Abstract

In Part I of this study [1], good agreement between experimental measurements and results from Monte Carlo simulations were obtained for the spatial intensity distribution of a laser beam propagating within a turbid environment. In this second part, the validated Monte Carlo model is used to investigate spatial and temporal effects from distinct scattering orders on image formation. The contribution of ballistic photons and the first twelve scattering orders are analyzed individually by filtering the appropriate data from simulation results. Side-scattering and forward-scattering detection geometries are investigated and compared. We demonstrate that the distribution of positions for the final scattering events is independent of particle concentration when considering a given scattering order in forward detection. From this observation, it follows that the normalized intensity distribution of each order, in both space and time, is independent of the number density of particles. As a result, the amount of transmitted information is constant for a given scattering order and is directly related to the phase function in association with the detection acceptance angle. Finally, a contrast analysis is performed in order to quantify this information at the image plane.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Berrocal, D. L. Sedarsky, M. E. Paciaroni, I. V. Meglinski, and M. A. Linne, "Laser light scattering in turbid media Part I: Experimental and simulated results for the spatial intensity distribution," Opt. Express 15, 10649-10665 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
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  4. M. A. Linne M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal and D. Sedarsky, "Ballistic imaging of liquid breakup processes in dense sprays," Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2147-2161 (2009)
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Kaldvee, A. Ehn, J. Bood, and M. Aldén, "Development of a picosecond lidar system for large-scale combustion diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 48, B65-B72 (2009)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "True scattering coefficients of turbid matter measured by early-time gating," Opt. Lett. 20, 913-915 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, and K. S. Wong, " Time resolved imaging through a highly scattering medium," Appl. Opt. 30, 788- (1991)
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    [CrossRef]
  13. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and applications (Krieger, Florida, 1992)
  14. M. Gai, M. Gurioli, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Laboratory simulations of lidar returns from clouds," Appl. Opt. 35, 5435-5442 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Berrocal, D. Y. Churmakov, V. P. Romanov, M. C. Jermy, and I. V. Meglinski, "Crossed source/detector geometry for novel spray diagnostic: Monte Carlo and analytical results", Appl. Opt. 44, 2519-2529 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. M. Sobol, The Monte Carlo Method (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 1974)
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    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Zaccanti, "Monte Carlo study of light propagation in optically thick media: point source case," Appl. Opt. 30, 2031-2041 (1991)
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Berrocal, Multiple scattering of light in optical diagnostics of dense sprays and other complex turbid media (PhD Thesis, Cranfield University, 2006)
  20. V. P.  Romanov, D. Yu.  Churmakov, E.  Berrocal and I. V.  Meglinski, "Low-order light scattering in multiple scattering disperse media," Opt. Spectros. 97, 847-854 (2004)
  21. I. Meglinski, M. Kirillin, V. Kuzmin, and R. Myllylä, "Simulation of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images by a Monte Carlo method," Opt. Lett. 33, 1581-1583 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. R. Poole, D. D. Venable, and J. W. Campbell, "Semianalytic Monte Carlo radiative transfer model for oceanographic lidar systems," Appl. Opt. 20, 3653-3656 (1981)
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Bruscaglioni, P. Donelli, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Monte Carlo calculations of the modulation transfer function of an optical system operating in a turbid medium," Appl. Opt. 32, 2813-2824 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Calba, C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, "Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction between an ultra-short pulse and a strongly scattering medium: The case of large particles," Opt. Commun. 265, 373-382, (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  27. Q1. C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, "Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1541-1550 (2008)
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  30. G. Zaccanti, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, L. Carraresi, M. Gurioli, and Q. Wei, "Transmission of a pulsed thin light beam through thick turbid media: experimental results," Appl. Opt. 31, 2141-2147 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. S. G. Demos and R. R. Alfano, "Temporal gating in highly scattering media by the degree of optical polarization," Opt. Lett. 21, 161-163 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  33. V. M. Podgaetsky, S. A. Tereshchenko, A. V. Smirnov, and N. S. Vorob'ev, "Bimodal temporal distribution of photons in ultrashort laser pulse passed through a turbid medium," Opt. Commun. 180, 217-223 (2000)
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. A. Linne M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal and D. Sedarsky, "Ballistic imaging of liquid breakup processes in dense sprays," Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2147-2161 (2009)
[CrossRef]

B. Kaldvee, A. Ehn, J. Bood, and M. Aldén, "Development of a picosecond lidar system for large-scale combustion diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 48, B65-B72 (2009)
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

C. Calba, C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, "Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction between an ultra-short pulse and a strongly scattering medium: The case of large particles," Opt. Commun. 265, 373-382, (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

V. P.  Romanov, D. Yu.  Churmakov, E.  Berrocal and I. V.  Meglinski, "Low-order light scattering in multiple scattering disperse media," Opt. Spectros. 97, 847-854 (2004)

2003 (2)

C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, G. Gréhan, L. Hespel, A. Delfour, "Interaction between ultra short pulses and a dense scattering medium by Monte Carlo simulation: consideration of particle size effect," Opt. Commun. 220, 237-245, (2003)
[CrossRef]

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, "Techniques for Depth-Resolved Imaging through Turbid Media including Coherence-gated Imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36R207-R227 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. M. Podgaetsky, S. A. Tereshchenko, A. V. Smirnov, and N. S. Vorob'ev, "Bimodal temporal distribution of photons in ultrashort laser pulse passed through a turbid medium," Opt. Commun. 180, 217-223 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1996 (3)

1995 (2)

L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "True scattering coefficients of turbid matter measured by early-time gating," Opt. Lett. 20, 913-915 (1995)
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modelling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995)
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

1967 (1)

Aldén, M.

Alfano, R. R.

Anderson, G. E.

Berrocal, E.

Bood, J.

Bretenaker, F.

Bruckner, A. P.

Bruscaglioni, P.

Calba, C.

Q1. C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, "Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1541-1550 (2008)
[CrossRef]

C. Calba, C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, "Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction between an ultra-short pulse and a strongly scattering medium: The case of large particles," Opt. Commun. 265, 373-382, (2006)
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. W.

Carraresi, L.

Churmakov, D. Y.

Churmakov, D. Yu.

V. P.  Romanov, D. Yu.  Churmakov, E.  Berrocal and I. V.  Meglinski, "Low-order light scattering in multiple scattering disperse media," Opt. Spectros. 97, 847-854 (2004)

Delfour, A.

C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, G. Gréhan, L. Hespel, A. Delfour, "Interaction between ultra short pulses and a dense scattering medium by Monte Carlo simulation: consideration of particle size effect," Opt. Commun. 220, 237-245, (2003)
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

Donelli, P.

Dunsby, C.

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, "Techniques for Depth-Resolved Imaging through Turbid Media including Coherence-gated Imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36R207-R227 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Ehn, A.

Emile, O.

Feng Liu,

French, P. M. W.

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, "Techniques for Depth-Resolved Imaging through Turbid Media including Coherence-gated Imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36R207-R227 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Gai, M.

Galland, P.

Gan, X.

Girasole, T.

Q1. C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, "Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1541-1550 (2008)
[CrossRef]

C. Calba, C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, "Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction between an ultra-short pulse and a strongly scattering medium: The case of large particles," Opt. Commun. 265, 373-382, (2006)
[CrossRef]

C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, G. Gréhan, L. Hespel, A. Delfour, "Interaction between ultra short pulses and a dense scattering medium by Monte Carlo simulation: consideration of particle size effect," Opt. Commun. 220, 237-245, (2003)
[CrossRef]

Gréhan, G.

C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, G. Gréhan, L. Hespel, A. Delfour, "Interaction between ultra short pulses and a dense scattering medium by Monte Carlo simulation: consideration of particle size effect," Opt. Commun. 220, 237-245, (2003)
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Gurioli, M.

Hespel, L.

C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, G. Gréhan, L. Hespel, A. Delfour, "Interaction between ultra short pulses and a dense scattering medium by Monte Carlo simulation: consideration of particle size effect," Opt. Commun. 220, 237-245, (2003)
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. P.

Ishimaru, A.

Ismaelli, A.

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modelling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Jermy, M. C.

Kaldvee, B.

Kirillin, M.

Kuga, Y.

Kuzmin, V.

Le Floch, A.

Liang, X.

Linne, M. A.

Liu, F.

Maitland, D. J.

Méès, L.

Q1. C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, "Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1541-1550 (2008)
[CrossRef]

C. Calba, C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, "Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction between an ultra-short pulse and a strongly scattering medium: The case of large particles," Opt. Commun. 265, 373-382, (2006)
[CrossRef]

C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, G. Gréhan, L. Hespel, A. Delfour, "Interaction between ultra short pulses and a dense scattering medium by Monte Carlo simulation: consideration of particle size effect," Opt. Commun. 220, 237-245, (2003)
[CrossRef]

Meglinski, I.

Meglinski, I. V.

Meglinski, I. V.

V. P.  Romanov, D. Yu.  Churmakov, E.  Berrocal and I. V.  Meglinski, "Low-order light scattering in multiple scattering disperse media," Opt. Spectros. 97, 847-854 (2004)

Myllylä, R.

Paciaroni, M. E.

Podgaetsky, V. M.

V. M. Podgaetsky, S. A. Tereshchenko, A. V. Smirnov, and N. S. Vorob'ev, "Bimodal temporal distribution of photons in ultrashort laser pulse passed through a turbid medium," Opt. Commun. 180, 217-223 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

Romanov, V. P.

Romanov, V. P.

V. P.  Romanov, D. Yu.  Churmakov, E.  Berrocal and I. V.  Meglinski, "Low-order light scattering in multiple scattering disperse media," Opt. Spectros. 97, 847-854 (2004)

Rozé, C.

Q1. C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, "Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1541-1550 (2008)
[CrossRef]

C. Calba, C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, "Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction between an ultra-short pulse and a strongly scattering medium: The case of large particles," Opt. Commun. 265, 373-382, (2006)
[CrossRef]

C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, G. Gréhan, L. Hespel, A. Delfour, "Interaction between ultra short pulses and a dense scattering medium by Monte Carlo simulation: consideration of particle size effect," Opt. Commun. 220, 237-245, (2003)
[CrossRef]

Sankaran, V.

Schnenberger, K.

Sedarsky, D. L.

Smirnov, A. V.

V. M. Podgaetsky, S. A. Tereshchenko, A. V. Smirnov, and N. S. Vorob'ev, "Bimodal temporal distribution of photons in ultrashort laser pulse passed through a turbid medium," Opt. Commun. 180, 217-223 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Stetson, K. A.

Tereshchenko, S. A.

V. M. Podgaetsky, S. A. Tereshchenko, A. V. Smirnov, and N. S. Vorob'ev, "Bimodal temporal distribution of photons in ultrashort laser pulse passed through a turbid medium," Opt. Commun. 180, 217-223 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Venable, D. D.

Vorob'ev, N. S.

V. M. Podgaetsky, S. A. Tereshchenko, A. V. Smirnov, and N. S. Vorob'ev, "Bimodal temporal distribution of photons in ultrashort laser pulse passed through a turbid medium," Opt. Commun. 180, 217-223 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. T.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modelling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995)
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, "True scattering coefficients of turbid matter measured by early-time gating," Opt. Lett. 20, 913-915 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q.

Zaccanti, G.

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modelling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

G. Zaccanti, "Monte Carlo study of light propagation in optically thick media: point source case," Appl. Opt. 30, 2031-2041 (1991)
[CrossRef]

G. Zaccanti, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, L. Carraresi, M. Gurioli, and Q. Wei, "Transmission of a pulsed thin light beam through thick turbid media: experimental results," Appl. Opt. 31, 2141-2147 (1992)
[CrossRef]

P. Bruscaglioni, P. Donelli, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Monte Carlo calculations of the modulation transfer function of an optical system operating in a turbid medium," Appl. Opt. 32, 2813-2824 (1993)
[CrossRef]

L. R. Poole, D. D. Venable, and J. W. Campbell, "Semianalytic Monte Carlo radiative transfer model for oceanographic lidar systems," Appl. Opt. 20, 3653-3656 (1981)
[CrossRef]

M. Gai, M. Gurioli, P. Bruscaglioni, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, "Laboratory simulations of lidar returns from clouds," Appl. Opt. 35, 5435-5442 (1996)
[CrossRef]

V. Sankaran, K. Schnenberger, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, "Polarization Discrimination of Coherently Propagating Light in Turbid Media," Appl. Opt. 38, 4252-4261 (1999)
[CrossRef]

E. Berrocal, D. Y. Churmakov, V. P. Romanov, M. C. Jermy, and I. V. Meglinski, "Crossed source/detector geometry for novel spray diagnostic: Monte Carlo and analytical results", Appl. Opt. 44, 2519-2529 (2005)
[CrossRef]

B. Kaldvee, A. Ehn, J. Bood, and M. Aldén, "Development of a picosecond lidar system for large-scale combustion diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 48, B65-B72 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modelling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, "Techniques for Depth-Resolved Imaging through Turbid Media including Coherence-gated Imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36R207-R227 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, G. Gréhan, L. Hespel, A. Delfour, "Interaction between ultra short pulses and a dense scattering medium by Monte Carlo simulation: consideration of particle size effect," Opt. Commun. 220, 237-245, (2003)
[CrossRef]

C. Calba, C. Rozé, T. Girasole, L. Méès, "Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction between an ultra-short pulse and a strongly scattering medium: The case of large particles," Opt. Commun. 265, 373-382, (2006)
[CrossRef]

V. M. Podgaetsky, S. A. Tereshchenko, A. V. Smirnov, and N. S. Vorob'ev, "Bimodal temporal distribution of photons in ultrashort laser pulse passed through a turbid medium," Opt. Commun. 180, 217-223 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Spectros. (1)

V. P.  Romanov, D. Yu.  Churmakov, E.  Berrocal and I. V.  Meglinski, "Low-order light scattering in multiple scattering disperse media," Opt. Spectros. 97, 847-854 (2004)

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

M. A. Linne M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal and D. Sedarsky, "Ballistic imaging of liquid breakup processes in dense sprays," Proc. Combust. Inst. 32, 2147-2161 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, and K. S. Wong, " Time resolved imaging through a highly scattering medium," Appl. Opt. 30, 788- (1991)

H. C. van de Hulst, Light scattering by small particles (Dover, N.Y., 1981)

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (Wiley, N.Y., 1983)

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and applications (Krieger, Florida, 1992)

I. M. Sobol, The Monte Carlo Method (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 1974)

E. Berrocal, Multiple scattering of light in optical diagnostics of dense sprays and other complex turbid media (PhD Thesis, Cranfield University, 2006)

K. M. Yoo and R. R. Alfano, "Time-resolved coherent and incoherent components of forward light scattering in random media," Opt. Lett. 15, 320- (1990)

Supplementary Material (6)

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