Abstract

A simple technique for the synthesis of optical pulse sequences is described, where the input laser spectrum is viewed as a superposition of independent but interlaced combs assigned to different sub-pulses. The devised concept enables intuitive programming of complex multi-pulse waveforms via one-dimensional phase-only shaping. Using this approach, we perform self-referenced cross-correlation measurements of various optical waveforms and demonstrate the generation and coding of shaped pulse sequences.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. R. Supradeepa, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: towards higher complexity optical waveforms,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11878–11887 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A typical ultrafast Ti:Sapphire laser oscillator, operating at 80 MHz and having 100-nm bandwidth, features about 106 comb lines within its spectrum. At the same time, the number of addressable pixels in a dispersive 4f pulse shaper with a linear SLM in its Fourier plane ranges from 100 to ~1,000.
  6. A. M. Weiner and D. E. Leaird, “Generation of Terahertz-Rate Trains of Femtosecond Pulses by Phase-Only Filtering,” Opt. Lett. 15(1), 51–53 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. M. Wefers and K. A. Nelson, “Programmable Phase and Amplitude Femtosecond Pulse Shaping,” Opt. Lett. 18(23), 2032–2034 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Weiner, S. Oudin, D. E. Leaird, and D. H. Reitze, “Shaping of Femtosecond Pulses Using Phase-Only Filters Designed by Simulated Annealing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10(5), 1112–1120 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. M. Wefers and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of High-Fidelity Programmable Ultrafast Optical Wave-Forms,” Opt. Lett. 20(9), 1047–1049 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Dugan, J. X. Tull, and W. S. Warren, “High-resolution acousto-optic shaping of unamplified and amplified femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(9), 2348–2358 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Brixner and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26(8), 557–559 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive femtosecond pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1793–1795 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 775–777 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. W. Xu, J. M. Gunn, J. M. Dela Cruz, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Quantitative investigation of the multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan method for simultaneous phase measurement and compensation of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(4), 750–759 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. von Vacano, T. Buckup, and M. Motzkus, “In situ broadband pulse compression for multiphoton microscopy using a shaper-assisted collinear SPIDER,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1154–1156 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Galler and T. Feurer, “Pulse shaper assisted short laser pulse characterization,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 427–430 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396(6708), 239–242 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase,” Nature 414(6859), 57–60 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Hornung, J. C. Vaughan, T. Feurer, and K. A. Nelson, “Degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy based on two-dimensional femtosecond pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2052–2054 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. M. Grumstrup, S. H. Shim, M. A. Montgomery, N. H. Damrauer, and M. T. Zanni, “Facile collection of two-dimensional electronic spectra using femtosecond pulse-shaping Technology,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16681–16689 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. C. Vaughan, T. Hornung, T. Feurer, and K. A. Nelson, “Diffraction-based femtosecond pulse shaping with a two-dimensional spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 323–325 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. W. Wilson, P. Schlup, and R. A. Bartels, “Ultrafast phase and amplitude pulse shaping with a single, one-dimensional, high-resolution phase mask,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8979–8987 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Frumker and Y. Silberberg, “Phase and amplitude pulse shaping with two-dimensional phase-only spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(12), 2940–2947 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. The experimental data reported in this work were partially presented at SPIE Photonics West 2009 (San Jose, CA - January 24–29, 2009)
  27. A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 1929–1960 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (2)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase,” Nature 414(6859), 57–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26(8), 557–559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 1929–1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396(6708), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

1990 (1)

Bartels, R. A.

Baumert, T.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brixner, T.

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase,” Nature 414(6859), 57–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26(8), 557–559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buckup, T.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Damrauer, N. H.

E. M. Grumstrup, S. H. Shim, M. A. Montgomery, N. H. Damrauer, and M. T. Zanni, “Facile collection of two-dimensional electronic spectra using femtosecond pulse-shaping Technology,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16681–16689 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase,” Nature 414(6859), 57–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dantus, M.

Dela Cruz, J. M.

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, M. A.

Feurer, T.

Frumker, E.

Galler, A.

A. Galler and T. Feurer, “Pulse shaper assisted short laser pulse characterization,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 427–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, G.

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase,” Nature 414(6859), 57–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26(8), 557–559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grumstrup, E. M.

Gunn, J. M.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hornung, T.

Huang, C. B.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: towards higher complexity optical waveforms,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11878–11887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

Lozovoy, V. V.

Meshulach, D.

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396(6708), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive femtosecond pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1793–1795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, M. A.

Motzkus, M.

Nelson, K. A.

Niklaus, P.

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase,” Nature 414(6859), 57–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oudin, S.

Pastirk, I.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reitze, D. H.

Schlup, P.

Seyfried, V.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shim, S. H.

Silberberg, Y.

E. Frumker and Y. Silberberg, “Phase and amplitude pulse shaping with two-dimensional phase-only spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(12), 2940–2947 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396(6708), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive femtosecond pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1793–1795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strehle, M.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Supradeepa, V. R.

Tull, J. X.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, J. C.

von Vacano, B.

Warren, W. S.

Wefers, M. M.

Weiner, A. M.

Wilson, J. W.

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B. W.

Yelin, D.

Zanni, M. T.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65(6), 779–782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Galler and T. Feurer, “Pulse shaper assisted short laser pulse characterization,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 427–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nat. Photonics (1)

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396(6708), 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, N. H. Damrauer, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase,” Nature 414(6859), 57–60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (9)

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive femtosecond pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1793–1795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26(8), 557–559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 775–777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Hornung, J. C. Vaughan, T. Feurer, and K. A. Nelson, “Degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy based on two-dimensional femtosecond pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2052–2054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Vaughan, T. Hornung, T. Feurer, and K. A. Nelson, “Diffraction-based femtosecond pulse shaping with a two-dimensional spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 323–325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. von Vacano, T. Buckup, and M. Motzkus, “In situ broadband pulse compression for multiphoton microscopy using a shaper-assisted collinear SPIDER,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1154–1156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner and D. E. Leaird, “Generation of Terahertz-Rate Trains of Femtosecond Pulses by Phase-Only Filtering,” Opt. Lett. 15(1), 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Wefers and K. A. Nelson, “Programmable Phase and Amplitude Femtosecond Pulse Shaping,” Opt. Lett. 18(23), 2032–2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Wefers and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of High-Fidelity Programmable Ultrafast Optical Wave-Forms,” Opt. Lett. 20(9), 1047–1049 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 1929–1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A typical ultrafast Ti:Sapphire laser oscillator, operating at 80 MHz and having 100-nm bandwidth, features about 106 comb lines within its spectrum. At the same time, the number of addressable pixels in a dispersive 4f pulse shaper with a linear SLM in its Fourier plane ranges from 100 to ~1,000.

The experimental data reported in this work were partially presented at SPIE Photonics West 2009 (San Jose, CA - January 24–29, 2009)

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