Abstract

We report the electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO nanorod arrays on Si. Metal-insulator-semiconductor structures in a form of Au/SiO2/ZnO-nanorod-array were fabricated on Si. Such devices exhibit random lasing when the Au electrode is applied with a sufficiently high positive voltage. In this context, in the region adjacent to SiO2/ZnO-nanorod-array interface, stimulated emission from ZnO occurs due to population inversion and, moreover, light is scattered by the nanorods and SiO2 films. Therefore, random lasing proceeds due to optical gain achieved by the stimulated emission and multiple scattering.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Wegscheider, L. N. Pfeiffer, M. M. Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. W. West, S. L. McCall, and R. Hull, “Lasing from excitons in quantum wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(24), 4071–4074 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Q. Yan, M. Law, Y. F. Zhang, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in single ZnO naonowire and nanoribbon lasers,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 197–204 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, E. S. P. Leong, H. D. Li, and H. H. Hng, “Flexible ultraviolet random lasers based on nanoparticles,” Small 1(10), 956–959 (2005).
  9. B. S. Zou, R. B. Liu, F. F. Wang, A. L. Pan, L. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Lasing mechanism of ZnO nanowires/nanobelts at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(26), 12865–12873 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Z. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in Zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C.-C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Willams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Chen, X. Ma, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices: dependence on carrier transport,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4712–4717 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. B. Djurisić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
  17. D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

J. Z. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in Zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C.-C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Willams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Zou, R. B. Liu, F. F. Wang, A. L. Pan, L. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Lasing mechanism of ZnO nanowires/nanobelts at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(26), 12865–12873 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Djurisić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).

2005 (4)

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, E. S. P. Leong, H. D. Li, and H. H. Hng, “Flexible ultraviolet random lasers based on nanoparticles,” Small 1(10), 956–959 (2005).

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Q. Yan, M. Law, Y. F. Zhang, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in single ZnO naonowire and nanoribbon lasers,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 197–204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. Wegscheider, L. N. Pfeiffer, M. M. Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. W. West, S. L. McCall, and R. Hull, “Lasing from excitons in quantum wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(24), 4071–4074 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

J. Z. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y. I.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Apalkov, V. M.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bozack, M. J.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C.-C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Willams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, B. Q.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in Zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

B. S. Zou, R. B. Liu, F. F. Wang, A. L. Pan, L. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Lasing mechanism of ZnO nanowires/nanobelts at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(26), 12865–12873 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, X. Ma, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices: dependence on carrier transport,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4712–4717 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-J.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Czekalla, C.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in Zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dignam, M. M.

W. Wegscheider, L. N. Pfeiffer, M. M. Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. W. West, S. L. McCall, and R. Hull, “Lasing from excitons in quantum wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(24), 4071–4074 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Djurisic, A. B.

A. B. Djurisić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).

Dogan, S.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gottardo, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in Zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hatano, H.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hng, H. H.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, E. S. P. Leong, H. D. Li, and H. H. Hng, “Flexible ultraviolet random lasers based on nanoparticles,” Small 1(10), 956–959 (2005).

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hull, R.

W. Wegscheider, L. N. Pfeiffer, M. M. Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. W. West, S. L. McCall, and R. Hull, “Lasing from excitons in quantum wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(24), 4071–4074 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Q. Yan, M. Law, Y. F. Zhang, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in single ZnO naonowire and nanoribbon lasers,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 197–204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, M.

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutsen, K. P.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Q. Yan, M. Law, Y. F. Zhang, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in single ZnO naonowire and nanoribbon lasers,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 197–204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koh, K. H.

J. Z. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koinuma, H.

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, E. S. P. Leong, H. D. Li, and H. H. Hng, “Flexible ultraviolet random lasers based on nanoparticles,” Small 1(10), 956–959 (2005).

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Law, M.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Q. Yan, M. Law, Y. F. Zhang, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in single ZnO naonowire and nanoribbon lasers,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 197–204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. Z. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, E. S. P. Leong, H. D. Li, and H. H. Hng, “Flexible ultraviolet random lasers based on nanoparticles,” Small 1(10), 956–959 (2005).

Leung, Y. H.

A. B. Djurisić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).

Li, D.

P. Chen, X. Ma, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices: dependence on carrier transport,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4712–4717 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. D.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, E. S. P. Leong, H. D. Li, and H. H. Hng, “Flexible ultraviolet random lasers based on nanoparticles,” Small 1(10), 956–959 (2005).

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. Z.

J. Z. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R. B.

B. S. Zou, R. B. Liu, F. F. Wang, A. L. Pan, L. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Lasing mechanism of ZnO nanowires/nanobelts at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(26), 12865–12873 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenz, M.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in Zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

P. Chen, X. Ma, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices: dependence on carrier transport,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4712–4717 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCall, S. L.

W. Wegscheider, L. N. Pfeiffer, M. M. Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. W. West, S. L. McCall, and R. Hull, “Lasing from excitons in quantum wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(24), 4071–4074 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mujumdar, S.

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtomo, A.

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okita, T.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, A. L.

B. S. Zou, R. B. Liu, F. F. Wang, A. L. Pan, L. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Lasing mechanism of ZnO nanowires/nanobelts at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(26), 12865–12873 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. Y.

J. Z. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

J. Z. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, M.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C.-C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Willams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. I.

S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

W. Wegscheider, L. N. Pfeiffer, M. M. Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. W. West, S. L. McCall, and R. Hull, “Lasing from excitons in quantum wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(24), 4071–4074 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinczuk, A.

W. Wegscheider, L. N. Pfeiffer, M. M. Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. W. West, S. L. McCall, and R. Hull, “Lasing from excitons in quantum wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(24), 4071–4074 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raikh, M. E.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reshchikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ricci, M.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Q. Yan, M. Law, Y. F. Zhang, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in single ZnO naonowire and nanoribbon lasers,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 197–204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Grund, R.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in Zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, Y.

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H. W.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C.-C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Willams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, B.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturm, C.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in Zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, M.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z. K.

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tin, C.-C.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C.-C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Willams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torre, R.

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Türck, V.

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, Y.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C.-C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Willams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C.-C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Willams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. F.

B. S. Zou, R. B. Liu, F. F. Wang, A. L. Pan, L. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Lasing mechanism of ZnO nanowires/nanobelts at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(26), 12865–12873 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

B. S. Zou, R. B. Liu, F. F. Wang, A. L. Pan, L. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Lasing mechanism of ZnO nanowires/nanobelts at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(26), 12865–12873 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegscheider, W.

W. Wegscheider, L. N. Pfeiffer, M. M. Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. W. West, S. L. McCall, and R. Hull, “Lasing from excitons in quantum wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(24), 4071–4074 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, K. W.

W. Wegscheider, L. N. Pfeiffer, M. M. Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. W. West, S. L. McCall, and R. Hull, “Lasing from excitons in quantum wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(24), 4071–4074 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willams, J. R.

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C.-C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Willams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H. Q.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Q. Yan, M. Law, Y. F. Zhang, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in single ZnO naonowire and nanoribbon lasers,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 197–204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D.

P. Chen, X. Ma, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices: dependence on carrier transport,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4712–4717 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. Y.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, E. S. P. Leong, H. D. Li, and H. H. Hng, “Flexible ultraviolet random lasers based on nanoparticles,” Small 1(10), 956–959 (2005).

Yang, P. D.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Q. Yan, M. Law, Y. F. Zhang, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in single ZnO naonowire and nanoribbon lasers,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 197–204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaroshchuk, O.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G.-C.

S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, E. S. P. Leong, H. D. Li, and H. H. Hng, “Flexible ultraviolet random lasers based on nanoparticles,” Small 1(10), 956–959 (2005).

S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, C.

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, E. S. P. Leong, H. D. Li, and H. H. Hng, “Flexible ultraviolet random lasers based on nanoparticles,” Small 1(10), 956–959 (2005).

Zhang, Y.

P. Chen, X. Ma, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices: dependence on carrier transport,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4712–4717 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. F.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Q. Yan, M. Law, Y. F. Zhang, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in single ZnO naonowire and nanoribbon lasers,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 197–204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zou, B. S.

B. S. Zou, R. B. Liu, F. F. Wang, A. L. Pan, L. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Lasing mechanism of ZnO nanowires/nanobelts at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(26), 12865–12873 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, M. Tanemura, T. Okita, H. Hatano, and H. H. Hng, “Laser action in ZnO nanoneedles selectively grown on silicon and plastic substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in Zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Wang, H. W. Seo, C.-C. Tin, M. J. Bozack, J. R. Willams, M. Park, and Y. Tzeng, “Lasing in whispering gallery mode in ZnO nanonails,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Z. K. Tang, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Self-assembled ZnO nano-crystals and exciton lasing at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 169–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

B. S. Zou, R. B. Liu, F. F. Wang, A. L. Pan, L. Cao, and Z. L. Wang, “Lasing mechanism of ZnO nanowires/nanobelts at room temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(26), 12865–12873 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Math. Gen. (1)

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Q. Yan, M. Law, Y. F. Zhang, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in single ZnO naonowire and nanoribbon lasers,” Nano Lett. 4(2), 197–204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Wegscheider, L. N. Pfeiffer, M. M. Dignam, A. Pinczuk, K. W. West, S. L. McCall, and R. Hull, “Lasing from excitons in quantum wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(24), 4071–4074 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (2)

S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, E. S. P. Leong, H. D. Li, and H. H. Hng, “Flexible ultraviolet random lasers based on nanoparticles,” Small 1(10), 956–959 (2005).

A. B. Djurisić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the metal (Au)-insulator (SiO2)-semiconductor (ZnO nanorod array) structure on Si substrate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Plan-view and (b) cross-sectional view images of the ZnO nanorod array annealed at 700°C for 2 h. (c) PL spectra of ZnO nanorod array before and after 700°C/2 h annealing.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Current-voltage characteristic of the MIS device based on ZnO nanorod array. (b). EL spectra of the device under different forward bias voltages. (c). Detected output power as a function of the injection current.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

EL spectrum in the wavelength range of 360–800 nm for the MIS device applied with a forward bias of 8 V.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Series of EL spectra taken at successive measurement cycles.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Schematic band diagram of a sufficiently forward-biased MIS structure of Au/SiO2/ZnO-nanorod on Si. (b) The density of states and energy distribution of electrons and holes in the conduction and valence bands respectively in the band-downward region adjacent to SiO2/ZnO-nanorod interface under forward bias such that EFn - EFp > Eg. (c) Schematic illustration of quasi-2D random walks in the region close to the nanorods/SiO2 interface.

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