Abstract

We investigated the process of focusing a radially polarized (RP) light beam through a sub-wavelength annular aperture (SAA). We found that the result was a non-diffraction doughnut-shaped light beam which propagates in free space. After analyzing the electric field component of the focus generated by the SAA structure, we identified the relationship between the focal field generated by the SAA. We then compared it to a case with a traditional objective lens. From our findings, we propose that a SAA structure can be viewed as a continuous numerical aperture optical element.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).
  5. J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-Free Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, "Generation of radially polarized optical beam mode by laser oscillation," Proc. IEEE 60, 1107-1109 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (1)

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

N. Passilly, R. de Saint Denis, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Treussart, R. Hierle, and J.-F. Roch, "Simple interferometric technique for generation of a radially polarized light beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: Opt. Image Sci. Vision 22, 984-991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan and J. R. Leger, "Focus shaping using cylindrical vector beams," Opt. Express 10, 324-331 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-Free Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, "Generation of radially polarized optical beam mode by laser oscillation," Proc. IEEE 60, 1107-1109 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ait-Ameur, K.

N. Passilly, R. de Saint Denis, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Treussart, R. Hierle, and J.-F. Roch, "Simple interferometric technique for generation of a radially polarized light beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: Opt. Image Sci. Vision 22, 984-991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, T. G.

Chang, C. K.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).

Chavez-Cerda, S.

Chen, C. H.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).

Cheng, T. D.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).

de Saint Denis, R.

N. Passilly, R. de Saint Denis, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Treussart, R. Hierle, and J.-F. Roch, "Simple interferometric technique for generation of a radially polarized light beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: Opt. Image Sci. Vision 22, 984-991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-Free Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-Free Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutierrez-Vega, J. C.

Hao, B.

Hierle, R.

N. Passilly, R. de Saint Denis, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Treussart, R. Hierle, and J.-F. Roch, "Simple interferometric technique for generation of a radially polarized light beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: Opt. Image Sci. Vision 22, 984-991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).

Leger, J.

Leger, J. R.

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, D. Z.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Mariscal, C.

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumura, K.

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, "Generation of radially polarized optical beam mode by laser oscillation," Proc. IEEE 60, 1107-1109 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-Free Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mushiake, Y.

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, "Generation of radially polarized optical beam mode by laser oscillation," Proc. IEEE 60, 1107-1109 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, N.

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, "Generation of radially polarized optical beam mode by laser oscillation," Proc. IEEE 60, 1107-1109 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Passilly, N.

N. Passilly, R. de Saint Denis, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Treussart, R. Hierle, and J.-F. Roch, "Simple interferometric technique for generation of a radially polarized light beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: Opt. Image Sci. Vision 22, 984-991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pikus, Y.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roch, J.-F.

N. Passilly, R. de Saint Denis, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Treussart, R. Hierle, and J.-F. Roch, "Simple interferometric technique for generation of a radially polarized light beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: Opt. Image Sci. Vision 22, 984-991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

Srituravanich, W.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stalder, M.

Steele, J. M.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treussart, F.

N. Passilly, R. de Saint Denis, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Treussart, R. Hierle, and J.-F. Roch, "Simple interferometric technique for generation of a radially polarized light beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: Opt. Image Sci. Vision 22, 984-991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. S.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).

Youngworth, K. S.

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, X.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 3 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: Opt. Image Sci. Vision (1)

N. Passilly, R. de Saint Denis, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Treussart, R. Hierle, and J.-F. Roch, "Simple interferometric technique for generation of a radially polarized light beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: Opt. Image Sci. Vision 22, 984-991 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-Free Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, and N. Nakajima, "Generation of radially polarized optical beam mode by laser oscillation," Proc. IEEE 60, 1107-1109 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Stalder, "Active and passive optical components using liquid crystals," (SPIE -International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham WA, WA 98227-0010, USA, San Jose, CA, USA, 1996), pp. 30-39.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SAA structure: (a) top view and (b) side view.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimental set-up (b) polarization after passage through LC polarizer (c) image of the RP beam focused with a 5X objective lens.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The structure of liquid crystal polariz

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Images obtained at different distances above the exiting surface. (Note: the focal spot is a doughnut shape)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Z cross-section intensity profile at the smallest central spot size

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Maximum intensity measured at different distances above the exit surface for SAAs with different diameters.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Generalized cylindrically polarized beam with ϕ 0 rotation from radial direction

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Light beam intensity when generalized cylindrically polarized beam incidence: (a) ϕ 0=25.56° (b) ϕ 0=45° (c) ϕ 0=63.43°

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Shapes of the focal spots imaged at different focal planes: (a) z=4µm, (b) z=9µm, and (c) z=16µm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

SAA structure light beam intensity: (a) r component and (b) z component.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison of the intensity distribution of the axial and radial components at the focus position. (Note: using objective lens and SAA structure with diameters of 6µm, 9µm, and 12µm)

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

RP beam incident into objective lens from a certain angle.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Using Matlab to calculate the focal pattern when the RP beam is incident into SAA structure with an annular aperture: (a) NA=0.342, (b) NA=0.5, and (c) NA=0.766.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Comparison of the intensity distribution of the r and z components at the focus position. (Note: using objective lens and SAA structure with diameter of 12µm)

Equations (5)

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E ( r , φ ) = P ( c o s ϕ 0 e r + s i n ϕ 0 e φ )
E ( r , ϕ ) = e r .
E r ( r , z ) = A θ min θ max c o s 1 2 ( θ ) P ( θ ) sin θ cos θ J 1 ( kr sin θ ) d θ
E z ( r , z ) = A θ min θ max cos 1 2 ( θ ) P ( θ ) sin 2 θ J 0 ( kr sin θ ) d θ
P ( θ ) = exp [ β 0 2 ( sin θ sin θ ma x ) 2 ] J 1 [ 2 β 0 sin θ sin θ ma x ]

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