Abstract

We have integrated magneto-optical traps (MOTs) into an atom chip by etching pyramids into a silicon wafer. These have been used to trap atoms on the chip, directly from a room temperature vapor of rubidium. This new atom trapping method provides a simple way to integrate several atom sources on the same chip. It represents a substantial advance in atom chip technology and offers new possibilities for atom chip applications such as integrated single atom or photon sources and molecules on a chip.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. A. Hinds and I. G. Hughes, "A pyramidal magneto-optical trap as a source of slow atoms," J. Phys. D 18, R119-R146 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Folman, P. Kruger, J. Schmiedmayer, J. Denschlag, and C. Henkel, "Microscopic atom optics: from wires to an atom chip," Adv. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 263-356 (2002).
  3. J. Fortágh and C. Zimmermann, "Magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 235-289 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hansch, and J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Ott, J. Fortagh, G. Schlotterbeck, A. Grossmann, and C. Zimmermann, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a surface microtrap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230,401 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. D. J. Sinclair, E. A. Curtis, I. Llorente-Garcia, J. A. Retter, B. V. Hall, S. Eriksson, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, "Bose-Einstein Condensation on a permanent-magnet atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 03,160(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Reichel, W. Hänsel, and T. W. Hänsch, "Atomic Micromanipulation with Magnetic Surface Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(17), 3398-3401 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Grabowski and T. Pfau, "A lattice of magneto-optical and magnetic traps for cold atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 22, 347-354 (2003).
  9. M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).
  10. K. I. Lee, J. A. Kim, H. R. Noh, and W. Jhe, "Single-beam atom trap in a pyramidal and conical hollow mirror," Opt. Lett. 21, 1177 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).
  12. A. S. Louro and J. R. Senna, "Real-time, in-situ microscopic observation of bubbles and roughening in KOH etching of silicon," in Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology VII (2001).
  13. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction," Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1888-1890 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. P. Larsen, J. Ravnkilde, and O. Hansen, "Investigations of the isotropic etch of an ICP source for silicon microlens mold fabrication," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 873-882 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, "Polarization spectroscopy of a closed atomic transition: applications to laser frequency locking," J. Phys. B 35(24), 5141-5151 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, "Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique," App. Phys. B 79, 363-365 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. L. Corwin, Z.-T. Lu, C. F. Hand, R. J. Epstein, and C. E. Wieman, "Frequency-Stabilized Diode Laser with the Zeeman Shift in an Atomic Vapor," Appl. Opt. 37, 3295-3298 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, "Experimental and Theoretical-Study of the Vapor-Cell Zeeman Optical Trap," Phys. Rev. A 46(7), 4082-4090 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, "Atom Detection and Photon Production in a Scalable, Open, Optical Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063,601 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. M. Jones, E. Tiesinga, P. D. Lett, and P. S. Julienne, "Ultracold photoassociation spectroscopy: Long-range molecules and atomic scattering," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 483 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

2007 (2)

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, "Atom Detection and Photon Production in a Scalable, Open, Optical Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063,601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fortágh and C. Zimmermann, "Magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 235-289 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

K. M. Jones, E. Tiesinga, P. D. Lett, and P. S. Julienne, "Ultracold photoassociation spectroscopy: Long-range molecules and atomic scattering," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. P. Larsen, J. Ravnkilde, and O. Hansen, "Investigations of the isotropic etch of an ICP source for silicon microlens mold fabrication," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 873-882 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. D. J. Sinclair, E. A. Curtis, I. Llorente-Garcia, J. A. Retter, B. V. Hall, S. Eriksson, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, "Bose-Einstein Condensation on a permanent-magnet atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 03,160(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, "Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique," App. Phys. B 79, 363-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Grabowski and T. Pfau, "A lattice of magneto-optical and magnetic traps for cold atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 22, 347-354 (2003).

2002 (2)

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, "Polarization spectroscopy of a closed atomic transition: applications to laser frequency locking," J. Phys. B 35(24), 5141-5151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Folman, P. Kruger, J. Schmiedmayer, J. Denschlag, and C. Henkel, "Microscopic atom optics: from wires to an atom chip," Adv. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 263-356 (2002).

2001 (3)

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hansch, and J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ott, J. Fortagh, G. Schlotterbeck, A. Grossmann, and C. Zimmermann, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a surface microtrap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230,401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction," Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1888-1890 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

E. A. Hinds and I. G. Hughes, "A pyramidal magneto-optical trap as a source of slow atoms," J. Phys. D 18, R119-R146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichel, W. Hänsel, and T. W. Hänsch, "Atomic Micromanipulation with Magnetic Surface Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(17), 3398-3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, "Experimental and Theoretical-Study of the Vapor-Cell Zeeman Optical Trap," Phys. Rev. A 46(7), 4082-4090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, C. S.

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, "Polarization spectroscopy of a closed atomic transition: applications to laser frequency locking," J. Phys. B 35(24), 5141-5151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashmore, J.

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, "Atom Detection and Photon Production in a Scalable, Open, Optical Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063,601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ashmore, J. P.

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

Baumberg, J. J.

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

Cennini, G.

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, "Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique," App. Phys. B 79, 363-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

Corwin, K. L.

Cox, S. G.

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, "Polarization spectroscopy of a closed atomic transition: applications to laser frequency locking," J. Phys. B 35(24), 5141-5151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, E. A.

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

C. D. J. Sinclair, E. A. Curtis, I. Llorente-Garcia, J. A. Retter, B. V. Hall, S. Eriksson, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, "Bose-Einstein Condensation on a permanent-magnet atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 03,160(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Darquié, B.

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, "Atom Detection and Photon Production in a Scalable, Open, Optical Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063,601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denschlag, J.

R. Folman, P. Kruger, J. Schmiedmayer, J. Denschlag, and C. Henkel, "Microscopic atom optics: from wires to an atom chip," Adv. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 263-356 (2002).

Dutier, G.

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, "Atom Detection and Photon Production in a Scalable, Open, Optical Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063,601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, R. J.

Eriksson, S.

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, "Atom Detection and Photon Production in a Scalable, Open, Optical Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063,601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

C. D. J. Sinclair, E. A. Curtis, I. Llorente-Garcia, J. A. Retter, B. V. Hall, S. Eriksson, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, "Bose-Einstein Condensation on a permanent-magnet atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 03,160(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Folman, R.

R. Folman, P. Kruger, J. Schmiedmayer, J. Denschlag, and C. Henkel, "Microscopic atom optics: from wires to an atom chip," Adv. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 263-356 (2002).

Fortagh, J.

H. Ott, J. Fortagh, G. Schlotterbeck, A. Grossmann, and C. Zimmermann, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a surface microtrap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230,401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fortágh, J.

J. Fortágh and C. Zimmermann, "Magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 235-289 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geckeler, C.

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, "Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique," App. Phys. B 79, 363-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldwin, J.

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, "Atom Detection and Photon Production in a Scalable, Open, Optical Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063,601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gollasch, C.

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

Grabowski, A.

A. Grabowski and T. Pfau, "A lattice of magneto-optical and magnetic traps for cold atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 22, 347-354 (2003).

Griffin, P. F.

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, "Polarization spectroscopy of a closed atomic transition: applications to laser frequency locking," J. Phys. B 35(24), 5141-5151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grossmann, A.

H. Ott, J. Fortagh, G. Schlotterbeck, A. Grossmann, and C. Zimmermann, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a surface microtrap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230,401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hall, B. V.

C. D. J. Sinclair, E. A. Curtis, I. Llorente-Garcia, J. A. Retter, B. V. Hall, S. Eriksson, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, "Bose-Einstein Condensation on a permanent-magnet atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 03,160(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hand, C. F.

Hansch, T. W.

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hansch, and J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

J. Reichel, W. Hänsel, and T. W. Hänsch, "Atomic Micromanipulation with Magnetic Surface Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(17), 3398-3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hansel, W.

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hansch, and J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsel, W.

J. Reichel, W. Hänsel, and T. W. Hänsch, "Atomic Micromanipulation with Magnetic Surface Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(17), 3398-3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, O.

K. P. Larsen, J. Ravnkilde, and O. Hansen, "Investigations of the isotropic etch of an ICP source for silicon microlens mold fabrication," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 873-882 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henkel, C.

R. Folman, P. Kruger, J. Schmiedmayer, J. Denschlag, and C. Henkel, "Microscopic atom optics: from wires to an atom chip," Adv. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 263-356 (2002).

Hinds, E. A.

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, "Atom Detection and Photon Production in a Scalable, Open, Optical Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063,601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

C. D. J. Sinclair, E. A. Curtis, I. Llorente-Garcia, J. A. Retter, B. V. Hall, S. Eriksson, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, "Bose-Einstein Condensation on a permanent-magnet atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 03,160(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Hinds and I. G. Hughes, "A pyramidal magneto-optical trap as a source of slow atoms," J. Phys. D 18, R119-R146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hommelhoff, P.

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hansch, and J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, I. G.

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, "Polarization spectroscopy of a closed atomic transition: applications to laser frequency locking," J. Phys. B 35(24), 5141-5151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Hinds and I. G. Hughes, "A pyramidal magneto-optical trap as a source of slow atoms," J. Phys. D 18, R119-R146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jhe, W.

Jones, K. M.

K. M. Jones, E. Tiesinga, P. D. Lett, and P. S. Julienne, "Ultracold photoassociation spectroscopy: Long-range molecules and atomic scattering," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Julienne, P. S.

K. M. Jones, E. Tiesinga, P. D. Lett, and P. S. Julienne, "Ultracold photoassociation spectroscopy: Long-range molecules and atomic scattering," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. A.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kraft, M.

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

Kruger, P.

R. Folman, P. Kruger, J. Schmiedmayer, J. Denschlag, and C. Henkel, "Microscopic atom optics: from wires to an atom chip," Adv. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 263-356 (2002).

Laliotis, A.

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

Larsen, K. P.

K. P. Larsen, J. Ravnkilde, and O. Hansen, "Investigations of the isotropic etch of an ICP source for silicon microlens mold fabrication," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 873-882 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. I.

Lee, K. K.

Lett, P. D.

K. M. Jones, E. Tiesinga, P. D. Lett, and P. S. Julienne, "Ultracold photoassociation spectroscopy: Long-range molecules and atomic scattering," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, G. N.

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

Lim, D. R.

Lindquist, K.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, "Experimental and Theoretical-Study of the Vapor-Cell Zeeman Optical Trap," Phys. Rev. A 46(7), 4082-4090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llorente-Garcia, I.

C. D. J. Sinclair, E. A. Curtis, I. Llorente-Garcia, J. A. Retter, B. V. Hall, S. Eriksson, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, "Bose-Einstein Condensation on a permanent-magnet atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 03,160(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.-T.

Moktadir, Z.

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

Moktdir, Z.

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

Noh, H. R.

Ott, H.

H. Ott, J. Fortagh, G. Schlotterbeck, A. Grossmann, and C. Zimmermann, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a surface microtrap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230,401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pearman, C. P.

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, "Polarization spectroscopy of a closed atomic transition: applications to laser frequency locking," J. Phys. B 35(24), 5141-5151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

A. Grabowski and T. Pfau, "A lattice of magneto-optical and magnetic traps for cold atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 22, 347-354 (2003).

Pollock, S.

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

Prakash, G. V.

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

Ramirez-Martinez, F.

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

Ravnkilde, J.

K. P. Larsen, J. Ravnkilde, and O. Hansen, "Investigations of the isotropic etch of an ICP source for silicon microlens mold fabrication," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 873-882 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, J.

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hansch, and J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichel, W. Hänsel, and T. W. Hänsch, "Atomic Micromanipulation with Magnetic Surface Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(17), 3398-3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Retter, J. A.

C. D. J. Sinclair, E. A. Curtis, I. Llorente-Garcia, J. A. Retter, B. V. Hall, S. Eriksson, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, "Bose-Einstein Condensation on a permanent-magnet atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 03,160(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ritt, G.

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, "Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique," App. Phys. B 79, 363-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, B. E.

C. D. J. Sinclair, E. A. Curtis, I. Llorente-Garcia, J. A. Retter, B. V. Hall, S. Eriksson, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, "Bose-Einstein Condensation on a permanent-magnet atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 03,160(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schlotterbeck, G.

H. Ott, J. Fortagh, G. Schlotterbeck, A. Grossmann, and C. Zimmermann, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a surface microtrap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230,401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmiedmayer, J.

R. Folman, P. Kruger, J. Schmiedmayer, J. Denschlag, and C. Henkel, "Microscopic atom optics: from wires to an atom chip," Adv. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 263-356 (2002).

Shin, J.

Sinclair, C. D. J.

C. D. J. Sinclair, E. A. Curtis, I. Llorente-Garcia, J. A. Retter, B. V. Hall, S. Eriksson, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, "Bose-Einstein Condensation on a permanent-magnet atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 03,160(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, "Polarization spectroscopy of a closed atomic transition: applications to laser frequency locking," J. Phys. B 35(24), 5141-5151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, M.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, "Experimental and Theoretical-Study of the Vapor-Cell Zeeman Optical Trap," Phys. Rev. A 46(7), 4082-4090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiesinga, E.

K. M. Jones, E. Tiesinga, P. D. Lett, and P. S. Julienne, "Ultracold photoassociation spectroscopy: Long-range molecules and atomic scattering," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, M.

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, "Atom Detection and Photon Production in a Scalable, Open, Optical Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063,601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

Weitz, M.

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, "Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique," App. Phys. B 79, 363-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, "Experimental and Theoretical-Study of the Vapor-Cell Zeeman Optical Trap," Phys. Rev. A 46(7), 4082-4090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

Zimmermann, C.

J. Fortágh and C. Zimmermann, "Magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 235-289 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ott, J. Fortagh, G. Schlotterbeck, A. Grossmann, and C. Zimmermann, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a surface microtrap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230,401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

R. Folman, P. Kruger, J. Schmiedmayer, J. Denschlag, and C. Henkel, "Microscopic atom optics: from wires to an atom chip," Adv. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 263-356 (2002).

App. Phys. B (1)

G. Ritt, G. Cennini, C. Geckeler, and M. Weitz, "Laser frequency offset locking using a side of filter technique," App. Phys. B 79, 363-365 (2004).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Trupke, F. Ramirez-Martinez, E. A. Curtis, J. P. Ashmore, S. Eriksson, E. A. Hinds, Z. Moktadir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, G. V. Prakash, and J. J. Baumberg, "Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips," App. Phys. Lett. 88, 071,116 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

A. Grabowski and T. Pfau, "A lattice of magneto-optical and magnetic traps for cold atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 22, 347-354 (2003).

J. MEMS (1)

G. N. Lewis, Z. Moktdir, C. Gollasch, M. Kraft, S. Pollock, F. Ramirez-Martinez, J. Ashmore, A. Laliotis, M. Trupke, and E. A. Hinds, "Fabrication of Magnetooptical Atom Traps on a Chip," J. MEMS 18, 347 (2009).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

K. P. Larsen, J. Ravnkilde, and O. Hansen, "Investigations of the isotropic etch of an ICP source for silicon microlens mold fabrication," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 873-882 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, "Polarization spectroscopy of a closed atomic transition: applications to laser frequency locking," J. Phys. B 35(24), 5141-5151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

E. A. Hinds and I. G. Hughes, "A pyramidal magneto-optical trap as a source of slow atoms," J. Phys. D 18, R119-R146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hansch, and J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, "Experimental and Theoretical-Study of the Vapor-Cell Zeeman Optical Trap," Phys. Rev. A 46(7), 4082-4090 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. J. Sinclair, E. A. Curtis, I. Llorente-Garcia, J. A. Retter, B. V. Hall, S. Eriksson, B. E. Sauer, and E. A. Hinds, "Bose-Einstein Condensation on a permanent-magnet atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 03,160(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. Reichel, W. Hänsel, and T. W. Hänsch, "Atomic Micromanipulation with Magnetic Surface Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(17), 3398-3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ott, J. Fortagh, G. Schlotterbeck, A. Grossmann, and C. Zimmermann, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a surface microtrap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230,401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, "Atom Detection and Photon Production in a Scalable, Open, Optical Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063,601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

K. M. Jones, E. Tiesinga, P. D. Lett, and P. S. Julienne, "Ultracold photoassociation spectroscopy: Long-range molecules and atomic scattering," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Fortágh and C. Zimmermann, "Magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 235-289 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. S. Louro and J. R. Senna, "Real-time, in-situ microscopic observation of bubbles and roughening in KOH etching of silicon," in Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology VII (2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Pyramids after various stages of processing. Top row: photographs. Bottom row: optical microscope images of an internal pyramid face. (a, d) Array of pyramids 2.8mm deep, etched without agitation. (b, e) Single pyramid 2.1mm deep, formed with air bubbling through etchant. (c, f) Pyramid 2.8mm deep, etched with agitation, then polished by 30 minutes of ICP etching. This particular wafer was diced to make the individual pyramid shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The complete chip package consisting of a 3 × 3 array of silicon pyramid MOTs mounted in a rectangular PEEK holder 25 × 30 mm2. The necessary magnetic fields are generated using a copper zig-zag array, which forms part of the package, above and below the chip.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fluorescence image of 2000 cold 85Rb atoms in a 2.5mm-deep pyramid. Reflections of the MOT are just visible in two of the internal faces.

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