Abstract

A viewing angle enhanced integral imaging display using two elemental image masks is proposed. In our new method, rays emitted from the elemental images are directed by two masks into corresponding lenses. Due to the elemental image guiding of the masks, the number of elemental images for each integrated image point is increased, enhancing the viewing angle. The experimental result shows that the proposed method exhibits two times larger viewing angle than the conventional method with the same lens array.

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  1. J. L. Fergason, S. D. Robinson, C. W. McLaughlin, B. Brown, A. Abileah, T. E. Baker, and P. J. Green, “An innovative beamsplitter-based stereoscopic/3D display design,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 488–494 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. P. Ketchel, C. A. Heid, G. L. Wood, M. J. Miller, A. G. Mott, R. J. Anderson, and G. J. Salamo, “Three-dimensional color holographic display,” Appl. Opt. 38(29), 6159–6166 (1999), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-38-29-6159 .
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Mishina, and M. Okui, “Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Images of Real Objects by Electronic Holography,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper DMC1. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=DH-2008-DMC1 .
  5. G. Lippmann, “La Photographie Integrale,” Comptes-Rendus Academie des Sciences 146, 446 (1908).
  6. A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Three dimensional Sensing, Visualization, and Processing using Integral Imaging,” Proceedings of IEEE Journal, special issue on 3-D technologies for imaging and display, 94, 591–607 (2006).
  7. B. Lee, J.-H. Park, and S.-W. Min, “Three-dimensional display and information processing based on integral imaging,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T.-C. Poon, eds. (Springer, New York, USA, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8800 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1598–1603 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J.-H. Park, S. W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40(29), 5217–5232 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Martínez-Cuenca, H. Navarro, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, and M. Martinez-Corral, “Enhanced viewing-angle integral imaging by multiple-axis telecentric relay system,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16255–16260 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-16255 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Effect of illumination in an integral imaging system with large depth of focus,” Appl. Opt. 44(36), 7749–7753 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-36-7749 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J.-S. Jang, F. Jin, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional integral imaging with large depth of focus by use of real and virtual image fields,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1421–1423 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-16-1421 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral three-dimensional imaging along all directions without mechanical movement,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1346–1356 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-12-1346 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44(4), 546–552 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-4-546 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Multidirectional curved integral imaging with large depth by additional use of a large-aperture lens,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7375–7381 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Yu, and X. Yang, Introduction to Optical Engineering (Cambridge University Press, 1997), Chap. 2.

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “La Photographie Integrale,” Comptes-Rendus Academie des Sciences 146, 446 (1908).

Abileah, A.

J. L. Fergason, S. D. Robinson, C. W. McLaughlin, B. Brown, A. Abileah, T. E. Baker, and P. J. Green, “An innovative beamsplitter-based stereoscopic/3D display design,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 488–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. J.

Arai, J.

Baasantseren, G.

Baker, T. E.

J. L. Fergason, S. D. Robinson, C. W. McLaughlin, B. Brown, A. Abileah, T. E. Baker, and P. J. Green, “An innovative beamsplitter-based stereoscopic/3D display design,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 488–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, B.

J. L. Fergason, S. D. Robinson, C. W. McLaughlin, B. Brown, A. Abileah, T. E. Baker, and P. J. Green, “An innovative beamsplitter-based stereoscopic/3D display design,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 488–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fergason, J. L.

J. L. Fergason, S. D. Robinson, C. W. McLaughlin, B. Brown, A. Abileah, T. E. Baker, and P. J. Green, “An innovative beamsplitter-based stereoscopic/3D display design,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 488–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Green, P. J.

J. L. Fergason, S. D. Robinson, C. W. McLaughlin, B. Brown, A. Abileah, T. E. Baker, and P. J. Green, “An innovative beamsplitter-based stereoscopic/3D display design,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 488–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heid, C. A.

Hoshino, H.

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

Jin, F.

Jung, S.

Kang, J.-M.

Ketchel, B. P.

Kim, E.-S.

Kim, N.

Kim, Y.

Lee, B.

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8800 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Multidirectional curved integral imaging with large depth by additional use of a large-aperture lens,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7375–7381 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Effect of illumination in an integral imaging system with large depth of focus,” Appl. Opt. 44(36), 7749–7753 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-36-7749 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 44(4), 546–552 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-44-4-546 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral three-dimensional imaging along all directions without mechanical movement,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1346–1356 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-12-1346 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S. W. Min, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40(29), 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “La Photographie Integrale,” Comptes-Rendus Academie des Sciences 146, 446 (1908).

Martinez-Corral, M.

Martínez-Cuenca, R.

McLaughlin, C. W.

J. L. Fergason, S. D. Robinson, C. W. McLaughlin, B. Brown, A. Abileah, T. E. Baker, and P. J. Green, “An innovative beamsplitter-based stereoscopic/3D display design,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 488–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. J.

Min, S. W.

Min, S.-W.

Mott, A. G.

Navarro, H.

Okano, F.

Park, G.

Park, J.-H.

Robinson, S. D.

J. L. Fergason, S. D. Robinson, C. W. McLaughlin, B. Brown, A. Abileah, T. E. Baker, and P. J. Green, “An innovative beamsplitter-based stereoscopic/3D display design,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 488–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saavedra, G.

Salamo, G. J.

Shin, D.-H.

Wood, G. L.

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Comptes-Rendus Academie des Sciences (1)

G. Lippmann, “La Photographie Integrale,” Comptes-Rendus Academie des Sciences 146, 446 (1908).

Computer (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. L. Fergason, S. D. Robinson, C. W. McLaughlin, B. Brown, A. Abileah, T. E. Baker, and P. J. Green, “An innovative beamsplitter-based stereoscopic/3D display design,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 488–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

T. Mishina, and M. Okui, “Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Images of Real Objects by Electronic Holography,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper DMC1. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=DH-2008-DMC1 .

A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Three dimensional Sensing, Visualization, and Processing using Integral Imaging,” Proceedings of IEEE Journal, special issue on 3-D technologies for imaging and display, 94, 591–607 (2006).

B. Lee, J.-H. Park, and S.-W. Min, “Three-dimensional display and information processing based on integral imaging,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T.-C. Poon, eds. (Springer, New York, USA, 2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Yu, and X. Yang, Introduction to Optical Engineering (Cambridge University Press, 1997), Chap. 2.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3463 KB)     

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of IID.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structure of proposed method.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Configuration of SLM is (a) one LCD and (b) two SLMs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Overlapping problem.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Image volume

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The relation between the image volume and lens number.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Viewing angle of proposed system in (a) the 3D viewing and (b) the projection on YZ plane.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relation between the image volume and the central depth.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The proposed system configuration.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Elemental images. (a) proposed EI, (b) mask for SLM1, (c) mask for SLM2, and (d) conventional EI.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Experimental results (a) without masks and (b) with masks.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Experimental result of proposed method at nine different positions.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Experimental results of conventional IID.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

(Media 1) Experimental results of proposed and conventional IIDs [3.38MB].

Equations (11)

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θ=2arctan(PL2g),
x=(PL(i0.5)L+gLPIguL)1PD,
y=(PL(j0.5)L+gLP1gvL)1PD,
SEI=h·gL .
Lmin=PL·ntan(VAmax2).
So=PL·Lg .
hf=2nPL22gtan(VAmax2)PL ,
Lf=2gnPL2gtan(VAmax2)PL ,
hSP=2n2PL2(n1)(2gtan(VAmax2)PL),
LSP=2n2PLg(n1)(2gtan(VAmax2)PL),
VA(L,u)=arcsin((2PLnL2+(PLn+u)2)·sin(arctan(LPLnu))),

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