Abstract

The Purcell effect of a nanoshell dimer on the fluorescence of a single molecule placed within the dimer’s gap is studied. The numerical results show that the nanoshell dimer acts as an antenna, making the energy transfer from an excited molecule to the dimer more efficient, and as a lowpass filter for the radiation of fluorescence to the far field. Moreover, the enhancement factor of a nanoshell dimer on the fluorescence is much higher than that of a solid Au dimer in the longer-wavelength regime.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
  2. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  3. P. C. Das and A. Puli, "Energy flow and fluorescence near a small metal particle," Phys. Rev. B 65, 155416 (2002).
  4. P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  5. S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, "Enhancement of Single-Molecule Fluorescence using a Gold Nanoparticle as an Optical Nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  6. P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, "Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement," Opt. Express 15, 14266-14274 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  7. J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission," Anal. Biochem. 337, 171-194 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  8. T. Nakamura and S. Hayashi, "Enhancement of Dye Fluorescence by Gold Nanoparticles: Analysis of Particle Size Dependence," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6833-6837 (2005).
  9. M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, "Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863-3865 (2004).
  10. J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, and T. Lopez-Rios, "Resonance shift effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 085409 (2003).
  11. H. G. Frey, S. Witt, K. Felderer, and R. Guckenberger, "High-Resolution Imaging of Single Fluorescent Molecules with the Optical Near-Field of a Metal Tip," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 200801(2004).
    [PubMed]
  12. V. S. Zuev, A.V. Frantsesson, and J. Gao, J. G. Eden, "Enhancement of Raman scattering for an atom or molecule near a metal nanocylinder: Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coupling to surface plasmon modes," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 214726 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  13. A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, " Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  14. E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
  15. A. Mohammadi, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, "Gold nanorods and nanospheroids for enhancing spontaneous emission," New J. Phys. 10, 105015 (2008).
  16. K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal Enhanced Fluorescence Solution-based Sensing Platform 2: Fluorescent Core-Shell Ag@SiO2 Nanoballs," J. Fluoresc. 17, 127-131 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  17. O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, "Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 18, 91-95 (2006).
  18. F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmonic Enhancement of Molecular Fluorescence," Nano Lett. 7, 496-501 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  19. H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62(3), 4318-4324 (2000).
  20. E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, "Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357-366 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  21. H. Tamaru, H. Kuwata, H. T. Miyazaki, and K. Miyano, "Resonant light scattering from individual Ag nanoparticles and particle pairs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1826-1828 (2002).
  22. M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kurzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Shaping Emission Spectra of Fluorescent Molecules with Single Plasmonic Nanoresonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  23. M. H. Chowdhury, J. Pond, S. K. Gray, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Systematic Computational Study of the Effect of Silver Nanoparticle Dimers on the Coupled Emission from Nearby Fluorophores," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11236-11249 (2008).
  24. S. Kuhn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, "Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching," Molecular Phys. 106(7), 893-908 (2008).
  25. P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  26. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single "Bowtie" Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible," Nano Lett. 4, 957-961 (2004).
  27. T. Shegai, Z. Li, T. Dadosh, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, and G. Haran, " Managing light polarization via plasmon-molecule interactions within an asymmetric metal nanoparticle trimer," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(43), 16448-16453 (2008).
  28. E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  29. N. T. Fofang, T.-H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Plexcitonic Nanoparticles: Plasmon−Exciton Coupling in Nanoshell−J-Aggregate Complexes," Nano Lett. 8, 3481-3487 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  30. J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Close Encounters between Two Nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  31. C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  32. K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, "One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 081102 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  33. J.-W. Liaw, M.-K. Kuo, and C.-N. Liao, "Plasmon resonance of spherical and ellipsoidal nanoparticles," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 19, 1787-1794 (2005).
  34. T. Hartling, P. Reichenbach, and L. M. Eng, "Near-field coupling of a single fluorescent molecule and a spherical gold nanoparticle," Opt. Express 15, 12806- 12817 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  35. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
  36. S. Lal, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, and N. J. Halas, "Profiling the Near Field of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle with Raman-Based Molecular Rulers," Nano Lett. 6, 2338-2343 (2006)
    [PubMed]
  37. J.-W. Liaw, "Local-Field Enhancement and Quantum Yield of Metallic Dimer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8A), 5373-5378 (2007).
  38. Y. Fu, J. Zhang, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Plasmonic enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence near a silver nanoparticle," J. Fluoresc. 17, 811-816 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  39. S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, "Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 073404 (2007).

2008 (9)

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, " Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
[PubMed]

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).

A. Mohammadi, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, "Gold nanorods and nanospheroids for enhancing spontaneous emission," New J. Phys. 10, 105015 (2008).

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kurzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Shaping Emission Spectra of Fluorescent Molecules with Single Plasmonic Nanoresonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. H. Chowdhury, J. Pond, S. K. Gray, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Systematic Computational Study of the Effect of Silver Nanoparticle Dimers on the Coupled Emission from Nearby Fluorophores," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11236-11249 (2008).

S. Kuhn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, "Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching," Molecular Phys. 106(7), 893-908 (2008).

T. Shegai, Z. Li, T. Dadosh, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, and G. Haran, " Managing light polarization via plasmon-molecule interactions within an asymmetric metal nanoparticle trimer," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(43), 16448-16453 (2008).

N. T. Fofang, T.-H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Plexcitonic Nanoparticles: Plasmon−Exciton Coupling in Nanoshell−J-Aggregate Complexes," Nano Lett. 8, 3481-3487 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Close Encounters between Two Nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (7)

T. Hartling, P. Reichenbach, and L. M. Eng, "Near-field coupling of a single fluorescent molecule and a spherical gold nanoparticle," Opt. Express 15, 12806- 12817 (2007).
[PubMed]

J.-W. Liaw, "Local-Field Enhancement and Quantum Yield of Metallic Dimer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8A), 5373-5378 (2007).

Y. Fu, J. Zhang, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Plasmonic enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence near a silver nanoparticle," J. Fluoresc. 17, 811-816 (2007).
[PubMed]

S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, "Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 073404 (2007).

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal Enhanced Fluorescence Solution-based Sensing Platform 2: Fluorescent Core-Shell Ag@SiO2 Nanoballs," J. Fluoresc. 17, 127-131 (2007).
[PubMed]

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmonic Enhancement of Molecular Fluorescence," Nano Lett. 7, 496-501 (2007).
[PubMed]

P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, "Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement," Opt. Express 15, 14266-14274 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (5)

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, "Enhancement of Single-Molecule Fluorescence using a Gold Nanoparticle as an Optical Nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[PubMed]

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, "Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 18, 91-95 (2006).

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, "One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 081102 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. Lal, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, and N. J. Halas, "Profiling the Near Field of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle with Raman-Based Molecular Rulers," Nano Lett. 6, 2338-2343 (2006)
[PubMed]

2005 (6)

J.-W. Liaw, M.-K. Kuo, and C.-N. Liao, "Plasmon resonance of spherical and ellipsoidal nanoparticles," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 19, 1787-1794 (2005).

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[PubMed]

V. S. Zuev, A.V. Frantsesson, and J. Gao, J. G. Eden, "Enhancement of Raman scattering for an atom or molecule near a metal nanocylinder: Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coupling to surface plasmon modes," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 214726 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission," Anal. Biochem. 337, 171-194 (2005).
[PubMed]

T. Nakamura and S. Hayashi, "Enhancement of Dye Fluorescence by Gold Nanoparticles: Analysis of Particle Size Dependence," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6833-6837 (2005).

2004 (4)

M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, "Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863-3865 (2004).

H. G. Frey, S. Witt, K. Felderer, and R. Guckenberger, "High-Resolution Imaging of Single Fluorescent Molecules with the Optical Near-Field of a Metal Tip," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 200801(2004).
[PubMed]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single "Bowtie" Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible," Nano Lett. 4, 957-961 (2004).

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, "Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357-366 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, and T. Lopez-Rios, "Resonance shift effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 085409 (2003).

2002 (3)

P. C. Das and A. Puli, "Energy flow and fluorescence near a small metal particle," Phys. Rev. B 65, 155416 (2002).

H. Tamaru, H. Kuwata, H. T. Miyazaki, and K. Miyano, "Resonant light scattering from individual Ag nanoparticles and particle pairs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1826-1828 (2002).

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62(3), 4318-4324 (2000).

1972 (1)

B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Agio, M.

A. Mohammadi, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, "Gold nanorods and nanospheroids for enhancing spontaneous emission," New J. Phys. 10, 105015 (2008).

S. Kuhn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, "Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching," Molecular Phys. 106(7), 893-908 (2008).

Aizpurua, J.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Close Encounters between Two Nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[PubMed]

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62(3), 4318-4324 (2000).

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[PubMed]

Apell, P.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62(3), 4318-4324 (2000).

Apell, S. P.

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, and T. Lopez-Rios, "Resonance shift effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 085409 (2003).

Arias-Gonzalez, J. R.

M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, "Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863-3865 (2004).

Aslan, K.

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal Enhanced Fluorescence Solution-based Sensing Platform 2: Fluorescent Core-Shell Ag@SiO2 Nanoballs," J. Fluoresc. 17, 127-131 (2007).
[PubMed]

Bek, A.

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, " Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
[PubMed]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, "Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement," Opt. Express 15, 14266-14274 (2007).
[PubMed]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[PubMed]

Brandl, D. W.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Close Encounters between Two Nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[PubMed]

Carminati, R.

M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, "Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863-3865 (2004).

Chowdhury, M. H.

M. H. Chowdhury, J. Pond, S. K. Gray, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Systematic Computational Study of the Effect of Silver Nanoparticle Dimers on the Coupled Emission from Nearby Fluorophores," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11236-11249 (2008).

Christy, R. W.

B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Dadosh, T.

T. Shegai, Z. Li, T. Dadosh, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, and G. Haran, " Managing light polarization via plasmon-molecule interactions within an asymmetric metal nanoparticle trimer," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(43), 16448-16453 (2008).

Das, P. C.

P. C. Das and A. Puli, "Energy flow and fluorescence near a small metal particle," Phys. Rev. B 65, 155416 (2002).

Dulkeith, E.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

Eden, J. G.

V. S. Zuev, A.V. Frantsesson, and J. Gao, J. G. Eden, "Enhancement of Raman scattering for an atom or molecule near a metal nanocylinder: Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coupling to surface plasmon modes," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 214726 (2005).
[PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[PubMed]

Eng, L. M.

Felderer, K.

H. G. Frey, S. Witt, K. Felderer, and R. Guckenberger, "High-Resolution Imaging of Single Fluorescent Molecules with the Optical Near-Field of a Metal Tip," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 200801(2004).
[PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, " Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kurzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Shaping Emission Spectra of Fluorescent Molecules with Single Plasmonic Nanoresonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

Fofang, N. T.

N. T. Fofang, T.-H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Plexcitonic Nanoparticles: Plasmon−Exciton Coupling in Nanoshell−J-Aggregate Complexes," Nano Lett. 8, 3481-3487 (2008).
[PubMed]

Fort, E.

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).

Frantsesson, A.V.

V. S. Zuev, A.V. Frantsesson, and J. Gao, J. G. Eden, "Enhancement of Raman scattering for an atom or molecule near a metal nanocylinder: Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coupling to surface plasmon modes," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 214726 (2005).
[PubMed]

Frey, H. G.

H. G. Frey, S. Witt, K. Felderer, and R. Guckenberger, "High-Resolution Imaging of Single Fluorescent Molecules with the Optical Near-Field of a Metal Tip," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 200801(2004).
[PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single "Bowtie" Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible," Nano Lett. 4, 957-961 (2004).

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, J. Zhang, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Plasmonic enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence near a silver nanoparticle," J. Fluoresc. 17, 811-816 (2007).
[PubMed]

Gao, J.

V. S. Zuev, A.V. Frantsesson, and J. Gao, J. G. Eden, "Enhancement of Raman scattering for an atom or molecule near a metal nanocylinder: Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coupling to surface plasmon modes," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 214726 (2005).
[PubMed]

Geddes, C. D.

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal Enhanced Fluorescence Solution-based Sensing Platform 2: Fluorescent Core-Shell Ag@SiO2 Nanoballs," J. Fluoresc. 17, 127-131 (2007).
[PubMed]

Gerber, S.

S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, "Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 073404 (2007).

Gerritsen, H. C.

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, "Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 18, 91-95 (2006).

Gittins, D. I.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

Goodrich, G. P.

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmonic Enhancement of Molecular Fluorescence," Nano Lett. 7, 496-501 (2007).
[PubMed]

S. Lal, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, and N. J. Halas, "Profiling the Near Field of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle with Raman-Based Molecular Rulers," Nano Lett. 6, 2338-2343 (2006)
[PubMed]

Grady, N. K.

S. Lal, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, and N. J. Halas, "Profiling the Near Field of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle with Raman-Based Molecular Rulers," Nano Lett. 6, 2338-2343 (2006)
[PubMed]

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

Graf, C.

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, "Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 18, 91-95 (2006).

Gray, S. K.

M. H. Chowdhury, J. Pond, S. K. Gray, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Systematic Computational Study of the Effect of Silver Nanoparticle Dimers on the Coupled Emission from Nearby Fluorophores," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11236-11249 (2008).

Greffet, J.-J.

M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, "Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863-3865 (2004).

Gresillon, S.

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).

Gu, B.

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, "One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 081102 (2006).
[PubMed]

Guckenberger, R.

H. G. Frey, S. Witt, K. Felderer, and R. Guckenberger, "High-Resolution Imaging of Single Fluorescent Molecules with the Optical Near-Field of a Metal Tip," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 200801(2004).
[PubMed]

Hakanson, U.

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, "Enhancement of Single-Molecule Fluorescence using a Gold Nanoparticle as an Optical Nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

N. T. Fofang, T.-H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Plexcitonic Nanoparticles: Plasmon−Exciton Coupling in Nanoshell−J-Aggregate Complexes," Nano Lett. 8, 3481-3487 (2008).
[PubMed]

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmonic Enhancement of Molecular Fluorescence," Nano Lett. 7, 496-501 (2007).
[PubMed]

S. Lal, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, and N. J. Halas, "Profiling the Near Field of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle with Raman-Based Molecular Rulers," Nano Lett. 6, 2338-2343 (2006)
[PubMed]

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

Hao, E.

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, "Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357-366 (2004).
[PubMed]

Haran, G.

T. Shegai, Z. Li, T. Dadosh, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, and G. Haran, " Managing light polarization via plasmon-molecule interactions within an asymmetric metal nanoparticle trimer," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(43), 16448-16453 (2008).

Hartling, T.

Hayashi, S.

T. Nakamura and S. Hayashi, "Enhancement of Dye Fluorescence by Gold Nanoparticles: Analysis of Particle Size Dependence," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6833-6837 (2005).

Hecht, B.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[PubMed]

Hernandez, L. I.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Close Encounters between Two Nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[PubMed]

Hohenester, U.

S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, "Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 073404 (2007).

Hollars, C. W.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

Huser, T. R.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

Jackson, J. B.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

Jansen, R.

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, " Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
[PubMed]

Johansson, P.

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, and T. Lopez-Rios, "Resonance shift effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 085409 (2003).

Johnson, B.

B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Johnson, B. R.

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmonic Enhancement of Molecular Fluorescence," Nano Lett. 7, 496-501 (2007).
[PubMed]

Käll, M.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62(3), 4318-4324 (2000).

Kino, G. S.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single "Bowtie" Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible," Nano Lett. 4, 957-961 (2004).

Klar, T. A.

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kurzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Shaping Emission Spectra of Fluorescent Molecules with Single Plasmonic Nanoresonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, " Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
[PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, "Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 073404 (2007).

Kuhn, S.

S. Kuhn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, "Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching," Molecular Phys. 106(7), 893-908 (2008).

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, "Enhancement of Single-Molecule Fluorescence using a Gold Nanoparticle as an Optical Nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[PubMed]

Kuo, M.-K.

J.-W. Liaw, M.-K. Kuo, and C.-N. Liao, "Plasmon resonance of spherical and ellipsoidal nanoparticles," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 19, 1787-1794 (2005).

Kurzinger, K.

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kurzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Shaping Emission Spectra of Fluorescent Molecules with Single Plasmonic Nanoresonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kuwata, H.

H. Tamaru, H. Kuwata, H. T. Miyazaki, and K. Miyano, "Resonant light scattering from individual Ag nanoparticles and particle pairs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1826-1828 (2002).

Lakowicz, J. R.

M. H. Chowdhury, J. Pond, S. K. Gray, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Systematic Computational Study of the Effect of Silver Nanoparticle Dimers on the Coupled Emission from Nearby Fluorophores," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11236-11249 (2008).

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal Enhanced Fluorescence Solution-based Sensing Platform 2: Fluorescent Core-Shell Ag@SiO2 Nanoballs," J. Fluoresc. 17, 127-131 (2007).
[PubMed]

Y. Fu, J. Zhang, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Plasmonic enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence near a silver nanoparticle," J. Fluoresc. 17, 811-816 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission," Anal. Biochem. 337, 171-194 (2005).
[PubMed]

Lal, S.

S. Lal, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, and N. J. Halas, "Profiling the Near Field of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle with Raman-Based Molecular Rulers," Nano Lett. 6, 2338-2343 (2006)
[PubMed]

Lane, S. M.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

Lassiter, J. B.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Close Encounters between Two Nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[PubMed]

Leitner, A.

S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, "Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 073404 (2007).

Levi, S. A.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

Li, Z.

T. Shegai, Z. Li, T. Dadosh, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, and G. Haran, " Managing light polarization via plasmon-molecule interactions within an asymmetric metal nanoparticle trimer," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(43), 16448-16453 (2008).

Liao, C.-N.

J.-W. Liaw, M.-K. Kuo, and C.-N. Liao, "Plasmon resonance of spherical and ellipsoidal nanoparticles," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 19, 1787-1794 (2005).

Liaw, J.-W.

J.-W. Liaw, "Local-Field Enhancement and Quantum Yield of Metallic Dimer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8A), 5373-5378 (2007).

J.-W. Liaw, M.-K. Kuo, and C.-N. Liao, "Plasmon resonance of spherical and ellipsoidal nanoparticles," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 19, 1787-1794 (2005).

Lopez-Rios, T.

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, and T. Lopez-Rios, "Resonance shift effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 085409 (2003).

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[PubMed]

Mayilo, S.

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, " Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
[PubMed]

Mirin, N. A.

N. T. Fofang, T.-H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Plexcitonic Nanoparticles: Plasmon−Exciton Coupling in Nanoshell−J-Aggregate Complexes," Nano Lett. 8, 3481-3487 (2008).
[PubMed]

Miyano, K.

H. Tamaru, H. Kuwata, H. T. Miyazaki, and K. Miyano, "Resonant light scattering from individual Ag nanoparticles and particle pairs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1826-1828 (2002).

Miyazaki, H. T.

H. Tamaru, H. Kuwata, H. T. Miyazaki, and K. Miyano, "Resonant light scattering from individual Ag nanoparticles and particle pairs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1826-1828 (2002).

Moerner, W. E.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single "Bowtie" Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible," Nano Lett. 4, 957-961 (2004).

Mohammadi, A.

A. Mohammadi, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, "Gold nanorods and nanospheroids for enhancing spontaneous emission," New J. Phys. 10, 105015 (2008).

Moller, M.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

Mori, G.

S. Kuhn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, "Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching," Molecular Phys. 106(7), 893-908 (2008).

Morteani, A. C.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

Muhlschlegel, P.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[PubMed]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura and S. Hayashi, "Enhancement of Dye Fluorescence by Gold Nanoparticles: Analysis of Particle Size Dependence," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6833-6837 (2005).

Neumann, O.

N. T. Fofang, T.-H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Plexcitonic Nanoparticles: Plasmon−Exciton Coupling in Nanoshell−J-Aggregate Complexes," Nano Lett. 8, 3481-3487 (2008).
[PubMed]

Nichtl, A.

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kurzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Shaping Emission Spectra of Fluorescent Molecules with Single Plasmonic Nanoresonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[PubMed]

Niedereichholz, T.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

N. T. Fofang, T.-H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Plexcitonic Nanoparticles: Plasmon−Exciton Coupling in Nanoshell−J-Aggregate Complexes," Nano Lett. 8, 3481-3487 (2008).
[PubMed]

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

Novotny, L.

P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, "Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement," Opt. Express 15, 14266-14274 (2007).
[PubMed]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[PubMed]

Oubre, C.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

Park, T.-H.

N. T. Fofang, T.-H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Plexcitonic Nanoparticles: Plasmon−Exciton Coupling in Nanoshell−J-Aggregate Complexes," Nano Lett. 8, 3481-3487 (2008).
[PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[PubMed]

Pond, J.

M. H. Chowdhury, J. Pond, S. K. Gray, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Systematic Computational Study of the Effect of Silver Nanoparticle Dimers on the Coupled Emission from Nearby Fluorophores," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11236-11249 (2008).

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, and T. Lopez-Rios, "Resonance shift effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 085409 (2003).

Puli, A.

P. C. Das and A. Puli, "Energy flow and fluorescence near a small metal particle," Phys. Rev. B 65, 155416 (2002).

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Reichenbach, P.

Reil, F.

S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, "Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 073404 (2007).

Reinhoudt, D. N.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ringler, M.

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, " Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kurzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Shaping Emission Spectra of Fluorescent Molecules with Single Plasmonic Nanoresonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[PubMed]

Rogobete, L.

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, "Enhancement of Single-Molecule Fluorescence using a Gold Nanoparticle as an Optical Nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[PubMed]

Romero, I.

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Close Encounters between Two Nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

S. Kuhn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, "Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching," Molecular Phys. 106(7), 893-908 (2008).

A. Mohammadi, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, "Gold nanorods and nanospheroids for enhancing spontaneous emission," New J. Phys. 10, 105015 (2008).

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, "Enhancement of Single-Molecule Fluorescence using a Gold Nanoparticle as an Optical Nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, "Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357-366 (2004).
[PubMed]

Schlagenhaufen, T.

S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, "Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 073404 (2007).

Schuck, P. J.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single "Bowtie" Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible," Nano Lett. 4, 957-961 (2004).

Schwemer, A.

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kurzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Shaping Emission Spectra of Fluorescent Molecules with Single Plasmonic Nanoresonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[PubMed]

Shegai, T.

T. Shegai, Z. Li, T. Dadosh, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, and G. Haran, " Managing light polarization via plasmon-molecule interactions within an asymmetric metal nanoparticle trimer," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(43), 16448-16453 (2008).

Sundaramurthy, A.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single "Bowtie" Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible," Nano Lett. 4, 957-961 (2004).

Talley, C. E.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tam, F.

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmonic Enhancement of Molecular Fluorescence," Nano Lett. 7, 496-501 (2007).
[PubMed]

Tamaru, H.

H. Tamaru, H. Kuwata, H. T. Miyazaki, and K. Miyano, "Resonant light scattering from individual Ag nanoparticles and particle pairs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1826-1828 (2002).

Thomas, M.

M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, "Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863-3865 (2004).

Tovmachenko, O. G.

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, "Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 18, 91-95 (2006).

van Blaaderen, A.

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, "Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 18, 91-95 (2006).

van den Heuvel, D. J.

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, "Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 18, 91-95 (2006).

van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

Witt, S.

H. G. Frey, S. Witt, K. Felderer, and R. Guckenberger, "High-Resolution Imaging of Single Fluorescent Molecules with the Optical Near-Field of a Metal Tip," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 200801(2004).
[PubMed]

Wu, M.

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal Enhanced Fluorescence Solution-based Sensing Platform 2: Fluorescent Core-Shell Ag@SiO2 Nanoballs," J. Fluoresc. 17, 127-131 (2007).
[PubMed]

Wunderlich, M.

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kurzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Shaping Emission Spectra of Fluorescent Molecules with Single Plasmonic Nanoresonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[PubMed]

Xu, H.

T. Shegai, Z. Li, T. Dadosh, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, and G. Haran, " Managing light polarization via plasmon-molecule interactions within an asymmetric metal nanoparticle trimer," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(43), 16448-16453 (2008).

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, "One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 081102 (2006).
[PubMed]

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62(3), 4318-4324 (2000).

Zhang, J.

Y. Fu, J. Zhang, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Plasmonic enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence near a silver nanoparticle," J. Fluoresc. 17, 811-816 (2007).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

T. Shegai, Z. Li, T. Dadosh, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, and G. Haran, " Managing light polarization via plasmon-molecule interactions within an asymmetric metal nanoparticle trimer," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(43), 16448-16453 (2008).

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, "One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 081102 (2006).
[PubMed]

Zhao, K.

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, "One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 081102 (2006).
[PubMed]

Zuev, V. S.

V. S. Zuev, A.V. Frantsesson, and J. Gao, J. G. Eden, "Enhancement of Raman scattering for an atom or molecule near a metal nanocylinder: Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coupling to surface plasmon modes," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 214726 (2005).
[PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, "Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles," Adv. Mater. 18, 91-95 (2006).

Anal. Biochem. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering 5: metal-enhanced fluorescence and plasmon emission," Anal. Biochem. 337, 171-194 (2005).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Thomas, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, "Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863-3865 (2004).

H. Tamaru, H. Kuwata, H. T. Miyazaki, and K. Miyano, "Resonant light scattering from individual Ag nanoparticles and particle pairs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1826-1828 (2002).

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, "Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 357-366 (2004).
[PubMed]

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, "One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 081102 (2006).
[PubMed]

V. S. Zuev, A.V. Frantsesson, and J. Gao, J. G. Eden, "Enhancement of Raman scattering for an atom or molecule near a metal nanocylinder: Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coupling to surface plasmon modes," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 214726 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1)

J.-W. Liaw, M.-K. Kuo, and C.-N. Liao, "Plasmon resonance of spherical and ellipsoidal nanoparticles," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 19, 1787-1794 (2005).

J. Fluoresc. (2)

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal Enhanced Fluorescence Solution-based Sensing Platform 2: Fluorescent Core-Shell Ag@SiO2 Nanoballs," J. Fluoresc. 17, 127-131 (2007).
[PubMed]

Y. Fu, J. Zhang, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Plasmonic enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence near a silver nanoparticle," J. Fluoresc. 17, 811-816 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

M. H. Chowdhury, J. Pond, S. K. Gray, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Systematic Computational Study of the Effect of Silver Nanoparticle Dimers on the Coupled Emission from Nearby Fluorophores," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11236-11249 (2008).

J. Phys. D (1)

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Nakamura and S. Hayashi, "Enhancement of Dye Fluorescence by Gold Nanoparticles: Analysis of Particle Size Dependence," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6833-6837 (2005).

J.-W. Liaw, "Local-Field Enhancement and Quantum Yield of Metallic Dimer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8A), 5373-5378 (2007).

Molecular Phys. (1)

S. Kuhn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, "Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching," Molecular Phys. 106(7), 893-908 (2008).

Nano Lett. (7)

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Gap-Dependent Optical Coupling of Single "Bowtie" Nanoantennas Resonant in the Visible," Nano Lett. 4, 957-961 (2004).

S. Lal, N. K. Grady, G. P. Goodrich, and N. J. Halas, "Profiling the Near Field of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle with Raman-Based Molecular Rulers," Nano Lett. 6, 2338-2343 (2006)
[PubMed]

N. T. Fofang, T.-H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Plexcitonic Nanoparticles: Plasmon−Exciton Coupling in Nanoshell−J-Aggregate Complexes," Nano Lett. 8, 3481-3487 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, J. Aizpurua, L. I. Hernandez, D. W. Brandl, I. Romero, S. Lal, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, " Close Encounters between Two Nanoshells," Nano Lett. 8, 1212-1218 (2008).
[PubMed]

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Individual Au Nanoparticles and Nanoparticle Dimer Substrates," Nano Lett. 5, 1569-1574 (2005).
[PubMed]

A. Bek, R. Jansen, M. Ringler, S. Mayilo, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, " Fluorescence enhancement in hot spots of AFM-designed gold nanoparticle sandwiches," Nano Lett. 8, 485-490 (2008).
[PubMed]

F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, "Plasmonic Enhancement of Molecular Fluorescence," Nano Lett. 7, 496-501 (2007).
[PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

A. Mohammadi, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, "Gold nanorods and nanospheroids for enhancing spontaneous emission," New J. Phys. 10, 105015 (2008).

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. B (4)

P. C. Das and A. Puli, "Energy flow and fluorescence near a small metal particle," Phys. Rev. B 65, 155416 (2002).

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, and T. Lopez-Rios, "Resonance shift effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 67, 085409 (2003).

B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, "Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 75, 073404 (2007).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62(3), 4318-4324 (2000).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

H. G. Frey, S. Witt, K. Felderer, and R. Guckenberger, "High-Resolution Imaging of Single Fluorescent Molecules with the Optical Near-Field of a Metal Tip," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 200801(2004).
[PubMed]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, "Enhancement and Quenching of Single-Molecule Fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 113002 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, "Enhancement of Single-Molecule Fluorescence using a Gold Nanoparticle as an Optical Nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, A. C. Morteani, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, S. A. Levi, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, M. Moller, and D. I. Gittins, "Fluorescence Quenching of Dye Molecules near Gold Nanoparticles: Radiative and Nonradiative Effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 203002 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kurzinger, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, "Shaping Emission Spectra of Fluorescent Molecules with Single Plasmonic Nanoresonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

T. Shegai, Z. Li, T. Dadosh, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, and G. Haran, " Managing light polarization via plasmon-molecule interactions within an asymmetric metal nanoparticle trimer," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(43), 16448-16453 (2008).

Science (1)

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration of a nanoshell dimer containing a single molecule within the gap, where the radius of each core is r 0, the thickness of Au shell is t, and the gap is d. The system is irradiated by a plane EM wave for exciting the molecule.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Normalized electric field distribution in x-z plane around a nanosell dimer of r 0=40 nm, t=10 nm, and d=10 nm, which is irradiated by a plane wave with a polarization parallel to the dimer’s central line at λ=700 nm. The scale in x (horizontal) and z (vertical) axes is nanometer. The local-field factor at the center of the gap is about 37. (b) Excitation rates at the center of the gap of a nanosell dimer with r 0=40 nm, t=7,10 or 20 nm, and d=20 or 10 nm irradiated by a plane wave with a polarization parallel to the dimer’s central line.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SCS, ACS, ECS of nanoshell dimer of r 0=40 nm and t=7,10 or 20 nm irradiated by a plane wave with a polarization parallel to the dimer’s central line; (a) is for d=20 nm, and (b) for d=10 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Radiative and nonradiative decay rates of a dipole (θp =0°) at the center of the gap of a nanoshell dimer of r 0=40 nm and t=7,10 or 20 nm; (a) is for d=20 nm, and (b) for d=10 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Apparent quantum yields of a dipole (θp =0°) at the center of the gap of a nanoshell dimer of r 0=40 nm, t=7,10 or 20 nm, and d=20 or 10 nm. (b) Apparent quantum yields for (θp =90°).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Enhancement factors of nanoshell dimer of r 0=40 nm and t=7,10 or 20 nm for a molecule (θp =0°) at the center of the dimer’s gap irradiated by a plane wave with a polarization parallel to the dimer’s central line; (a) is for d=20 nm, and (b) for d=10 nm. The dashed lines are for solid Au dimer of r=50 nm.

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