nanoapertures: Role of cylindrical surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 74(23) (2006).

D. Van Labeke, D. Gérard, B. Guizal, F. I. Baida, and L. Li, "An angle-independent Frequency Selective Surface in the optical range," Opt. Express 14(25), 11945-11951 (2006).

2005 (7)

S. Baluschev, F. Yu, T. Miteva, S. Ahl, A. Yasuda, G. Nelles, W. Knoll, and G. Wegner, "Metal-Enhanced Up-Conversion Fluorescence: Effective Triplet-Triplet Annihilation near Silver Surface," Nano Lett. 5(12), 2482-2484 (2005).

J. Kalkman, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, and H. Gersen, "Coupling of Er ions to surface plasmons on Ag," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041113 (2005).

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S118-S123 (2005).

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Mart’?n-Moreno, "Transmission of Light through a Single Rectangular Hole," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced Infrared Transmission through Subwavelength Coaxial Metallic Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).

P. Lalanne, J. C. Rodier, and J. P. Hugonin, "Surface plasmons of metallic surfaces perforated by nanohole arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), 422-426 (2005).

M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Hangyo, T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, "Effect of a thin dielectric layer on terahertz transmission characteristics for metal hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1210-1212 (2005).

2004 (6)

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4(10), 2015-2018 (2004).

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).

F. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79(1), 1-8 (2004).

F. Auzel, "Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids," Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139-174 (2004).

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[PubMed]

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316-4318 (2004).

2003 (5)

M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, "Role ofWood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331 - 336 (2003).

A. Moreau, G. Granet, F. Baida, and D. V. Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength square coaxial aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Express 11(10), 1131-1136 (2003).

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Three-dimensional structures for enhanced transmission through a metallic film: Annular aperture arrays," Phys. Rev. B 67(15), 155314 (2003).

Y. Liu and S. Blair, "Fluorescence enhancement from an array of subwavelength metal apertures," Opt. Lett. 28(7), 507-509 (2003).

2002 (2)

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. W¨urfel, "Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light," J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117-4122 (2002).

2000 (1)

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(2), 204-206 (2000).

1998 (2)

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391(6668), 667-669 (1998).

1996 (2)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273(5279), 1185-1189 (1996).

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, "Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 79(3), 1258-1266 (1996).

1993 (1)

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J.W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, "Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(24), 3065-3067 (1993).

1961 (1)

U. Fano, "Effects of Configuration Interaction on Intensities and Phase Shifts," Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1866-1878 (1961).

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes," Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163-182 (1944).

Abdenour, A.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second Harmonic Generation from a Nanopatterned Isotropic Nonlinear Material," Nano Lett. 6(5), 1027-1030 (2006).

Ahl, S.

S. Baluschev, F. Yu, T. Miteva, S. Ahl, A. Yasuda, G. Nelles, W. Knoll, and G. Wegner, "Metal-Enhanced Up-Conversion Fluorescence: Effective Triplet-Triplet Annihilation near Silver Surface," Nano Lett. 5(12), 2482-2484 (2005).

Airola, M.

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S118-S123 (2005).

Aisaka, T.

T. Aisaka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Enhancement of upconversion luminescence of Er doped Al2O3v films by Ag island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13) (2008).

Akazawa, M.

Arctander, E.

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4(10), 2015-2018 (2004).

Austin, R. H.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-k. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In Vivo and Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Upconverting Nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6(2), 169-174 (2006).

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, "Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids," Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139-174 (2004).

Baida, F.

F. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79(1), 1-8 (2004).

A. Moreau, G. Granet, F. Baida, and D. V. Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength square coaxial aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Express 11(10), 1131-1136 (2003).

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, D. Van Labeke, and O. Lamrous, "Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes," Phys. Rev. B 74(20) (2006).

D. Van Labeke, D. Gérard, B. Guizal, F. I. Baida, and L. Li, "An angle-independent Frequency Selective Surface in the optical range," Opt. Express 14(25), 11945-11951 (2006).

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Three-dimensional structures for enhanced transmission through a metallic film: Annular aperture arrays," Phys. Rev. B 67(15), 155314 (2003).

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).

Baluschev, S.

S. Baluschev, F. Yu, T. Miteva, S. Ahl, A. Yasuda, G. Nelles, W. Knoll, and G. Wegner, "Metal-Enhanced Up-Conversion Fluorescence: Effective Triplet-Triplet Annihilation near Silver Surface," Nano Lett. 5(12), 2482-2484 (2005).

Bär, S.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, "Semiconductorlaser-pumped high-power upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6) (2006).

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[PubMed]

Belkhir, A.

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, D. Van Labeke, and O. Lamrous, "Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes," Phys. Rev. B 74(20) (2006).

F. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79(1), 1-8 (2004).

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes," Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163-182 (1944).

Blair, S.

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S118-S123 (2005).

Y. Liu and S. Blair, "Fluorescence enhancement from an array of subwavelength metal apertures," Opt. Lett. 28(7), 507-509 (2003).

Blumberg, G.

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Enhanced transmission with coaxial nanoapertures: Role of cylindrical surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 74(23) (2006).

Brolo, A. G.

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. D. Cooper, M. G. Moffitt, C.-W. Wang, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface Plasmon-Quantum Dot Coupling from Arrays of Nanoholes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(16), 8307-8313 (2006).

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4(10), 2015-2018 (2004).

Brueck, S. R. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second Harmonic Generation from a Nanopatterned Isotropic Nonlinear Material," Nano Lett. 6(5), 1027-1030 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Second harmonic generation from patterned GaAs inside a subwavelength metallic hole array," Opt. Express 14(21), 9570-9575 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced Infrared Transmission through Subwavelength Coaxial Metallic Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).

Butterworth, S.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, "Semiconductorlaser-pumped high-power upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6) (2006).

Cooper, M. D.

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. D. Cooper, M. G. Moffitt, C.-W. Wang, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface Plasmon-Quantum Dot Coupling from Arrays of Nanoholes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(16), 8307-8313 (2006).

da Silva, D. M.

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, D. M. da Silva, and R.  A. Kobayashi, "Surface plasmon-enhanced frequency upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurium-oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 103(9) (2008).

de Araújo, C. B.

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, D. M. da Silva, and R.  A. Kobayashi, "Surface plasmon-enhanced frequency upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurium-oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 103(9) (2008).

de S. Menezes, L.

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, D. M. da Silva, and R.  A. Kobayashi, "Surface plasmon-enhanced frequency upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurium-oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 103(9) (2008).

Devaux, E.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[PubMed]

Diening, A.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, "Semiconductorlaser-pumped high-power upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6) (2006).

Dintinger, J.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[PubMed]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273(5279), 1185-1189 (1996).

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445(7123), 39-46 (2007).

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[PubMed]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391(6668), 667-669 (1998).

Enoch, S.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).

Fahr, S.

F. Hallermann, C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, G. Seifert, S. Wackerow, H. Graener, G. v. Plessen, and F. Lederer, "On the use of localized plasmon polaritons in solar cells," Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2844-2861 (2008).

Fan, W.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second Harmonic Generation from a Nanopatterned Isotropic Nonlinear Material," Nano Lett. 6(5), 1027-1030 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Second harmonic generation from patterned GaAs inside a subwavelength metallic hole array," Opt. Express 14(21), 9570-9575 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced Infrared Transmission through Subwavelength Coaxial Metallic Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).

Fano, U.

U. Fano, "Effects of Configuration Interaction on Intensities and Phase Shifts," Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1866-1878 (1961).

Fujii, M.

T. Aisaka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Enhancement of upconversion luminescence of Er doped Al2O3v films by Ag island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13) (2008).

García de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. García de Abajo, "Colloquium: Light scattering by particle and hole arrays," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(4) (2007).

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Mart’?n-Moreno, "Transmission of Light through a Single Rectangular Hole," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445(7123), 39-46 (2007).

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331 - 336 (2003).

Gérard, D.

Gersen, H.

J. Kalkman, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, and H. Gersen, "Coupling of Er ions to surface plasmons on Ag," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041113 (2005).

Ghaemi, H. F.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391(6668), 667-669 (1998).

Gordon, R.

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. D. Cooper, M. G. Moffitt, C.-W. Wang, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface Plasmon-Quantum Dot Coupling from Arrays of Nanoholes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(16), 8307-8313 (2006).

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4(10), 2015-2018 (2004).

Graener, H.

F. Hallermann, C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, G. Seifert, S. Wackerow, H. Graener, G. v. Plessen, and F. Lederer, "On the use of localized plasmon polaritons in solar cells," Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2844-2861 (2008).

Granet, G.

F. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79(1), 1-8 (2004).

A. Moreau, G. Granet, F. Baida, and D. V. Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength square coaxial aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Express 11(10), 1131-1136 (2003).

Green, M. A.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. W¨urfel, "Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light," J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117-4122 (2002).

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).

Guizal, B.

Haftel, M. I.

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Enhanced transmission with coaxial nanoapertures: Role of cylindrical surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 74(23) (2006).

Hallermann, F.

F. Hallermann, C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, G. Seifert, S. Wackerow, H. Graener, G. v. Plessen, and F. Lederer, "On the use of localized plasmon polaritons in solar cells," Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2844-2861 (2008).

Hangyo, M.

Hare, J.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(2), 204-206 (2000).

Harmsen, R. H.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).

Haroche, S.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(2), 204-206 (2000).

Hayashi, S.

T. Aisaka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Enhancement of upconversion luminescence of Er doped Al2O3v films by Ag island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13) (2008).

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273(5279), 1185-1189 (1996).

Heumann, E.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, "Semiconductorlaser-pumped high-power upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6) (2006).

Huber, G.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, "Semiconductorlaser-pumped high-power upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6) (2006).

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne, J. C. Rodier, and J. P. Hugonin, "Surface plasmons of metallic surfaces perforated by nanohole arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), 422-426 (2005).

Jahier, E.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(2), 204-206 (2000).

Kalkman, J.

J. Kalkman, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, and H. Gersen, "Coupling of Er ions to surface plasmons on Ag," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041113 (2005).

Kassab, L. R. P.

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, D. M. da Silva, and R.  A. Kobayashi, "Surface plasmon-enhanced frequency upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurium-oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 103(9) (2008).

Kavanagh, K. L.

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. D. Cooper, M. G. Moffitt, C.-W. Wang, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface Plasmon-Quantum Dot Coupling from Arrays of Nanoholes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(16), 8307-8313 (2006).

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4(10), 2015-2018 (2004).

Khanarian, N.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-k. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In Vivo and Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Upconverting Nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6(2), 169-174 (2006).

Klein Koerkamp, K. J.

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).

Knoll, W.

S. Baluschev, F. Yu, T. Miteva, S. Ahl, A. Yasuda, G. Nelles, W. Knoll, and G. Wegner, "Metal-Enhanced Up-Conversion Fluorescence: Effective Triplet-Triplet Annihilation near Silver Surface," Nano Lett. 5(12), 2482-2484 (2005).

Kobayashi, R.

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, D. M. da Silva, and R.  A. Kobayashi, "Surface plasmon-enhanced frequency upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurium-oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 103(9) (2008).

Krishna, S.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second Harmonic Generation from a Nanopatterned Isotropic Nonlinear Material," Nano Lett. 6(5), 1027-1030 (2006).

Kuipers, L.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).

J. Kalkman, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, and H. Gersen, "Coupling of Er ions to surface plasmons on Ag," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041113 (2005).

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316-4318 (2004).

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).

Kwok, S. C.

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. D. Cooper, M. G. Moffitt, C.-W. Wang, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface Plasmon-Quantum Dot Coupling from Arrays of Nanoholes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(16), 8307-8313 (2006).

Labeke, D. V.

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, J. C. Rodier, and J. P. Hugonin, "Surface plasmons of metallic surfaces perforated by nanohole arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), 422-426 (2005).

Lamrous, O.

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, D. Van Labeke, and O. Lamrous, "Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes," Phys. Rev. B 74(20) (2006).

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4(10), 2015-2018 (2004).

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(2), 204-206 (2000).

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391(6668), 667-669 (1998).

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).

Li, L.

Lim, S. F.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-k. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In Vivo and Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Upconverting Nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6(2), 169-174 (2006).

Lissillour, F.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(2), 204-206 (2000).

Liu, Y.

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S118-S123 (2005).

Y. Liu and S. Blair, "Fluorescence enhancement from an array of subwavelength metal apertures," Opt. Lett. 28(7), 507-509 (2003).

Long, R.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(2), 204-206 (2000).

Lu, T.

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273(5279), 1185-1189 (1996).

Malloy, K. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second Harmonic Generation from a Nanopatterned Isotropic Nonlinear Material," Nano Lett. 6(5), 1027-1030 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Second harmonic generation from patterned GaAs inside a subwavelength metallic hole array," Opt. Express 14(21), 9570-9575 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced Infrared Transmission through Subwavelength Coaxial Metallic Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).

Mart’in-Moreno, L.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Mart’?n-Moreno, "Transmission of Light through a Single Rectangular Hole," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).

Minhas, B.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced Infrared Transmission through Subwavelength Coaxial Metallic Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).

Miteva, T.

S. Baluschev, F. Yu, T. Miteva, S. Ahl, A. Yasuda, G. Nelles, W. Knoll, and G. Wegner, "Metal-Enhanced Up-Conversion Fluorescence: Effective Triplet-Triplet Annihilation near Silver Surface," Nano Lett. 5(12), 2482-2484 (2005).

Miyamaru, F.

Moffitt, M. G.

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. D. Cooper, M. G. Moffitt, C.-W. Wang, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface Plasmon-Quantum Dot Coupling from Arrays of Nanoholes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(16), 8307-8313 (2006).

Moreau, A.

F. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79(1), 1-8 (2004).

A. Moreau, G. Granet, F. Baida, and D. V. Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength square coaxial aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Express 11(10), 1131-1136 (2003).

Moreno, E.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Mart’?n-Moreno, "Transmission of Light through a Single Rectangular Hole," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).

Murray, W. A.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[PubMed]

Nelles, G.

S. Baluschev, F. Yu, T. Miteva, S. Ahl, A. Yasuda, G. Nelles, W. Knoll, and G. Wegner, "Metal-Enhanced Up-Conversion Fluorescence: Effective Triplet-Triplet Annihilation near Silver Surface," Nano Lett. 5(12), 2482-2484 (2005).

Oei, Y. S.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J.W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, "Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(24), 3065-3067 (1993).

Orbons, S. M.

Osgood, R. M.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Second harmonic generation from patterned GaAs inside a subwavelength metallic hole array," Opt. Express 14(21), 9570-9575 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second Harmonic Generation from a Nanopatterned Isotropic Nonlinear Material," Nano Lett. 6(5), 1027-1030 (2006).

Panoiu, N. C.

Panoiu, N.-C.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second Harmonic Generation from a Nanopatterned Isotropic Nonlinear Material," Nano Lett. 6(5), 1027-1030 (2006).

Polman, A.

T. Lu, L. Yang, R. V. A. van Loon, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, "On-chip green silica upconversion microlaser," Opt. Lett. 34(4), 482-484 (2009).

J. Kalkman, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, and H. Gersen, "Coupling of Er ions to surface plasmons on Ag," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041113 (2005).

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, "Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 79(3), 1258-1266 (1996).

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J.W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, "Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(24), 3065-3067 (1993).

Porto, J. A.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Mart’?n-Moreno, "Transmission of Light through a Single Rectangular Hole," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).

Prangsma, J. C.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).

Rademaker, K.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, "Semiconductorlaser-pumped high-power upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6) (2006).

Rai, V. K.

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, D. M. da Silva, and R.  A. Kobayashi, "Surface plasmon-enhanced frequency upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurium-oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 103(9) (2008).

Raimond, J.-M.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(2), 204-206 (2000).

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273(5279), 1185-1189 (1996).

Riehn, R.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-k. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In Vivo and Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Upconverting Nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6(2), 169-174 (2006).

Riordon, J.

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. D. Cooper, M. G. Moffitt, C.-W. Wang, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface Plasmon-Quantum Dot Coupling from Arrays of Nanoholes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(16), 8307-8313 (2006).

Roberts, A.

Rockstuhl, C.

F. Hallermann, C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, G. Seifert, S. Wackerow, H. Graener, G. v. Plessen, and F. Lederer, "On the use of localized plasmon polaritons in solar cells," Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2844-2861 (2008).

Rodier, J. C.

P. Lalanne, J. C. Rodier, and J. P. Hugonin, "Surface plasmons of metallic surfaces perforated by nanohole arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), 422-426 (2005).

Ryu, W. S.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-k. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In Vivo and Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Upconverting Nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6(2), 169-174 (2006).

Sandtke, M.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).

Sano, E.

Sarrazin, M.

M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, "Role ofWood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).

Schlockermann, C.

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Enhanced transmission with coaxial nanoapertures: Role of cylindrical surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 74(23) (2006).

Seelert, W.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, "Semiconductorlaser-pumped high-power upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6) (2006).

Segerink, F. B.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316-4318 (2004).

Seifert, G.

F. Hallermann, C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, G. Seifert, S. Wackerow, H. Graener, G. v. Plessen, and F. Lederer, "On the use of localized plasmon polaritons in solar cells," Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2844-2861 (2008).

Smit, M. K.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, "Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 79(3), 1258-1266 (1996).

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J.W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, "Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(24), 3065-3067 (1993).

Snoeks, E.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, "Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 79(3), 1258-1266 (1996).

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J.W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, "Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(24), 3065-3067 (1993).

Tanaka, M.

Tanaka, T.

Tank, D.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-k. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In Vivo and Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Upconverting Nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6(2), 169-174 (2006).

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391(6668), 667-669 (1998).

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. W¨urfel, "Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light," J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117-4122 (2002).

Tung, C.-k.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-k. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In Vivo and Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Upconverting Nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6(2), 169-174 (2006).

Vahala, K. J.

van Dam, C.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, "Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 79(3), 1258-1266 (1996).

van den Hoven, G. N.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, "Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 79(3), 1258-1266 (1996).

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J.W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, "Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(24), 3065-3067 (1993).

van der Molen, K. L.

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316-4318 (2004).

van Exter, M. P.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331 - 336 (2003).

van Hulst, N. F.

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316-4318 (2004).

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).

Van Labeke, D.

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, D. Van Labeke, and O. Lamrous, "Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes," Phys. Rev. B 74(20) (2006).

D. Van Labeke, D. Gérard, B. Guizal, F. I. Baida, and L. Li, "An angle-independent Frequency Selective Surface in the optical range," Opt. Express 14(25), 11945-11951 (2006).

F. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79(1), 1-8 (2004).

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Three-dimensional structures for enhanced transmission through a metallic film: Annular aperture arrays," Phys. Rev. B 67(15), 155314 (2003).

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).

van Loon, R. V. A.

van Nieuwstadt, J. A. H.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).

van Uffelen, J. W. M.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, "Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 79(3), 1258-1266 (1996).

van Uffelen, J.W. M.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J.W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, "Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(24), 3065-3067 (1993).

Vigneron, J.-P.

M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, "Role ofWood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).

Vigoureux, J.-M.

M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, "Role ofWood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).

von Klitzing, W.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(2), 204-206 (2000).

W¨urfel, P.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. W¨urfel, "Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light," J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117-4122 (2002).

Wackerow, S.

F. Hallermann, C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, G. Seifert, S. Wackerow, H. Graener, G. v. Plessen, and F. Lederer, "On the use of localized plasmon polaritons in solar cells," Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2844-2861 (2008).

Wang, C.-W.

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. D. Cooper, M. G. Moffitt, C.-W. Wang, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface Plasmon-Quantum Dot Coupling from Arrays of Nanoholes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(16), 8307-8313 (2006).

Wegner, G.

S. Baluschev, F. Yu, T. Miteva, S. Ahl, A. Yasuda, G. Nelles, W. Knoll, and G. Wegner, "Metal-Enhanced Up-Conversion Fluorescence: Effective Triplet-Triplet Annihilation near Silver Surface," Nano Lett. 5(12), 2482-2484 (2005).

Woerdman, J. P.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331 - 336 (2003).

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391(6668), 667-669 (1998).

Yang, L.

Yasuda, A.

S. Baluschev, F. Yu, T. Miteva, S. Ahl, A. Yasuda, G. Nelles, W. Knoll, and G. Wegner, "Metal-Enhanced Up-Conversion Fluorescence: Effective Triplet-Triplet Annihilation near Silver Surface," Nano Lett. 5(12), 2482-2484 (2005).

Yu, F.

S. Baluschev, F. Yu, T. Miteva, S. Ahl, A. Yasuda, G. Nelles, W. Knoll, and G. Wegner, "Metal-Enhanced Up-Conversion Fluorescence: Effective Triplet-Triplet Annihilation near Silver Surface," Nano Lett. 5(12), 2482-2484 (2005).

Zhang, S.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Second harmonic generation from patterned GaAs inside a subwavelength metallic hole array," Opt. Express 14(21), 9570-9575 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second Harmonic Generation from a Nanopatterned Isotropic Nonlinear Material," Nano Lett. 6(5), 1027-1030 (2006).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced Infrared Transmission through Subwavelength Coaxial Metallic Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

F. Baida, D. Van Labeke, G. Granet, A. Moreau, and A. Belkhir, "Origin of the super-enhanced light transmission through a 2-D metallic annular aperture array: a study of photonic bands," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79(1), 1-8 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, "Semiconductorlaser-pumped high-power upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6) (2006).

T. Aisaka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, "Enhancement of upconversion luminescence of Er doped Al2O3v films by Ag island films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13) (2008).

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, J.W. M. van Uffelen, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, "Photoluminescence characterization of Er-implanted Al2O3 films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(24), 3065-3067 (1993).

J. Kalkman, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, and H. Gersen, "Coupling of Er ions to surface plasmons on Ag," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041113 (2005).

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316-4318 (2004).

Chem. Rev. (1)

F. Auzel, "Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids," Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139-174 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, "Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 79(3), 1258-1266 (1996).

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. W¨urfel, "Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light," J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 4117-4122 (2002).

V. K. Rai, L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, D. M. da Silva, and R.  A. Kobayashi, "Surface plasmon-enhanced frequency upconversion in Pr3+ doped tellurium-oxide glasses containing silver nanoparticles," J. Appl. Phys. 103(9) (2008).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

P. Lalanne, J. C. Rodier, and J. P. Hugonin, "Surface plasmons of metallic surfaces perforated by nanohole arrays," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), 422-426 (2005).

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S118-S123 (2005).

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold green lasing in microspheres by up-conversion of IR photons," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2(2), 204-206 (2000).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. D. Cooper, M. G. Moffitt, C.-W. Wang, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Surface Plasmon-Quantum Dot Coupling from Arrays of Nanoholes," J. Phys. Chem. B 110(16), 8307-8313 (2006).

Nano Lett. (4)

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C.-k. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, "In Vivo and Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging of Upconverting Nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans," Nano Lett. 6(2), 169-174 (2006).

S. Baluschev, F. Yu, T. Miteva, S. Ahl, A. Yasuda, G. Nelles, W. Knoll, and G. Wegner, "Metal-Enhanced Up-Conversion Fluorescence: Effective Triplet-Triplet Annihilation near Silver Surface," Nano Lett. 5(12), 2482-2484 (2005).

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N.-C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Second Harmonic Generation from a Nanopatterned Isotropic Nonlinear Material," Nano Lett. 6(5), 1027-1030 (2006).

A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-Enhanced Raman Scattering," Nano Lett. 4(10), 2015-2018 (2004).

Nature (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391(6668), 667-669 (1998).

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445(7123), 39-46 (2007).

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Light transmission by subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films," Opt. Commun. 209, 17-22 (2002).

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331 - 336 (2003).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (2)

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Phys. Rev. B (5)

M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, "Role ofWood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 67(8), 085415 (2003).

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, D. Van Labeke, and O. Lamrous, "Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes," Phys. Rev. B 74(20) (2006).

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Enhanced transmission with coaxial nanoapertures: Role of cylindrical surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 74(23) (2006).

F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Three-dimensional structures for enhanced transmission through a metallic film: Annular aperture arrays," Phys. Rev. B 67(15), 155314 (2003).

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[PubMed]

W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Enhanced Infrared Transmission through Subwavelength Coaxial Metallic Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033902 (2005).

K. J. Klein Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Influence of Hole Shape on Extraordinary Transmission through Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Holes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Mart’?n-Moreno, "Transmission of Light through a Single Rectangular Hole," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

F. Hallermann, C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, G. Seifert, S. Wackerow, H. Graener, G. v. Plessen, and F. Lederer, "On the use of localized plasmon polaritons in solar cells," Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2844-2861 (2008).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. J. García de Abajo, "Colloquium: Light scattering by particle and hole arrays," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(4) (2007).

Science (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science 273(5279), 1185-1189 (1996).

Other (1)

URL: www.srim.org.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) and (b) SEM micrographs of details of fabricated arrays of square and annular apertures, respectively. Scale bars are 1 µm. (c) Schematic depiction of the measurement geometry. The sample is illuminated with 1480 nm pump light, and upconversion luminescence from Er ions implanted in the sapphire substrate is collected through the substrate. (d) Er3+ 4f level diagram indicating the upconversion mechanism that leads to the population of Er3+ levels emitting at wavelengths of 980, 660, and 550 nm under 1480 nm excitation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmission spectrum of a hole array in a Au film with a pitch of 810 nm. The red dotted curve is a fit of the Fano model described in section 4. The vertical gray lines indicate the resonance frequencies deduced from the Fano model, and the dashed gray lines depict the Rayleigh conditions for different diffraction orders. (b) Transmission spectra around the (±1,0) peak at the Au/Al2O3 interface for various array periods. (c) Evolution of the same transmission peak with increasing hole size (indicated as diameter/period.)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Er upconversion spectra obtained from a hole array with a pitch of 810 nm (red) and from a reference in the absence of the Au film (black) under 1480 nm pumping at 200 W/cm2. Spectral resolution is ~20 nm. The inset depicts the dependence of the 980 nm emission on 1480 nm pump power, measured on the array (red) and on the reference (black).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

980 nm upconversion enhancement (under 1480 nm pumping at 2 W/cm2) at an emission wavelength of 980 nm on hole arrays as a function of array period and hole size. Every point in the figure is derived from measurements such as in Fig. 3 on a corresponding array.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison between the 980 nm upconversion enhancement (red) and the transmittance at 1480 nm (black) as a function of the hole array period (hole diameter/period=0.42). Each data point is measured on a different array. The curves are fits of a Fano model to the data. The resonance wavelengths and widths derived from the Fano model fitted to the transmittance data are imposed on the Fano model that is fitted to the upconversion enhancement data. The Fano model correctly predicts both the position and linewidth of the surface plasmon resonances, which are revealed by the upconversion enhancement.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Transmission spectra of annular aperture arrays for increasing aperture size (array period 800 nm). The black curve is the transmittance of an array of square holes with the same period. (b) 980 nm upconversion enhancement (1480 nm pump at 2 W/cm2) as a function of the main parameters describing the shape of the annular apertures: the sum of D 1 and D 2, and the width of the air gap W expressed as a fraction of the total aperture size D 2.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

980 nm upconversion enhancement as a function of incident angle for three different annular aperture arrays specified in Fig. 6 (1480 nm pump at 16 W/cm2). The field enhancement that is caused by a localized resonance (array C) is independent of the angle of incidence.

Equations (2)

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kSPP=k0sinθ0+2πiax̂+2πjaŷ
T(ω)=Ta(1+Σrqrεr)21+(Σrεr1)2,withεr=ωωrγr2,

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