Abstract

We show that recently introduced joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (STdOCT) can be used for simultaneous complex ambiguity removal and functional Spectral OCT images. This permits to take advantage of higher sensitivity achievable near the zero-path delay. The technique can be used with all Spectral OCT systems that are equipped with an optical delay line (ODL) and provide oversampled scanning patterns. High sensitivity provided by STdOCT allows this technique to be used in Spectral OCT setups with acquisition speed of 100 000 lines/s. We show that different imaging ranges and velocity ranges can be achieved by switching on/off the ODL and a small modification in the processing algorithm. Additionally, the relatively small computational burden of the technique allows for fast computations in the range of less than 5 minutes for 3D data set. We present application of proposed technique to full-range two- and three-dimensional imaging. Morphological and Doppler tomograms of human retina in-vivo are shown. Finally, we identify and discuss artifacts of the technique.

© 2009 OSA

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2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2000

1998

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,” Opt. Lett. 23(3), 147–149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Aoki, G.

Applegate, B. E.

Bachmann, A. H.

Bajraszewski, T.

Baumann, B.

Blatter, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Davis, A. M.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Dobre, G. M.

Duker, J. S.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

Fabritius, T.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorczynska, W.

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 357–362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Grulkowski, I.

Hanson, S. R.

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

Jackson, D. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, K. M.

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 357–362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, “Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1415–1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, “Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 820–822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence radar” and “spectral radar”-new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Makita, S.

Marcos, S.

Michaely, R.

Mujat, M.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radzewicz, C.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekhar, S. C.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumimura, H.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 357–362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Szlag, D.

Tao, Y. K.

Targowski, P.

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 357–362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Vakoc, B.

Villiger, M. L.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, R. K. K.

R. K. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 054103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, W.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, A.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, “Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source,” Opt. Commun. 246(4–6), 569–578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 357–362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

STdOCT diagrams. Vertical transitions are accomplished by Fourier transformation along wavenumber axis, horizontal – by Fourier transformation along time axis. Amplitude of the complex signal is displayed for visualization purposes. In the zω-domain complex conjugate images are symmetrical with respect to the central point of the plot (zero position, zero velocity). (a) moving mirror experiment, two points (red arrows) represent two complex conjugate images of the mirror; each of the points gives simultaneously information about position and velocity of the moving mirror with respect to the reference mirror. (b) Laminar flow of Intralipid solution in a glass capillary. Two complex conjugate images of parabolic flow distribution are visible.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic STdOCT diagrams showing data flow in numerical processing from a subset of raw spectral fringe signals to the final A-scan. Grey areas indicate portions of the data from a given signal space that are used in calculations at each stage of the procedure; (a) standard SOCT data processing; (b) STdOCT data processing.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

STdOCT diagrams of Intralipid flow in a glass capillary: (a) without additional velocity; (b) with additional velocity νref (marked by red arrow) introduced in the reference arm of the interferometer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic STdOCT diagram showing data flow in the modified STdOCT algorithm allowing recovery of velocity distribution as a function of depth in the whole imaging range: (a) slower version of the algorithm with high velocity resolution provided by implementation of zero-padding procedure before the t→ω Fourier transformation; (b) faster version of the algorithm without zero-padding.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SOCT set-up used in experiments: FC – fiber coupler (splitting ratio 90:10); PC – polarization controller; L1–L4 – lenses; NDF – neutral density filter; DC – dispersion compensation; ODL – optical delay line; SM-Z – galvanometer scanner (z-scanning); RM – reference mirror; SM-XY – galvanometer scanners (xy-scanning); DG – holographic volume diffraction grating; CMOS – line-scan camera; FG – frame-grabber; COMP – personal computer; IOC – input-output card.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Detailed scheme of the optical delay line introduced in the reference arm of the SOCT set-up used in experiments: L1, L2 – lenses; SM-Z – galvanometric scanner; RM -reference mirror; f – focal length of the lens L2; For clarity the neutral density filter and dispersion compensator are removed from the drawing. (b) Parameters used to calculate the optical path difference: δ – shift between the incoming beam and the axis of rotation of SM-Z; α – tilt angle of SM-Z; z – optical path distance introduced by scanner tilt. The part of the light beam marked in red is responsible for optical path difference between the two positions of the rotating mirror. See text for further details.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

STdOCT measurement of two glass capillaries with Intralipid solution. (a) structural cross-sectional image obtained using standard STdOCT processing; (b) velocity map obtained using phase-resolved OCT ν max = 20.2 mm/s ; (c) structural cross-sectional image obtained using complex ambiguity free STdOCT; (d) velocity map obtained using complex ambiguity free STdOCT ν max = 10.1 mm/s.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

High density cross-sectional image of human optic disk in-vivo obtained using complex ambiguity free STdOCT: (a) structural tomogram; (b) velocity tomogram ν max =10.1 mm/s.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Two cross-sectional images of human retina in-vivo measured in the close proximity of optic nerve head from 3D data set. (a) and (c) structural tomogram obtained using complex ambiguity free STdOCT; (b) and (d) velocity map obtained using complex ambiguity free STdOCT ν max = 10.1 mm/s . Arrows indicate artifacts – remaining mirror images of vessels with high flow velocity.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Correction of artifact connected with optical path delay changes during data acquisition. (a) tomogram without correction; (b) tomogram with numerical correction of tomogram lines shifts.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Artifacts appearing when actual flow velocity exceeds velocity range. (a) Structural tomogram with vessel from the complex conjugate image visible (arrows); (b) velocity tomogram of (a), ν max =10.1 mm/s ; (c) signal in -plane corresponding to the tomogram line (dotted line), parabolic velocity distribution cross the velocity range limit.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Scanning protocols used in experiments with complex ambiguity free STdOCT.

Equations (11)

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I(k,t)=S(k)(sRs+Rr+2sRsRrcos(2zsk+2νskt)).
I(k,t)=S(k)(sRs+Rr+2sRsRrcos(2zsk+2(νs+νref)kt)) .
ν±max=±π2kΔt.
ν±max,sample=ν±max.
νmax,sample+νref0,
ν+max,sample+νrefνmax.
ν±max,sample=ν±max2.
zδ(α)=δtan(α).
zδ(α)δ[tan(α0)+1cos2(α0)·(αα0)+12sin(2α0)·(αα0)2+].
νref=2ddt zδ (α)=2δcos2(α0) ·ωSMZ.
νref=4δωSMZ.

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