Abstract

The possibilities of in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry applied to phase transitions investigation in oxide thin films and crystals are examined in this work, along with the use of various parameters calculated from ellipsometric data (band gap energy Eg, refractive index n and surface roughness) together with the directly measured main ellipsometric angles ψ and Δ, for the detection of phase transitions. The efficiency of spectroscopic ellipsometry on “surface” phase transition and its sensitivity to surface defects are also demonstrated.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  42. B. Panda, A. Dhar, G. D. Nigan, D. Bhattacharga, and S. K. Ray, "Optical properties of RF sputtered strontium substituted barium titanate thin films," Thin Solid Films 332, 46-49 (1998)
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  43. W. Chang, C. M. Gilmore, W.-J. Kim, J. M. Pond, S. W. Kirchoefer, S. B. Qadri, D. B. Chirsey, and J. S. Horwitz, "Influence of strain on microwave dielectric properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3044-3049 (2000).
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  44. Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, "Lead-free piezoceramics, " Nature 432, 84-87 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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2008

I. Aulika, A. Dejneka, V. Zauls, and K. Kundzins, "Optical gradient of the trapezium-shaped NaNbO3 thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry", J. Electroch. Soc.,  155, G209-G213 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

I. Aulika, J. Petzelt, J. Pokorny, A. Deyneka, V. Zauls, and K. Kundzins, "Structural and Optical Studies of NaNbO3 Thin Films Grown by PLD on SrRuO3 Bottom Electrode," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sc.V 15, 158-166 (2007).

I. Aulika, A. Deyneka, V Zauls, and K Kundzins, "Thermo-optical studies of NaNbO3 thin films," J. Phys., Conf. Ser.V 93012016 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Z. Salman, R. F. Kiefl, K. H. Chow, M. D. Hossain, T. A. Keeler, S. R. Kreitzman, C. D. P. Levy, R. I. Miller, T. J. Parolin, M. R. Pearson, H. Saadaoui, J. D. Schultz, M. Smadella, D. Wang, and W. A. MacFarlane, "Near-Surface Structural Phase Transition of SrTiO3 Studied with Zero-Field β-Detected Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Resonance," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 147601-147604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deyneka1a, Z. Hubicka1, V. Trepakov1, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik1, G. Gerlach, J. Pokorny1, D. Chvostova1, and J. Olejnicek, "Low Pressure RF Plasma Jet Sputtering Technique Applied to Ferroelectric Films: Ba1-x SrxTiO3", Mat. Sc. Forum Vols. 514-516, 165-169 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Deyneka, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik, and G. Gerlach, "Phase Transition Shift in Lead-Excess PZT Films Under UV Illumination," Ferroelectrics 67, 173-180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhou, W. Z. Shen, N. B. Chen, and H. Z. Wu, "Observation of negative thermo-optical coefficient in cubic MgZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3723-3725 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lentea, J. de Los S. Guerraa, J. A. Eirasa, and S. Lanfredi, "Investigation of microwave dielectric relaxation process in the antiferroelectric phase of NaNbO3 ceramics," Sol. St. Com. 131, 279-282 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, "Lead-free piezoceramics, " Nature 432, 84-87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R.W. Whatmore, Q. Zhang, Z. Huang, and R. A. Dorey, "Ferroelectric thin and thick films for microsystems," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 5, 65-76 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. Suchaneck, W.-M. Lin, R. Koehler, T. Sandner, G. Gerlach, R. Krawietz, W. Pompe, A. Deineka, and L. Jastrabik, "Characterization of RF-sputtered self-polarized PZT thin films for IR sensor arrays," Vacuum 66, 473-478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Deyneka, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik, and G. Gerlach, "Phase Transitions in PbZr1−xTixO3 Ceramics Prepared by Different Techniques," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6966-6968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Deineka; L. Jastrabik; G. Suchaneck; and G. Gerlach, "Optical Properties of Self-Polarized PZT Ferroelectric Films," Ferroelectrics 273, 155-160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

W. Chang, C. M. Gilmore, W.-J. Kim, J. M. Pond, S. W. Kirchoefer, S. B. Qadri, D. B. Chirsey, and J. S. Horwitz, "Influence of strain on microwave dielectric properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3044-3049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Mishina, T. V. Misuryaev, N. E. Sherstyuk, V. V. Lemanov, A. I. Morozov, A. S. Sigov, and Th. Rasing, "Observation of a Near-Surface Structural Phase Transition in SrTiO3 by Optical Second Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3664-3667 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Muralt, "Ferroelectric thin films for micro-sensors and actuators: a review," J. Micromech. Microeng. 10, 136-146 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. G. Lee, J.K. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, J. G. Lee, H. M. Jang, and S. J. Kim, "Zr/Ti ratio dependence of the deformation in the hysteresis loop of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films," J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 18, 2025-2028 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Baudry, "Theoretical investigation of the influence of space charges on ferroelectric properties of PbZrTiO3 thin film capacitor," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1096-1105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, "Overview of Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE), Part I (II): Basic Theory and Typical Applications (Advanced Applications)," Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology CR72, 3-28 (1999).

C. N. W. Darlington, and K. S. Knight, "On the lattice parameters of sodium niobateat room temperature and above," Physica B 266, 368-372 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Panda, A. Dhar, G. D. Nigan, D. Bhattacharga, and S. K. Ray, "Optical properties of RF sputtered strontium substituted barium titanate thin films," Thin Solid Films 332, 46-49 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Bruchhaus, D. Pitzer, R. Primig, W. Wersing, and Y. Xu, "Deposition of self-polarized PZT films by planar multi-target sputtering," Integrated Ferroelectrics 14, 141-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Krepelka, "Plane electromagnetic waves in anisotropic layered systems", Acta Universitatis Palackinae Olomucensis.Physica 36, 109-132 (1997).

1992

G. E. Jellison, Jr. and J. W. McCamy, "Sample depolarization effects from thin films of ZnS on GaAs as measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 512-514 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

S.-Y. Zhu, Y.-L. Chen, and J.-X. Fang, "Thermal effects of the refractive index caused by the electron-phonon interaction," Phys. Rew. B 35, 2980-2987 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. K. Wang, J. P. Ansermet, S. L. Rudaz, Z. Wang, S. Shore, C. P. Slichter, and J. H. Sinfelt, "NMR Studies of Simple Molecules on Metal Surfaces," Science 234, 35-41 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. V. Pisarev, B. N. Shermatov, A. Nasyrev, in Russion "Otricaltelnyj istennyj termoopticheskij effekt v titanate stroncija SrTiO3,"Fizika Tverdovo Telo 28, 3338-3341 (1986).

1985

D. Weller, S. F. Alvarado, W. Gudat, K. Schröder, and M. Campagna, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Magnetic Order and Magnetic Surface Reconstruction on Gd(0001)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1555-1558 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

W. Kleemann, F. J. Schafer and M. D. Fontain, "Crystal optical studies of spontaneous and precursor polarization in KNbO3," Phys. Rev. B 301148-1154 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

G. B. Burns, and F. H. Dacol, "Glassy polarization behavior in ferroelectric compounds Pb(Mg1/3Nb1/3)O3 and Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3," Sol. St. Comm. 48, 853-856 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Toyoda, and M. Yabe, "The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of SrTiO3 and TiO2," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 16, L251-L255 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Levanyuk and S. A. Minyukov, in Russion "Ob evoluciji pripoverhnostnyh iskazhenii struktury kristallov vblizi tochek strukturnyh fazovyh perehodov," Fiz. Tver.Tela 25, 2617-2622 (1983).

M. Sparks, "Optical Distortion by Heated Windows in High-Power Laser Systems," J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5029-5046 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

E. Schneider, P. J. Cressman, and R. L. Holman, "Temperature dependence of the refractive index of strontium titanate and prism coupling to lithium niobate optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4054-4056 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Burns and F. H. Dacol, "Polarization in the cubic phase of BaTIO3," Sol. St. Comm. 42, 9-12 (1982)
[CrossRef]

1980

T Izumitani, and H. Toratani, "Temperature coefficient of electronic polarizability in optical glasses," J. Non. Cryst. Sol. 40, 611-619 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. Fousek and J. Petzelt, "Changes of Refractive Indices of Crystals Induced by Structural Phase Transitions," Phys. Stat. Sol 55, 11-40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, and S. Shibata, "Thermal variation of attenuation for optical fibers," J Non-Cryst Solids 30, 359-370 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

A. T. Anistratov, "Electrooptical and photelastic phenomena in ferroelectric crystals," translated from Izvestiya Vysshih Uchebnyh Zavedenii, Fizika 4, 7-22 (1975).

1974

K. Binder and P. C. Hohenberg, "Surface effects on magnetic phase transitions, " Phys. Rev. B 9, 2194-2214 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Avogadro, G. Bonera, F. Borsa, and A. Rigamoti, "Static and dynamic properties of the structural phase transitions in NaNbO3," Phys. Rev. 9, 3905-3920 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

A. M. Glazer and H. D. Megaw, "Studies of the Lattice Parameters and Domains in the Phase Transitions of NaNbO3," Acta Cryst. A 29, 489-495 (1973)
[CrossRef]

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W. Chang, C. M. Gilmore, W.-J. Kim, J. M. Pond, S. W. Kirchoefer, S. B. Qadri, D. B. Chirsey, and J. S. Horwitz, "Influence of strain on microwave dielectric properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3044-3049 (2000).
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I. Aulika, A. Dejneka, V. Zauls, and K. Kundzins, "Optical gradient of the trapezium-shaped NaNbO3 thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry", J. Electroch. Soc.,  155, G209-G213 (2008).
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V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, Division of Optics, Institute of Physics, Academy of Science, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Republic, ""Soft elecronic band" and negative thermooptic effect in stroncum titanate" accepted for publication in New Journal of Physics (2009).

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F. Denoyer, R. Comes, and M. Lambert, "X-ray Diffuse Scattering from NaNbO3 as a Function of Temperature," Acta Cryst. A 27, 414-420 (1971).
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I. Aulika, J. Petzelt, J. Pokorny, A. Deyneka, V. Zauls, and K. Kundzins, "Structural and Optical Studies of NaNbO3 Thin Films Grown by PLD on SrRuO3 Bottom Electrode," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sc.V 15, 158-166 (2007).

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[CrossRef]

A. Deyneka, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik, and G. Gerlach, "Phase Transitions in PbZr1−xTixO3 Ceramics Prepared by Different Techniques," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6966-6968 (2002).
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Dhar, A.

B. Panda, A. Dhar, G. D. Nigan, D. Bhattacharga, and S. K. Ray, "Optical properties of RF sputtered strontium substituted barium titanate thin films," Thin Solid Films 332, 46-49 (1998)
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R.W. Whatmore, Q. Zhang, Z. Huang, and R. A. Dorey, "Ferroelectric thin and thick films for microsystems," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 5, 65-76 (2003).
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V. M. Fridkin, "Some effects due to electron-phonon interaction in phase transitions occurring in a semiconductor ferroelectrics," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pisma 3, 252-255 (1966).

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R. K. Galkiewicz and J. Tauc, "Photoelastic properties of amorphous As2S3," Sol. State Commun. 10, 1261-1264 (1972).
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A. Deyneka, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik, and G. Gerlach, "Phase Transition Shift in Lead-Excess PZT Films Under UV Illumination," Ferroelectrics 67, 173-180 (2004).
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A. Deyneka, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik, and G. Gerlach, "Phase Transitions in PbZr1−xTixO3 Ceramics Prepared by Different Techniques," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6966-6968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Deineka; L. Jastrabik; G. Suchaneck; and G. Gerlach, "Optical Properties of Self-Polarized PZT Ferroelectric Films," Ferroelectrics 273, 155-160 (2002).
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G. Suchaneck, W.-M. Lin, R. Koehler, T. Sandner, G. Gerlach, R. Krawietz, W. Pompe, A. Deineka, and L. Jastrabik, "Characterization of RF-sputtered self-polarized PZT thin films for IR sensor arrays," Vacuum 66, 473-478 (2002).
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W. Chang, C. M. Gilmore, W.-J. Kim, J. M. Pond, S. W. Kirchoefer, S. B. Qadri, D. B. Chirsey, and J. S. Horwitz, "Influence of strain on microwave dielectric properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3044-3049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. M. Glazer and H. D. Megaw, "Studies of the Lattice Parameters and Domains in the Phase Transitions of NaNbO3," Acta Cryst. A 29, 489-495 (1973)
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R. Hofmann, S. H. Wemple, and H. Granicher, "Dielectric Dispersion of NaOH-Doped Ice at Low Temperatures," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 28, 265-265 (1970).
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D. Weller, S. F. Alvarado, W. Gudat, K. Schröder, and M. Campagna, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Magnetic Order and Magnetic Surface Reconstruction on Gd(0001)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1555-1558 (1985).
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J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, "Overview of Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE), Part I (II): Basic Theory and Typical Applications (Advanced Applications)," Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology CR72, 3-28 (1999).

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R. Hofmann, S. H. Wemple, and H. Granicher, "Dielectric Dispersion of NaOH-Doped Ice at Low Temperatures," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 28, 265-265 (1970).
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K. Binder and P. C. Hohenberg, "Surface effects on magnetic phase transitions, " Phys. Rev. B 9, 2194-2214 (1974).
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E. Schneider, P. J. Cressman, and R. L. Holman, "Temperature dependence of the refractive index of strontium titanate and prism coupling to lithium niobate optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4054-4056 (1982).
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Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, "Lead-free piezoceramics, " Nature 432, 84-87 (2004).
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W. Chang, C. M. Gilmore, W.-J. Kim, J. M. Pond, S. W. Kirchoefer, S. B. Qadri, D. B. Chirsey, and J. S. Horwitz, "Influence of strain on microwave dielectric properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3044-3049 (2000).
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Z. Salman, R. F. Kiefl, K. H. Chow, M. D. Hossain, T. A. Keeler, S. R. Kreitzman, C. D. P. Levy, R. I. Miller, T. J. Parolin, M. R. Pearson, H. Saadaoui, J. D. Schultz, M. Smadella, D. Wang, and W. A. MacFarlane, "Near-Surface Structural Phase Transition of SrTiO3 Studied with Zero-Field β-Detected Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Resonance," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 147601-147604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

R.W. Whatmore, Q. Zhang, Z. Huang, and R. A. Dorey, "Ferroelectric thin and thick films for microsystems," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 5, 65-76 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

Jastrabik, L.

A. Deyneka, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik, and G. Gerlach, "Phase Transition Shift in Lead-Excess PZT Films Under UV Illumination," Ferroelectrics 67, 173-180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Deyneka, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik, and G. Gerlach, "Phase Transitions in PbZr1−xTixO3 Ceramics Prepared by Different Techniques," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6966-6968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Deineka; L. Jastrabik; G. Suchaneck; and G. Gerlach, "Optical Properties of Self-Polarized PZT Ferroelectric Films," Ferroelectrics 273, 155-160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Suchaneck, W.-M. Lin, R. Koehler, T. Sandner, G. Gerlach, R. Krawietz, W. Pompe, A. Deineka, and L. Jastrabik, "Characterization of RF-sputtered self-polarized PZT thin films for IR sensor arrays," Vacuum 66, 473-478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, Division of Optics, Institute of Physics, Academy of Science, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Republic, ""Soft elecronic band" and negative thermooptic effect in stroncum titanate" accepted for publication in New Journal of Physics (2009).

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J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, "Overview of Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE), Part I (II): Basic Theory and Typical Applications (Advanced Applications)," Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology CR72, 3-28 (1999).

Keeler, T. A.

Z. Salman, R. F. Kiefl, K. H. Chow, M. D. Hossain, T. A. Keeler, S. R. Kreitzman, C. D. P. Levy, R. I. Miller, T. J. Parolin, M. R. Pearson, H. Saadaoui, J. D. Schultz, M. Smadella, D. Wang, and W. A. MacFarlane, "Near-Surface Structural Phase Transition of SrTiO3 Studied with Zero-Field β-Detected Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Resonance," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 147601-147604 (2006).
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Z. Salman, R. F. Kiefl, K. H. Chow, M. D. Hossain, T. A. Keeler, S. R. Kreitzman, C. D. P. Levy, R. I. Miller, T. J. Parolin, M. R. Pearson, H. Saadaoui, J. D. Schultz, M. Smadella, D. Wang, and W. A. MacFarlane, "Near-Surface Structural Phase Transition of SrTiO3 Studied with Zero-Field β-Detected Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Resonance," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 147601-147604 (2006).
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E. G. Lee, J.K. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, J. G. Lee, H. M. Jang, and S. J. Kim, "Zr/Ti ratio dependence of the deformation in the hysteresis loop of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films," J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 18, 2025-2028 (1999).
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E. G. Lee, J.K. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, J. G. Lee, H. M. Jang, and S. J. Kim, "Zr/Ti ratio dependence of the deformation in the hysteresis loop of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films," J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 18, 2025-2028 (1999).
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Kim, W.-J.

W. Chang, C. M. Gilmore, W.-J. Kim, J. M. Pond, S. W. Kirchoefer, S. B. Qadri, D. B. Chirsey, and J. S. Horwitz, "Influence of strain on microwave dielectric properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3044-3049 (2000).
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W. Chang, C. M. Gilmore, W.-J. Kim, J. M. Pond, S. W. Kirchoefer, S. B. Qadri, D. B. Chirsey, and J. S. Horwitz, "Influence of strain on microwave dielectric properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3044-3049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kleemann, W.

W. Kleemann, F. J. Schafer and M. D. Fontain, "Crystal optical studies of spontaneous and precursor polarization in KNbO3," Phys. Rev. B 301148-1154 (1984).
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A. Deineka; L. Jastrabik; G. Suchaneck; and G. Gerlach, "Optical Properties of Self-Polarized PZT Ferroelectric Films," Ferroelectrics 273, 155-160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Suchaneck, W.-M. Lin, R. Koehler, T. Sandner, G. Gerlach, R. Krawietz, W. Pompe, A. Deineka, and L. Jastrabik, "Characterization of RF-sputtered self-polarized PZT thin films for IR sensor arrays," Vacuum 66, 473-478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Deyneka, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik, and G. Gerlach, "Phase Transitions in PbZr1−xTixO3 Ceramics Prepared by Different Techniques," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6966-6968 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Synowicki, R.

J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, "Overview of Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE), Part I (II): Basic Theory and Typical Applications (Advanced Applications)," Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology CR72, 3-28 (1999).

Takahashi, S.

S. Takahashi, and S. Shibata, "Thermal variation of attenuation for optical fibers," J Non-Cryst Solids 30, 359-370 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Takao, H.

Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, "Lead-free piezoceramics, " Nature 432, 84-87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takatori, K.

Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, "Lead-free piezoceramics, " Nature 432, 84-87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tani, T.

Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, "Lead-free piezoceramics, " Nature 432, 84-87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Tauc, and A. Menth, "States In The Gap," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 8, 569-585 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Galkiewicz and J. Tauc, "Photoelastic properties of amorphous As2S3," Sol. State Commun. 10, 1261-1264 (1972).
[CrossRef]

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T Izumitani, and H. Toratani, "Temperature coefficient of electronic polarizability in optical glasses," J. Non. Cryst. Sol. 40, 611-619 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, T.

T. Toyoda, and M. Yabe, "The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of SrTiO3 and TiO2," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 16, L251-L255 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Trepakov, V.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, Division of Optics, Institute of Physics, Academy of Science, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Republic, ""Soft elecronic band" and negative thermooptic effect in stroncum titanate" accepted for publication in New Journal of Physics (2009).

Tsay, Y. F.

Y. F. Tsay, B. Bendow, and S. S. Mitra, "Theory of the Temperature Derivative of the Refractive Index in Transparent Crystals," Phys. Rev. B 8, 2688-2696 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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V. P. Varshni, "Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors, Physica 34, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Salman, R. F. Kiefl, K. H. Chow, M. D. Hossain, T. A. Keeler, S. R. Kreitzman, C. D. P. Levy, R. I. Miller, T. J. Parolin, M. R. Pearson, H. Saadaoui, J. D. Schultz, M. Smadella, D. Wang, and W. A. MacFarlane, "Near-Surface Structural Phase Transition of SrTiO3 Studied with Zero-Field β-Detected Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Resonance," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 147601-147604 (2006).
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P. K. Wang, J. P. Ansermet, S. L. Rudaz, Z. Wang, S. Shore, C. P. Slichter, and J. H. Sinfelt, "NMR Studies of Simple Molecules on Metal Surfaces," Science 234, 35-41 (1986).
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P. K. Wang, J. P. Ansermet, S. L. Rudaz, Z. Wang, S. Shore, C. P. Slichter, and J. H. Sinfelt, "NMR Studies of Simple Molecules on Metal Surfaces," Science 234, 35-41 (1986).
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D. Weller, S. F. Alvarado, W. Gudat, K. Schröder, and M. Campagna, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Magnetic Order and Magnetic Surface Reconstruction on Gd(0001)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1555-1558 (1985).
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S. H. Wemple, "Refractive-Index Behavior of Amorphous Semiconductors and Glasses," Phys. Rev. B 7, 3767-3777 (1973).
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Wersing, W.

R. Bruchhaus, D. Pitzer, R. Primig, W. Wersing, and Y. Xu, "Deposition of self-polarized PZT films by planar multi-target sputtering," Integrated Ferroelectrics 14, 141-149 (1997).
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R.W. Whatmore, Q. Zhang, Z. Huang, and R. A. Dorey, "Ferroelectric thin and thick films for microsystems," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 5, 65-76 (2003).
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W. F. Koehler, F. K. Odencrantz, and W. C. White, "Optical Constants of Evaporated Selenium Films by Successive Approximations," J. Opt. Soc Am. 49 109-114 (1959).
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J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, "Overview of Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE), Part I (II): Basic Theory and Typical Applications (Advanced Applications)," Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology CR72, 3-28 (1999).

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H. P. Zhou, W. Z. Shen, N. B. Chen, and H. Z. Wu, "Observation of negative thermo-optical coefficient in cubic MgZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3723-3725 (2004).
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R. Bruchhaus, D. Pitzer, R. Primig, W. Wersing, and Y. Xu, "Deposition of self-polarized PZT films by planar multi-target sputtering," Integrated Ferroelectrics 14, 141-149 (1997).
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I. Aulika, A. Dejneka, V. Zauls, and K. Kundzins, "Optical gradient of the trapezium-shaped NaNbO3 thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry", J. Electroch. Soc.,  155, G209-G213 (2008).
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I. Aulika, J. Petzelt, J. Pokorny, A. Deyneka, V. Zauls, and K. Kundzins, "Structural and Optical Studies of NaNbO3 Thin Films Grown by PLD on SrRuO3 Bottom Electrode," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sc.V 15, 158-166 (2007).

Zhang, Q.

R.W. Whatmore, Q. Zhang, Z. Huang, and R. A. Dorey, "Ferroelectric thin and thick films for microsystems," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 5, 65-76 (2003).
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Zhou, H. P.

H. P. Zhou, W. Z. Shen, N. B. Chen, and H. Z. Wu, "Observation of negative thermo-optical coefficient in cubic MgZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3723-3725 (2004).
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H. P. Zhou, W. Z. Shen, N. B. Chen, and H. Z. Wu, "Observation of negative thermo-optical coefficient in cubic MgZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3723-3725 (2004).
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Conf. Ser.

I. Aulika, A. Deyneka, V Zauls, and K Kundzins, "Thermo-optical studies of NaNbO3 thin films," J. Phys., Conf. Ser.V 93012016 (2007).
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J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, "Overview of Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE), Part I (II): Basic Theory and Typical Applications (Advanced Applications)," Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology CR72, 3-28 (1999).

Ferroelectrics

A. Deyneka, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik, and G. Gerlach, "Phase Transition Shift in Lead-Excess PZT Films Under UV Illumination," Ferroelectrics 67, 173-180 (2004).
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A. Deineka; L. Jastrabik; G. Suchaneck; and G. Gerlach, "Optical Properties of Self-Polarized PZT Ferroelectric Films," Ferroelectrics 273, 155-160 (2002).
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R. Hofmann, S. H. Wemple, and H. Granicher, "Dielectric Dispersion of NaOH-Doped Ice at Low Temperatures," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 28, 265-265 (1970).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Deyneka, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik, and G. Gerlach, "Phase Transitions in PbZr1−xTixO3 Ceramics Prepared by Different Techniques," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 6966-6968 (2002).
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Mat. Sc. Forum Vols.

A. Deyneka1a, Z. Hubicka1, V. Trepakov1, G. Suchaneck, L. Jastrabik1, G. Gerlach, J. Pokorny1, D. Chvostova1, and J. Olejnicek, "Low Pressure RF Plasma Jet Sputtering Technique Applied to Ferroelectric Films: Ba1-x SrxTiO3", Mat. Sc. Forum Vols. 514-516, 165-169 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, "Lead-free piezoceramics, " Nature 432, 84-87 (2004).
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Phys. Rev. B

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S. H. Wemple, "Refractive-Index Behavior of Amorphous Semiconductors and Glasses," Phys. Rev. B 7, 3767-3777 (1973).
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Z. Salman, R. F. Kiefl, K. H. Chow, M. D. Hossain, T. A. Keeler, S. R. Kreitzman, C. D. P. Levy, R. I. Miller, T. J. Parolin, M. R. Pearson, H. Saadaoui, J. D. Schultz, M. Smadella, D. Wang, and W. A. MacFarlane, "Near-Surface Structural Phase Transition of SrTiO3 Studied with Zero-Field β-Detected Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Resonance," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 147601-147604 (2006).
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I. Aulika, J. Petzelt, J. Pokorny, A. Deyneka, V. Zauls, and K. Kundzins, "Structural and Optical Studies of NaNbO3 Thin Films Grown by PLD on SrRuO3 Bottom Electrode," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sc.V 15, 158-166 (2007).

Science

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V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, Division of Optics, Institute of Physics, Academy of Science, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Republic, ""Soft elecronic band" and negative thermooptic effect in stroncum titanate" accepted for publication in New Journal of Physics (2009).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Temperature dependence of band gap energies E02 and E03 of (a) SP PZT and (b) SP and CSD PZT

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temperature dependence T of (a) refractive index n and (b) ellipsometric angle Δ at the wavelength of 400 nm for Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3thin film.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temperature dependence of the effective refractive index at the 300 nm of NN thin film [29].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temperature dependence of the band gap energy of NN thin film. The temperature coefficient of the optical gap ∂Eg /∂T in [meV/K] is given for each phase from I - VI, evaluated by fitting experimental data by Varshni quadratic relation [53].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Refractive index at 600 nm and (b) XRD surface omega-scan distribution of (100) surface of Verneuil Crystal GmbH grown SrTiO3 [30].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Refractive index at 600 nm and (b) XRD surface omega-scan distribution from (110) surface of Mateck TSSG grown SrTiO3 single crystal [30].

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Surface roughness as a function of the temperature for Mateck TSSG grown SrTiO3 single crystal [30].

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Effective refraction index neff as a function of anisotropic medium orientation φ, ϑ, n0 = 1, n0 = 2.385, ne = 2.380, φ0 = π/2, ϑ0 = 60° in (a) three and (b) two dimensions.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. The phase transitions temperatures of PZT thin films made by SP and CSD techniques.

Equations (20)

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δn(T)=(n03/2)(gijF+2gijF)<δP2(T)>,
Eg=Eg0+a2P2+b2P4+c2P6 ,
ΔEga2P2,
η=ηTOE+ηVE=dn/dT=(dn/dT)TOE+(dn/dT)PE,
η=ηTOE+ηVE=ηTOEEPP+ηTOETAE+ηTOEPH+ηPE.
A=(1/γγnxnyγnxnz0γnzγnxnynz),
ψ(z)=(ε0Exμ0Hyε0Eyμ0Hx)
dψ(z)dz=iωcDψ(z),
D11=cxεzxεzzcyμyzμzz,D12=cxε0εzz+μyyμ0μyzμyzμzzμ0,
D13=cxεzyεzz+cxμyzμzz,D14=cxcyε0εzzμyxμ0+μyzμzxμzzμ0,
D21=cy2μ0μzz+εxxε0εxzεzxεzzε0,D22=cxεxzεzzcyμzyμ0,
D23=cxcyμ0μzz+εxyε0εxzεzyεzzε0,D24=cyεxzεzz+cyμzxμzz,
D31=cyεzxεzz+cyμxzμzz,D32=cxcyε0εzzμxyμ0+czyμxzμzzμ0,
D33=cyεzyεzz+cxμxzμzz,D34=cy2ε0εzzμxxμ0+μxzμzxμzzμ0,
D41=cxcyμ0μzz+εyxε0εyzεzxεzzε0,D42=cxεyzεzz+cxμzyμzz,
D43=cx2μ0μzz+εyyε0εyzεzyεzzε0,D44=cyεyzεzz+cxμzxμzz,
r21=(S21S33S23S31)/d,r23=(S11S23S21S13)/d,
r41=(S41S33S43S31)/d,r43=(S11S43S41S13)/d,
tanψexp()=r21+r23r41+r43 .
f0=n0sinϑ0tanϑ0/(1+tan2ψcosΔ),    x1=f0(1tan2ψ),x2=2f0sinΔtanψ, η={12[x12x22+f02+((x12+x22)2+2f02(x12x22)+f04)1/2]}1/2,κ=x1x2/η.

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