Abstract

In our study, we spun a negative photoresist layer on top of a plasmonic lens which was formed by adopting a metallic ring structure with a nano-scale width opening. We recorded the beam shape of the Bessel-like beam emitting from the plasmonic lens which formed a high aspect ratio structure. We found that the high aspect ratio structure was higher after exposure as the inner and outer diameter had increased. In addition, we used an oblique incidence on the negative resist metallic ring structure to produce an inclined micro-structure. Different exposure results were obtained with the two different metal thicknesses. Therefore, in our study, we not only proved that it is possible to record the shape of a Bessel-like beam, but we also demonstrated that it is possible to create a plasmonic lens which is capable of creating a high aspect ratio structure through exposure.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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  1. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Enhancing intensity of emitted light from a ring by incorporating a circular groove,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15029–15034 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-23-15029 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. Verhagen, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanofocusing in laterally tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(1), 45–57 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-16-1-45.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

E. Verhagen, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanofocusing in laterally tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(1), 45–57 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-16-1-45.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Lin, Z. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Campo and C. Greiner, “SU-8: a photoresist for high-aspect-ratio and 3D submicron lithography,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(6), R81–R95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Poujet, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “90% Extraordinary optical transmission in the visible range through annular aperture metallic arrays,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2942–2944 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Enhancing intensity of emitted light from a ring by incorporating a circular groove,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15029–15034 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-23-15029 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

D. Z. Lin, C. K. Chang, Y. C. Chen, D. L. Yang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. H. Kuan, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Beaming light from a subwavelength metal slit surrounded by dielectric surface gratings,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3503–3511 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-8-3503 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5664–5670 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5664 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton length scales: a route to sub-wavelength optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S87–S93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, “The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(4), 423–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and D. V. Labeke, “Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, “Role of cylindrical surface plasmons in enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baida, F. I.

Y. Poujet, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “90% Extraordinary optical transmission in the visible range through annular aperture metallic arrays,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2942–2944 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and D. V. Labeke, “Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton length scales: a route to sub-wavelength optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S87–S93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Belkhir, A.

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and D. V. Labeke, “Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blumberg, G.

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, “Role of cylindrical surface plasmons in enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campo, A. D.

A. D. Campo and C. Greiner, “SU-8: a photoresist for high-aspect-ratio and 3D submicron lithography,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(6), R81–R95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. K.

Chang, Y. C.

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Enhancing intensity of emitted light from a ring by incorporating a circular groove,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15029–15034 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-23-15029 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. C.

Chen, Z. H.

D. Z. Lin, Z. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. D.

D. Z. Lin, Z. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greiner, C.

A. D. Campo and C. Greiner, “SU-8: a photoresist for high-aspect-ratio and 3D submicron lithography,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(6), R81–R95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haftel, M. I.

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, “Role of cylindrical surface plasmons in enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. S.

Inoue, T.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, “The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(4), 423–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kizuka, Y.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, “The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(4), 423–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, C. H.

Kuipers, L. K.

Labeke, D. V.

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and D. V. Labeke, “Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, D. Z.

Lin, M. W.

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. M.

Liu, Z.

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5664–5670 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5664 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuoka, Y.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, “The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(4), 423–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

Poujet, Y.

Salvi, J.

Schlockermann, C.

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, “Role of cylindrical surface plasmons in enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5664–5670 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5664 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhagen, E.

Wang, Y.

Yang, D. L.

Yeh, C. S.

Yeh, J. T.

Yu, Y. Y.

Zhang, X.

J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5664–5670 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5664 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. K. Chang, D. Z. Lin, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, and J. M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, “Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, Z. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, “Role of cylindrical surface plasmons in enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Kizuka, and T. Inoue, “The characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(4), 423–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

A. D. Campo and C. Greiner, “SU-8: a photoresist for high-aspect-ratio and 3D submicron lithography,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(6), R81–R95 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton length scales: a route to sub-wavelength optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(4), S87–S93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, and D. V. Labeke, “Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. W. Synder, and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1995), Chap. 2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the fabrication process.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a HAR structure (Note: SEM magnification was the same for (b) to (f) at same exposure time of 13 minutes): (a) different HAR structure generated by different metallic ring structure (distance between each ring center was 45μm), (b) structure with 12μm inner diameter and 12.3μm outer diameter, (c) structure with 10μm inner diameter and 10.3μm outer diameter, (d) structure with 8μm inner diameter and 8.3μm outer diameter (scalar bar was 42μm, scalar bar of the inserted picture was 850nm, and the inserted picture is the SEM of the apex of the HAR structure), (e) structure with 6μm inner diameter and 6.3μm outer diameter, (f) structure with 4μm inner diameter and 4.3μm outer diameter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM of the symmetrically inclined micro-structures (Note: SEM magnification was the same for (b) and (c) same inclined exposure time of 11 minutes): (a) different symmetrical inclined micro-structure generated by different metallic ring structure (distance between each ring center was 65μm), (b) structure with 4μm inner diameter and 4.3μm outer diameter (scalar bar of 25.6μm and inserted picture represents the fabrication process for the symmetrical inclined micro-structure), (c) structure with 6μm inner diameter and 6.3μm outer diameter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM of the structure generated by metallic ring structures (Note: SEM magnification was the same for (d) and (e)): (a) 14 minutes exposure time (distance of 40μm between each ring center), (b) 17 minutes exposure time (distance of 40μm between each ring center), (c) 21 minutes exposure time (distance of 45μm between each ring center), (d) structure with 4μm inner diameter and 4.3μm outer diameter (note: scalar bar was 26.2μm, scalar bar of inserted picture was 900nm, and inserted picture was apex of the structure), (e) structure with 6μm inner diameter and 6.3μm outer diameter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Wavelength of incident light at 405nm and which was linearly polarized (inner and outer diameters at 4μm and 4.3μm, respectively and the silver thicknesses were different), and the scale in these simulation results are the same: (a) 70nm thickness, (b) 140nm thickness, (c) 210nm thickness, and (d) 280nm thickness.

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