Abstract

Using a time-gated dual quadrature spectral interferometry technique, for the first time we demonstrate single-shot characterization of both spectral amplitude and phase of ~1THz bandwidth optical arbitrary waveforms generated from a 10 GHz frequency comb. Our measurements provide a temporal resolution of 1ps over a record length of 100ps. Single-shot characterization becomes particularly relevant when waveform synthesis operations are updated at the repetition rate of the comb allowing creation of potentially infinite record length waveforms. We first demonstrate unambiguous single shot retrieval using rapidly updating waveforms. We then perform additional single-shot measurements of static user-defined waveforms generated via line-by-line pulse shaping.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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J. Chen, J. W. Sickler, P. Fendel, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication," Opt. Lett. 33, 959-961 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-J. Chen, A. J. Benedick, J. R. Birge, M. Y. Sander, and F. Kärtner, "Octave-spanning, dual-output 2.166 GHz Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Express 16, 20699-20705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. -B. Huang, S. -G. Park, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Nonlinearly broadened phase-modulated continuous-wave laser frequency combs characterized using DPSK decoding," Opt. Express 16, 2520-2527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Quinlan, C. Williams, S. Ozharar, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, "Self-Stabilization of the Optical Frequencies and the Pulse Repetition Rate in a Coupled Optoelectronic Oscillator," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2571-2577 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Silicon-chip based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature 456, 81-84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Supradeepa, Chen-Bin Huang, Daniel E. Leaird, and Andrew M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: Towards higher complexity optical waveforms," Opt. Express 16, 11878-11887 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Willits, A. M. Weiner, and S. T. Cundiff, "Theory of rapid-update line-by-line pulse shaping," Opt. Express 16, 315-327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

Z Jiang, CB Huang, DE Leaird, AM Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photonics 1, 463-467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG," Opt. Express 15, 9977-9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele. "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.  Jiang, D.  Leaird, C. B.  Huang, H.  Miao, M.  Kourogi, K.  Imai, and A. M.  Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  43, 1163-1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, R. Gebs, M. S. Kirchner, and S. A. Diddams, "Spectrally resolved optical frequency comb from a self-referenced 5 GHz femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 2553-2555 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

S. Xiao and A. M. Weiner. "2-D wavelength demultiplexer with potential for >= 1000 channels in the C-band," Optics Express 12, 2895-2902, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (3)

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbüugel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 884-886 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, "Remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems," Proceedings of the IEEE 84, 181-204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shirasaki. "Large angular dispersion by a virtually imaged phased array and it’s application to a wavelength division multiplexer," Opt. Letters. 21,366-368, (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa and M. Ohtsu "Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693, (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, "Coherent control of quantum dynamics:the dream is alive," Science 259, 1581 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Kane; R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

Bartels, A.

Begishev, I. A.

Benedick, A. J.

Birge, J. R.

Bowie, J. L.

Bowlan, P.

Braje, D. A.

Bromage, J.

Cao, J.

Chen, J.

Chen, L.-J.

Cheriaux, G.

L. Lepetit, G. Cheriaux, and M. Joffre, "Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467- (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

Dahleh, M.

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, "Coherent control of quantum dynamics:the dream is alive," Science 259, 1581 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniel, V. R.

Delfyett, P. J.

DeLong, K. W.

Diddams, S. A.

Dorrer, C.

Fejer, M. M.

Fendel, P.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fontaine, N. K.

Fortier, T. M.

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Silicon-chip based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature 456, 81-84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabolde, P.

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Silicon-chip based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature 456, 81-84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gebs, R.

Gee, S.

Geraghty, D. F.

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Silicon-chip based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature 456, 81-84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, X.

Hänsch, T. W.

Hardesty, R. M.

R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, "Remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems," Proceedings of the IEEE 84, 181-204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

Hollberg, L.

Holzwarth, R.

Huang, C. B.

Z.  Jiang, D.  Leaird, C. B.  Huang, H.  Miao, M.  Kourogi, K.  Imai, and A. M.  Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  43, 1163-1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. -B.

Huang, CB

Z Jiang, CB Huang, DE Leaird, AM Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photonics 1, 463-467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huffaker, R. M.

R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, "Remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems," Proceedings of the IEEE 84, 181-204 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

Imai, K.

Z.  Jiang, D.  Leaird, C. B.  Huang, H.  Miao, M.  Kourogi, K.  Imai, and A. M.  Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  43, 1163-1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jennings, R. T.

Jiang, Z

Z Jiang, CB Huang, DE Leaird, AM Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photonics 1, 463-467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z.  Jiang, D.  Leaird, C. B.  Huang, H.  Miao, M.  Kourogi, K.  Imai, and A. M.  Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  43, 1163-1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird and A. M. Weiner. "Spectral line by line pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 30, 1557-1559 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joffre, M.

L. Lepetit, G. Cheriaux, and M. Joffre, "Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467- (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane; R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kimmel, M.

Kirchner, M. S.

Kolner, B. H.

Kominato, T.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

Z.  Jiang, D.  Leaird, C. B.  Huang, H.  Miao, M.  Kourogi, K.  Imai, and A. M.  Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  43, 1163-1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa and M. Ohtsu "Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krumbüugel, M. A.

Kurokawa, T.

D. Miyamoto; K. Mandai; T. Kurokawa; S. Takeda; T. Shioda; H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Leaird, D.

Z.  Jiang, D.  Leaird, C. B.  Huang, H.  Miao, M.  Kourogi, K.  Imai, and A. M.  Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  43, 1163-1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

Leaird, DE

Z Jiang, CB Huang, DE Leaird, AM Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photonics 1, 463-467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lepetit, L.

L. Lepetit, G. Cheriaux, and M. Joffre, "Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467- (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Silicon-chip based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature 456, 81-84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandai, K.

D. Miyamoto; K. Mandai; T. Kurokawa; S. Takeda; T. Shioda; H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele. "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGresham, K.

Miao, H.

H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform characterization via dual-quadrature spectral shearing interferometry," Opt. Express 17, 3381-3389 (2009)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.  Jiang, D.  Leaird, C. B.  Huang, H.  Miao, M.  Kourogi, K.  Imai, and A. M.  Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  43, 1163-1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, D.

D. Miyamoto; K. Mandai; T. Kurokawa; S. Takeda; T. Shioda; H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa and M. Ohtsu "Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693, (1993).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, P.

Ohtsu, M.

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa and M. Ohtsu "Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG," Opt. Express 15, 9977-9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ozharar, S.

Park, S. -G.

Quinlan, F.

Rabitz, H.

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, "Coherent control of quantum dynamics:the dream is alive," Science 259, 1581 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salem, R.

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Silicon-chip based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature 456, 81-84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sander, M. Y.

Scott, R. P.

Seo, D. S.

Shibata, T.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shioda, T.

D. Miyamoto; K. Mandai; T. Kurokawa; S. Takeda; T. Shioda; H. Tsuda, "Waveform-Controllable Optical Pulse Generation Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721-723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shirasaki, M.

M. Shirasaki. "Large angular dispersion by a virtually imaged phased array and it’s application to a wavelength division multiplexer," Opt. Letters. 21,366-368, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shreenath, A.

Sickler, J. W.

Supradeepa, V. R.

Sweetser, J. N.

Takahashi, H.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, S.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of line-by-line shaping, (a) Spectral domain, (b) temporal domain, (c) temporal domain with rapid update.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup, LP – linear polarizer aligned at 45deg, QWP – quarter wave plate, BS – beam splitter, PBS – polarizing beam splitter, HWP – half wave plate.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic showing the need for high extinction gating, (b) Gating scheme, (c) Gated spectrum of a 10GHz pulse train.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Scheme for waveform generation, (b) 60 GHz sampling scope trace of waveform without gating, (c) Gated pulse pair, (d) Gated single pulse

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a),(b) Retrieved spectrum, phase and generated time domain trace for gated single pulse, (c), (d) For a gated pulse pair, (e), (f) For a gated pulse pair with different relative heights (inset – RF scope trace)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Applied quadratic phase and retrieved phase, (b) Applied cubic phase and retrieved phase.

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