Abstract

We carry out wavelength-dependent second harmonic interference experiments using thin films of an organic dye as nonlinear optical sources. While the measured difference of refractive index between the fundamental and second harmonic wavelengths follows the theoretical expectation for air in a wide spectral region, anomalous dispersion is observed when the second harmonic light lies in the absorption band of the dye. The sensitivity of the technique to small refractive index variations may prove useful for sensing applications as well as for testing models of light dispersion in weakly dispersing and absorbing media.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, "High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser," Appl. Opt. 39, 5512-5517 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. I. Weiss, M. Hennes, and M. W. Rotach, ‘‘Derivation of refractive index and temperature gradients from optical scintillometry to correct atmospherically induced errors for highly precise geodetic measurements,’’Surv. Geophys. 22, 589-596 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Salvadé, R. Dändliker, A. Courteville and M. Zickar, "Air-dispersion measurement by second-harmonic heterodyne interferometry," Opt. Lett. 27, 1424 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, "Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 084004 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Mc Murtry, J. D. Wright, and D. A. Jackson, "Sensing applications of a low-coherence fibre-optic interferometer measuring the refractive index of air," Sensors and Actuators B 72, 69-74 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Edlén, "The refractive index of air," Metrologia 2,71-80 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. E. Ciddor, "Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared," Appl. Opt. 35,1566-73 (1996).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Muijlwijk, "Update of the Edlén Formulae for the Refractive Index of Air," Metrologia 25, 189 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Bönsch and E. Potulski, "Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen’s formula," Metrologia 35, 133-9 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, "An updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air," Metrologia 30,155-62 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, "Correction to the updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air," Metrologia 31, 315-6 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)-SiO2 interface," Thin Solid Films 364, 91-94 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of Si(111)-SiO2 interface in the vicinity of E2 critical points," Phys. Rev. B 66, 033305 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, "Phase measurements in nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 63, 491-498 (1996).
  23. E. Schwarzberg, G. Berkovic, and G. Marowsky, "Nonlinear interferometry and phase measurements for surface second-harmonic generation in a dispersive geometry," Appl. Phys. A 59, 631-637 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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  27. T. Kikteva, D. Star, and G. W. Leach, "Optical Second Harmonic Generation Study of Malachite Green Orientation and Order at the Fused-Silica/Air Interface," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 2860-2867 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. S. Galkin and R. A. Tatevian, "The problem of obtaining formulae for the refractive index of air for high-precision EDM," J. Geodesy 71, 483-485 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. P. Velsko and D. Eimerl, "Precise measurements of optical dispersion using a new interferometric technique," Appl. Opt. 25, 1344 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. P. Schellekens, G. Wilkening, F. Reinboth, M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, and J. Spronck, ‘‘Measurements of the refractive index of air using interference refractometers,’’Metrologia 22, 279-287 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, "Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 084004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Lawall, "Interferometry for Accurate Displacement Metrology," Opt. Photon. News 15, 40-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y. Salvadé, R. Dändliker, A. Courteville and M. Zickar, "Air-dispersion measurement by second-harmonic heterodyne interferometry," Opt. Lett. 27, 1424 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of Si(111)-SiO2 interface in the vicinity of E2 critical points," Phys. Rev. B 66, 033305 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. I. Weiss, M. Hennes, and M. W. Rotach, ‘‘Derivation of refractive index and temperature gradients from optical scintillometry to correct atmospherically induced errors for highly precise geodetic measurements,’’Surv. Geophys. 22, 589-596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Mc Murtry, J. D. Wright, and D. A. Jackson, "Sensing applications of a low-coherence fibre-optic interferometer measuring the refractive index of air," Sensors and Actuators B 72, 69-74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, "High-accuracy measurement of 240-m distance in an optical tunnel by use of a compact femtosecond laser," Appl. Opt. 39, 5512-5517 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Botey, J. Martorell, J. Trull, and R. Vilaseca, "Suppression of radiation in a momentum-nonconserving nonlinear interaction," Opt. Lett. 25, 1177 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)-SiO2 interface," Thin Solid Films 364, 91-94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kikteva, D. Star, and G. W. Leach, "Optical Second Harmonic Generation Study of Malachite Green Orientation and Order at the Fused-Silica/Air Interface," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 2860-2867 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Lovell, B. J. Marquardt, and B. Kahr, "Crystal violet’s shoulder," J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, 2241-2247 (1999).

1998 (2)

J. Gubler and D. Tytler, "Differential Atmospheric Refraction and Limitations on the Relative Astrometric Accuracy of Large Telescopes," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 110, 738-746 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bönsch and E. Potulski, "Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen’s formula," Metrologia 35, 133-9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. S. Galkin and R. A. Tatevian, "The problem of obtaining formulae for the refractive index of air for high-precision EDM," J. Geodesy 71, 483-485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, "Phase measurements in nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 63, 491-498 (1996).

P. E. Ciddor, "Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared," Appl. Opt. 35,1566-73 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, "Correction to the updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air," Metrologia 31, 315-6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Schwarzberg, G. Berkovic, and G. Marowsky, "Nonlinear interferometry and phase measurements for surface second-harmonic generation in a dispersive geometry," Appl. Phys. A 59, 631-637 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, "An updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air," Metrologia 30,155-62 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

R. Muijlwijk, "Update of the Edlén Formulae for the Refractive Index of Air," Metrologia 25, 189 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

S. P. Velsko and D. Eimerl, "Precise measurements of optical dispersion using a new interferometric technique," Appl. Opt. 25, 1344 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Schellekens, G. Wilkening, F. Reinboth, M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, and J. Spronck, ‘‘Measurements of the refractive index of air using interference refractometers,’’Metrologia 22, 279-287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1972 (1)

1967 (1)

J. C.  Owens, "Optical refractive index of air: dependence on pressure, temperature and composition," Appl. Opt.  6, 51-59 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

B. Edlén, "The refractive index of air," Metrologia 2,71-80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abou-Zeid, A.

K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, "Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 084004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of Si(111)-SiO2 interface in the vicinity of E2 critical points," Phys. Rev. B 66, 033305 (2002)
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)-SiO2 interface," Thin Solid Films 364, 91-94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Avramenko, V. G.

V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berkovic, G.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, "Phase measurements in nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 63, 491-498 (1996).

E. Schwarzberg, G. Berkovic, and G. Marowsky, "Nonlinear interferometry and phase measurements for surface second-harmonic generation in a dispersive geometry," Appl. Phys. A 59, 631-637 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Berkovic, Y. R. Shen, G. Marowsky, R. Steinhoff, "Iterference between second-harmonic generation from a substrate and from an adsorbate layer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Birch, K. P.

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, "Correction to the updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air," Metrologia 31, 315-6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, "An updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air," Metrologia 30,155-62 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Schellekens, G. Wilkening, F. Reinboth, M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, and J. Spronck, ‘‘Measurements of the refractive index of air using interference refractometers,’’Metrologia 22, 279-287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bönsch, G.

G. Bönsch and E. Potulski, "Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen’s formula," Metrologia 35, 133-9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Botey, M.

Ciddor, P. E.

Courteville, A.

Dändliker, R.

Dolgova, T. V.

V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of Si(111)-SiO2 interface in the vicinity of E2 critical points," Phys. Rev. B 66, 033305 (2002)
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)-SiO2 interface," Thin Solid Films 364, 91-94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Downs, M. J.

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, "Correction to the updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air," Metrologia 31, 315-6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, "An updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air," Metrologia 30,155-62 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Schellekens, G. Wilkening, F. Reinboth, M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, and J. Spronck, ‘‘Measurements of the refractive index of air using interference refractometers,’’Metrologia 22, 279-287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, "The refractive index of air," Metrologia 2,71-80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Eimerl, D.

Fedyanin, A. A.

V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of Si(111)-SiO2 interface in the vicinity of E2 critical points," Phys. Rev. B 66, 033305 (2002)
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)-SiO2 interface," Thin Solid Films 364, 91-94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Galkin, Y. S.

Y. S. Galkin and R. A. Tatevian, "The problem of obtaining formulae for the refractive index of air for high-precision EDM," J. Geodesy 71, 483-485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gubler, J.

J. Gubler and D. Tytler, "Differential Atmospheric Refraction and Limitations on the Relative Astrometric Accuracy of Large Telescopes," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 110, 738-746 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hennes, M.

A. I. Weiss, M. Hennes, and M. W. Rotach, ‘‘Derivation of refractive index and temperature gradients from optical scintillometry to correct atmospherically induced errors for highly precise geodetic measurements,’’Surv. Geophys. 22, 589-596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

S. Mc Murtry, J. D. Wright, and D. A. Jackson, "Sensing applications of a low-coherence fibre-optic interferometer measuring the refractive index of air," Sensors and Actuators B 72, 69-74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, F. E.

Kahr, B.

S. Lovell, B. J. Marquardt, and B. Kahr, "Crystal violet’s shoulder," J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, 2241-2247 (1999).

Kikteva, T.

T. Kikteva, D. Star, and G. W. Leach, "Optical Second Harmonic Generation Study of Malachite Green Orientation and Order at the Fused-Silica/Air Interface," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 2860-2867 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lawall, J.

J. Lawall, "Interferometry for Accurate Displacement Metrology," Opt. Photon. News 15, 40-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leach, G. W.

T. Kikteva, D. Star, and G. W. Leach, "Optical Second Harmonic Generation Study of Malachite Green Orientation and Order at the Fused-Silica/Air Interface," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 2860-2867 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lomov, A. A.

V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lovell, S.

S. Lovell, B. J. Marquardt, and B. Kahr, "Crystal violet’s shoulder," J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, 2241-2247 (1999).

Lu, Z. H.

Marowsky, G.

T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of Si(111)-SiO2 interface in the vicinity of E2 critical points," Phys. Rev. B 66, 033305 (2002)
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)-SiO2 interface," Thin Solid Films 364, 91-94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, "Phase measurements in nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 63, 491-498 (1996).

E. Schwarzberg, G. Berkovic, and G. Marowsky, "Nonlinear interferometry and phase measurements for surface second-harmonic generation in a dispersive geometry," Appl. Phys. A 59, 631-637 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Berkovic, Y. R. Shen, G. Marowsky, R. Steinhoff, "Iterference between second-harmonic generation from a substrate and from an adsorbate layer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, B. J.

S. Lovell, B. J. Marquardt, and B. Kahr, "Crystal violet’s shoulder," J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, 2241-2247 (1999).

Martorell, J.

Matsumoto, H.

Mc Murtry, S.

S. Mc Murtry, J. D. Wright, and D. A. Jackson, "Sensing applications of a low-coherence fibre-optic interferometer measuring the refractive index of air," Sensors and Actuators B 72, 69-74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meiners-Hagen, K.

K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, "Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 084004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Muijlwijk, R.

R. Muijlwijk, "Update of the Edlén Formulae for the Refractive Index of Air," Metrologia 25, 189 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nikulin, A. A.

V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Owens, J. C.

J. C.  Owens, "Optical refractive index of air: dependence on pressure, temperature and composition," Appl. Opt.  6, 51-59 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peck, E. R.

Potulski, E.

G. Bönsch and E. Potulski, "Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen’s formula," Metrologia 35, 133-9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, D. Yu.

V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pudonin, A. F.

V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reeder, K.

Reinboth, F.

P. Schellekens, G. Wilkening, F. Reinboth, M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, and J. Spronck, ‘‘Measurements of the refractive index of air using interference refractometers,’’Metrologia 22, 279-287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rotach, M. W.

A. I. Weiss, M. Hennes, and M. W. Rotach, ‘‘Derivation of refractive index and temperature gradients from optical scintillometry to correct atmospherically induced errors for highly precise geodetic measurements,’’Surv. Geophys. 22, 589-596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salvadé, Y.

Schellekens, P.

P. Schellekens, G. Wilkening, F. Reinboth, M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, and J. Spronck, ‘‘Measurements of the refractive index of air using interference refractometers,’’Metrologia 22, 279-287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schuhmacher, D.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)-SiO2 interface," Thin Solid Films 364, 91-94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzberg, E.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, "Phase measurements in nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 63, 491-498 (1996).

E. Schwarzberg, G. Berkovic, and G. Marowsky, "Nonlinear interferometry and phase measurements for surface second-harmonic generation in a dispersive geometry," Appl. Phys. A 59, 631-637 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Spronck, J.

P. Schellekens, G. Wilkening, F. Reinboth, M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, and J. Spronck, ‘‘Measurements of the refractive index of air using interference refractometers,’’Metrologia 22, 279-287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Star, D.

T. Kikteva, D. Star, and G. W. Leach, "Optical Second Harmonic Generation Study of Malachite Green Orientation and Order at the Fused-Silica/Air Interface," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 2860-2867 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steinhoff, R.

Stolle, R.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, "Phase measurements in nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 63, 491-498 (1996).

Sutyrin, A. G.

V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tatevian, R. A.

Y. S. Galkin and R. A. Tatevian, "The problem of obtaining formulae for the refractive index of air for high-precision EDM," J. Geodesy 71, 483-485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trull, J.

Tytler, D.

J. Gubler and D. Tytler, "Differential Atmospheric Refraction and Limitations on the Relative Astrometric Accuracy of Large Telescopes," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 110, 738-746 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Velsko, S. P.

Vilaseca, R.

Wang, L. J.

Weiss, A. I.

A. I. Weiss, M. Hennes, and M. W. Rotach, ‘‘Derivation of refractive index and temperature gradients from optical scintillometry to correct atmospherically induced errors for highly precise geodetic measurements,’’Surv. Geophys. 22, 589-596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilkening, G.

P. Schellekens, G. Wilkening, F. Reinboth, M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, and J. Spronck, ‘‘Measurements of the refractive index of air using interference refractometers,’’Metrologia 22, 279-287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J. D.

S. Mc Murtry, J. D. Wright, and D. A. Jackson, "Sensing applications of a low-coherence fibre-optic interferometer measuring the refractive index of air," Sensors and Actuators B 72, 69-74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zickar, M.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

E. Schwarzberg, G. Berkovic, and G. Marowsky, "Nonlinear interferometry and phase measurements for surface second-harmonic generation in a dispersive geometry," Appl. Phys. A 59, 631-637 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, "Phase measurements in nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 63, 491-498 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. C.  Owens, "Optical refractive index of air: dependence on pressure, temperature and composition," Appl. Opt.  6, 51-59 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. (1)

S. Lovell, B. J. Marquardt, and B. Kahr, "Crystal violet’s shoulder," J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, 2241-2247 (1999).

J. Geodesy (1)

Y. S. Galkin and R. A. Tatevian, "The problem of obtaining formulae for the refractive index of air for high-precision EDM," J. Geodesy 71, 483-485 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

T. Kikteva, D. Star, and G. W. Leach, "Optical Second Harmonic Generation Study of Malachite Green Orientation and Order at the Fused-Silica/Air Interface," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 2860-2867 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Meiners-Hagen and A. Abou-Zeid, "Refractive index determination in length measurement by two-colour interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 084004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (6)

R. Muijlwijk, "Update of the Edlén Formulae for the Refractive Index of Air," Metrologia 25, 189 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Bönsch and E. Potulski, "Measurement of the refractive index of air and comparison with modified Edlen’s formula," Metrologia 35, 133-9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, "An updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air," Metrologia 30,155-62 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Birch and M. J. Downs, "Correction to the updated Edlen equation for the refractive index of air," Metrologia 31, 315-6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Edlén, "The refractive index of air," Metrologia 2,71-80 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. Schellekens, G. Wilkening, F. Reinboth, M. J. Downs, K. P. Birch, and J. Spronck, ‘‘Measurements of the refractive index of air using interference refractometers,’’Metrologia 22, 279-287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. Lawall, "Interferometry for Accurate Displacement Metrology," Opt. Photon. News 15, 40-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, and G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic interferometric spectroscopy of Si(111)-SiO2 interface in the vicinity of E2 critical points," Phys. Rev. B 66, 033305 (2002)
[CrossRef]

V. G. Avramenko, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Nikulin, A. A. Fedyanin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. F. Pudonin, A. G. Sutyrin, D. Yu. Prokhorov, and A. A. Lomov, "Subnanometer-scale size effects in electronic spectra of Si/SiO2 multiple quantum wells: Interferometric second-harmonic generation spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 73, 155321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (1)

J. Gubler and D. Tytler, "Differential Atmospheric Refraction and Limitations on the Relative Astrometric Accuracy of Large Telescopes," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 110, 738-746 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sensors and Actuators B (1)

S. Mc Murtry, J. D. Wright, and D. A. Jackson, "Sensing applications of a low-coherence fibre-optic interferometer measuring the refractive index of air," Sensors and Actuators B 72, 69-74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Surv. Geophys. (1)

A. I. Weiss, M. Hennes, and M. W. Rotach, ‘‘Derivation of refractive index and temperature gradients from optical scintillometry to correct atmospherically induced errors for highly precise geodetic measurements,’’Surv. Geophys. 22, 589-596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, T. V. Dolgova, A. A. Fedyanin, D. Schuhmacher, G. Marowsky, "Optical second-harmonic phase spectroscopy of the Si(111)-SiO2 interface," Thin Solid Films 364, 91-94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. J. Green, The Sigma-Aldrich Handbook of Stains, Dyes and Indicators, (Aldrich Chemical Co.: Milwaukee, Wisconsin 1990).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the setup for second harmonic interference spectroscopy. The second source (S2) is mounted on a motorized translation stage

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Second harmonic interferograms acquired at second harmonic wavelengths of 470 and 550 nm, fitted with sine functions as defined in the text. (b) Plot of the wavevector mismatch as obtained from the fitting procedure, as a function of the fundamental wavelength

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of the refractive index difference between λ and λ/2 in air (dots), as a function of λ. The dashed curve corresponds to the phenomenological model of Ref. 12

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Anomalous dispersion of the second harmonic light around the absorption resonance of the dye, as measured using thicker molecular films as second harmonic sources

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Linear extinction spectra of the molecular films used as sources, for both concentrations

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h+asin(f×d+φ).
kλ/22kλ=4πλ(nλ/2nλ) .
nλ/2nλ=i2Bi(1(Ci4λ2)1(Ci1λ2)).

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