Abstract

We show that recently introduced joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (STdOCT) can be used for simultaneous complex ambiguity removal and functional Spectral OCT images. This permits to take advantage of higher sensitivity achievable near the zero-path delay. The technique can be used with all Spectral OCT systems that are equipped with an optical delay line (ODL) and provide oversampled scanning patterns. High sensitivity provided by STdOCT allows this technique to be used in Spectral OCT setups with acquisition speed of 100 000 lines/s. We show that different imaging ranges and velocity ranges can be achieved by switching on/off the ODL and a small modification in the processing algorithm. Additionally, the relatively small computational burden of the technique allows for fast computations in the range of less than 5 minutes for 3D data set. We present application of proposed technique to full-range two- and three-dimensional imaging. Morphological and Doppler tomograms of human retina in-vivo are shown. Finally, we identify and discuss artifacts of the technique.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (4)

2008 (5)

2007 (7)

2006 (2)

2005 (6)

2004 (3)

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,” Opt. Lett. 23(3), 147–149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

An, L.

Aoki, G.

Applegate, B. E.

Bachmann, A. H.

Bajraszewski, T.

Baumann, B.

Blatter, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Choma, M. A.

Davis, A. M.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Dobre, G. M.

Duker, J. S.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

Fabritius, T.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorczynska, W.

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 357–362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, A.

Grulkowski, I.

Hanson, S. R.

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, S.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

Jackson, D. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, K. M.

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 357–362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, “Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1415–1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 820–822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Makita, S.

Marcos, S.

Michaely, R.

Mujat, M.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Radzewicz, C.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sekhar, S. C.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sumimura, H.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tao, Y. K.

Targowski, P.

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 357–362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Vakoc, B.

Villiger, M. L.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, R. K. K.

R. K. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 054103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, W.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, A.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 357–362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, “Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1415–1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 820–822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C. H.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zhao, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 054103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 357–362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (20)

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
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B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13375–13387 (2007).
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M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
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Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, H. Sumimura, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6184–6191 (2004).
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B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 microm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
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B. Vakoc, S. Yun, J. de Boer, G. Tearney, and B. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
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R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
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S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Full-range, high-speed, high-resolution 1 microm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using BM-scan for volumetric imaging of the human posterior eye,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8406–8420 (2008).
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L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
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Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
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Y. K. Tao, K. M. Kennedy, and J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-resolved 3D retinal microvessel imaging using single-pass flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4177–4188 (2009).
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I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
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R. K. Wang and L. An, “Doppler optical micro-angiography for volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion in vivo,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8926–8940 (2009).
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A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
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E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
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M. A. Choma, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Instantaneous quadrature low-coherence interferometry with 3 x 3 fiber-optic couplers,” Opt. Lett. 28(22), 2162–2164 (2003).
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R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, and T. Bajraszewski, “Phase-shifting algorithm to achieve high-speed long-depth-range probing by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(22), 2201–2203 (2003).
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M. V. Sarunic, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, “Spectral domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2391–2393 (2005).
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Y. K. Tao, M. Zhao, and J. A. Izatt, “High-speed complex conjugate resolved retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography using sinusoidal phase modulation,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2918–2920 (2007).
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L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3423–3425 (2007).
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R. A. Leitgeb, R. Michaely, T. Lasser, and S. C. Sekhar, “Complex ambiguity-free Fourier domain optical coherence tomography through transverse scanning,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3453–3455 (2007).
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R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 820–822 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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