Abstract

Two novel classes of spherical invisibility cloaks based on nonlinear transformation have been studied. The cloaking characteristics are presented by segmenting the nonlinear transformation based spherical cloak into concentric isotropic homogeneous coatings. Detailed investigations of the optimal discretization (e.g., thickness control of each layer, nonlinear factor, etc.) are presented for both linear and nonlinear spherical cloaks and their effects on invisibility performance are also discussed. The cloaking properties and our choice of optimal segmentation are verified by the numerical simulation of not only near-field electric-field distribution but also the far-field radar cross section (RCS).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (4)

M. Farhat, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, and A. Movchan, "Cloaking bending waves propagating in thin elastic plates," Phys. Rev. B 79, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Brun, S. Guenneau, and A. B. Movchan, "Achieving control of in-plane elastic waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband Ground-Plane Cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. I. Popa and S. A. Cummer, "Cloaking with optimized homogeneous anisotropic layers," Phys. Rev. A 79, 023806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (11)

B. Zhang, H. Chen, and B. I. Wu, "Limitations of high-order transformation and incident angle on simplified invisibility cloaks," Opt. Express 16, 5445-5452 (2008).

R. Weder, "A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks," J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41, 065207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Guenneau, "Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical cloaks of an arbitrary cross section," Opt. Lett. 33, 1584 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, J. Y. Chin, Z. Li, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and T. J. Cui, "Analytical design of conformally invisible cloaks for arbitrarily shaped objects," Phys. Rev. E 77, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, "Numerical method for designing approximate cloaks with arbitrary shapes," Phys. Rev. E 78, 036608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, "Extraordinary Surface Voltage Effect in the Invisibility Cloak with an Active Device Inside," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ma, S. B. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Q. Zhang, B. W. Chen, and J. F. Wang, "Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations," Photonics Nanostruc. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Kwon and D. H. Werner, "Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloaks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, G. X. Yu, X. Q. Lin, Q. Cheng and J. Y. Chin, "Arbitrarily ellipticalCcylindrical invisible cloaking," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Farhat, S. Enoch, S. Guenneau, and A. B. Movchan, "Broadband cylindrical acoustic cloak for linear surface waves in a fluid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 1345011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (8)

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen and C. T. Chan, "Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan, Z. Chao, and M. Qiu, "Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, T. S. Yeo, and S. Zouhdi, "Scattering by rotationally symmetric anisotropic spheres: Potential formulation and parametric studies," Phys. Rev. E 75, 026609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Transformation-designed optical elements," Opt. Express 15, 14772-14782 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, Q. Wu, and T. S. Yeo, "Field representations in general gyrotropic media in spherical coordinates," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propagat. Lett. 4, 467-470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu, S. Zouhdi, and A. Razek, "Modified spherical wave functions with anisotropy ratio: Application to the analysis of scattering by multilayered anisotropic shells," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 55, 3515-3523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.W. Milton, M. Briane, and J. R. Willis, "On cloaking for elasticity and physical equations with a transformation invariant form," New J. Phys. 8, 248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt,"Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT," Physiol. Meas. 24, 413-419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. C. E. Sten, "DC fields and analytical image solutions for a radially anisotropic spherical conductor," IEEE Trans. Diel. Elec. Insul. 2, 360-367 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Briane, M.

G.W. Milton, M. Briane, and J. R. Willis, "On cloaking for elasticity and physical equations with a transformation invariant form," New J. Phys. 8, 248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brun, M.

M. Brun, S. Guenneau, and A. B. Movchan, "Achieving control of in-plane elastic waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

H. Chen and C. T. Chan, "Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chao, Z.

M. Yan, Z. Chao, and M. Qiu, "Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. W.

H. Ma, S. B. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Q. Zhang, B. W. Chen, and J. F. Wang, "Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

B. Zhang, H. Chen, and B. I. Wu, "Limitations of high-order transformation and incident angle on simplified invisibility cloaks," Opt. Express 16, 5445-5452 (2008).

B. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, "Extraordinary Surface Voltage Effect in the Invisibility Cloak with an Active Device Inside," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen and C. T. Chan, "Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Q.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, G. X. Yu, X. Q. Lin, Q. Cheng and J. Y. Chin, "Arbitrarily ellipticalCcylindrical invisible cloaking," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, J. Y. Chin, Z. Li, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and T. J. Cui, "Analytical design of conformally invisible cloaks for arbitrarily shaped objects," Phys. Rev. E 77, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband Ground-Plane Cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, J. Y. Chin, Z. Li, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and T. J. Cui, "Analytical design of conformally invisible cloaks for arbitrarily shaped objects," Phys. Rev. E 77, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, G. X. Yu, X. Q. Lin, Q. Cheng and J. Y. Chin, "Arbitrarily ellipticalCcylindrical invisible cloaking," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband Ground-Plane Cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, J. Y. Chin, Z. Li, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and T. J. Cui, "Analytical design of conformally invisible cloaks for arbitrarily shaped objects," Phys. Rev. E 77, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, G. X. Yu, X. Q. Lin, Q. Cheng and J. Y. Chin, "Arbitrarily ellipticalCcylindrical invisible cloaking," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

B. I. Popa and S. A. Cummer, "Cloaking with optimized homogeneous anisotropic layers," Phys. Rev. A 79, 023806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations," Photonics Nanostruc. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

M. Farhat, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, and A. Movchan, "Cloaking bending waves propagating in thin elastic plates," Phys. Rev. B 79, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Farhat, S. Enoch, S. Guenneau, and A. B. Movchan, "Broadband cylindrical acoustic cloak for linear surface waves in a fluid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 1345011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farhat, M.

M. Farhat, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, and A. Movchan, "Cloaking bending waves propagating in thin elastic plates," Phys. Rev. B 79, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Farhat, S. Enoch, S. Guenneau, and A. B. Movchan, "Broadband cylindrical acoustic cloak for linear surface waves in a fluid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 1345011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Greenleaf, A.

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT," Physiol. Meas. 24, 413-419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenneau, S.

M. Brun, S. Guenneau, and A. B. Movchan, "Achieving control of in-plane elastic waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Farhat, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, and A. Movchan, "Cloaking bending waves propagating in thin elastic plates," Phys. Rev. B 79, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, and S. Guenneau, "Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical cloaks of an arbitrary cross section," Opt. Lett. 33, 1584 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Farhat, S. Enoch, S. Guenneau, and A. B. Movchan, "Broadband cylindrical acoustic cloak for linear surface waves in a fluid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 1345011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband Ground-Plane Cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, W. X.

W. X. Jiang, J. Y. Chin, Z. Li, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and T. J. Cui, "Analytical design of conformally invisible cloaks for arbitrarily shaped objects," Phys. Rev. E 77, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, G. X. Yu, X. Q. Lin, Q. Cheng and J. Y. Chin, "Arbitrarily ellipticalCcylindrical invisible cloaking," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

B. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, "Extraordinary Surface Voltage Effect in the Invisibility Cloak with an Active Device Inside," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, D.

D. Kwon and D. H. Werner, "Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloaks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lassas, M.

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT," Physiol. Meas. 24, 413-419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt,"Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L. W.

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, Q. Wu, and T. S. Yeo, "Field representations in general gyrotropic media in spherical coordinates," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propagat. Lett. 4, 467-470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, T. S. Yeo, and S. Zouhdi, "Scattering by rotationally symmetric anisotropic spheres: Potential formulation and parametric studies," Phys. Rev. E 75, 026609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

W. X. Jiang, J. Y. Chin, Z. Li, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and T. J. Cui, "Analytical design of conformally invisible cloaks for arbitrarily shaped objects," Phys. Rev. E 77, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. Q.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, G. X. Yu, X. Q. Lin, Q. Cheng and J. Y. Chin, "Arbitrarily ellipticalCcylindrical invisible cloaking," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband Ground-Plane Cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, J. Y. Chin, Z. Li, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and T. J. Cui, "Analytical design of conformally invisible cloaks for arbitrarily shaped objects," Phys. Rev. E 77, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, S. B. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Q. Zhang, B. W. Chen, and J. F. Wang, "Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, "Numerical method for designing approximate cloaks with arbitrary shapes," Phys. Rev. E 78, 036608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milton, G.W.

G.W. Milton, M. Briane, and J. R. Willis, "On cloaking for elasticity and physical equations with a transformation invariant form," New J. Phys. 8, 248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband Ground-Plane Cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Movchan, A.

M. Farhat, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, and A. Movchan, "Cloaking bending waves propagating in thin elastic plates," Phys. Rev. B 79, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Movchan, A. B.

M. Farhat, S. Enoch, S. Guenneau, and A. B. Movchan, "Broadband cylindrical acoustic cloak for linear surface waves in a fluid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 1345011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Movchan, A.B.

M. Brun, S. Guenneau, and A. B. Movchan, "Achieving control of in-plane elastic waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicolet, A.

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Transformation-designed optical elements," Opt. Express 15, 14772-14782 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popa, B. I.

B. I. Popa and S. A. Cummer, "Cloaking with optimized homogeneous anisotropic layers," Phys. Rev. A 79, 023806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, C. W.

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, Q. Wu, and T. S. Yeo, "Field representations in general gyrotropic media in spherical coordinates," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propagat. Lett. 4, 467-470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu, S. Zouhdi, and A. Razek, "Modified spherical wave functions with anisotropy ratio: Application to the analysis of scattering by multilayered anisotropic shells," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 55, 3515-3523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, T. S. Yeo, and S. Zouhdi, "Scattering by rotationally symmetric anisotropic spheres: Potential formulation and parametric studies," Phys. Rev. E 75, 026609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

M. Yan, Z. Chao, and M. Qiu, "Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S.

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, "Numerical method for designing approximate cloaks with arbitrary shapes," Phys. Rev. E 78, 036608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S. B.

H. Ma, S. B. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Q. Zhang, B. W. Chen, and J. F. Wang, "Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations," Photonics Nanostruc. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Razek, A.

C. W. Qiu, S. Zouhdi, and A. Razek, "Modified spherical wave functions with anisotropy ratio: Application to the analysis of scattering by multilayered anisotropic shells," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 55, 3515-3523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations," Photonics Nanostruc. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations," Photonics Nanostruc. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Transformation-designed optical elements," Opt. Express 15, 14772-14782 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband Ground-Plane Cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations," Photonics Nanostruc. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Transformation-designed optical elements," Opt. Express 15, 14772-14782 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sten, J. C. E.

J. C. E. Sten, "DC fields and analytical image solutions for a radially anisotropic spherical conductor," IEEE Trans. Diel. Elec. Insul. 2, 360-367 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uhlmann, G.

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT," Physiol. Meas. 24, 413-419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, "Numerical method for designing approximate cloaks with arbitrary shapes," Phys. Rev. E 78, 036608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. F.

H. Ma, S. B. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Q. Zhang, B. W. Chen, and J. F. Wang, "Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weder, R.

R. Weder, "A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks," J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41, 065207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Werner, D. H.

D. Kwon and D. H. Werner, "Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloaks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Willis, J. R.

G.W. Milton, M. Briane, and J. R. Willis, "On cloaking for elasticity and physical equations with a transformation invariant form," New J. Phys. 8, 248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. I.

B. Zhang, H. Chen, and B. I. Wu, "Limitations of high-order transformation and incident angle on simplified invisibility cloaks," Opt. Express 16, 5445-5452 (2008).

B. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, "Extraordinary Surface Voltage Effect in the Invisibility Cloak with an Active Device Inside," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, Q. Wu, and T. S. Yeo, "Field representations in general gyrotropic media in spherical coordinates," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propagat. Lett. 4, 467-470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

H. Ma, S. B. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Q. Zhang, B. W. Chen, and J. F. Wang, "Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, "Numerical method for designing approximate cloaks with arbitrary shapes," Phys. Rev. E 78, 036608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

M. Yan, Z. Chao, and M. Qiu, "Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, T. S.

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, Q. Wu, and T. S. Yeo, "Field representations in general gyrotropic media in spherical coordinates," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propagat. Lett. 4, 467-470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, T. S. Yeo, and S. Zouhdi, "Scattering by rotationally symmetric anisotropic spheres: Potential formulation and parametric studies," Phys. Rev. E 75, 026609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G. X.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, G. X. Yu, X. Q. Lin, Q. Cheng and J. Y. Chin, "Arbitrarily ellipticalCcylindrical invisible cloaking," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, "Extraordinary Surface Voltage Effect in the Invisibility Cloak with an Active Device Inside," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, H. Chen, and B. I. Wu, "Limitations of high-order transformation and incident angle on simplified invisibility cloaks," Opt. Express 16, 5445-5452 (2008).

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. Q.

H. Ma, S. B. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Q. Zhang, B. W. Chen, and J. F. Wang, "Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zolla, F.

Zouhdi, S.

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, T. S. Yeo, and S. Zouhdi, "Scattering by rotationally symmetric anisotropic spheres: Potential formulation and parametric studies," Phys. Rev. E 75, 026609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu, S. Zouhdi, and A. Razek, "Modified spherical wave functions with anisotropy ratio: Application to the analysis of scattering by multilayered anisotropic shells," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 55, 3515-3523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Chen and C. T. Chan, "Acoustic cloaking in three dimensions using acoustic metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183518 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Brun, S. Guenneau, and A. B. Movchan, "Achieving control of in-plane elastic waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Kwon and D. H. Werner, "Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloaks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propagat. Lett. (1)

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, Q. Wu, and T. S. Yeo, "Field representations in general gyrotropic media in spherical coordinates," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propagat. Lett. 4, 467-470 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. (1)

C. W. Qiu, S. Zouhdi, and A. Razek, "Modified spherical wave functions with anisotropy ratio: Application to the analysis of scattering by multilayered anisotropic shells," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 55, 3515-3523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Diel. Elec. Insul. (1)

J. C. E. Sten, "DC fields and analytical image solutions for a radially anisotropic spherical conductor," IEEE Trans. Diel. Elec. Insul. 2, 360-367 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. (1)

R. Weder, "A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks," J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41, 065207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, G. X. Yu, X. Q. Lin, Q. Cheng and J. Y. Chin, "Arbitrarily ellipticalCcylindrical invisible cloaking," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 085504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Optical cloaking with metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1, 063904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

G.W. Milton, M. Briane, and J. R. Willis, "On cloaking for elasticity and physical equations with a transformation invariant form," New J. Phys. 8, 248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Nanostruc. Fundam. Appl. (1)

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell’s equations," Photonics Nanostruc. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

B. I. Popa and S. A. Cummer, "Cloaking with optimized homogeneous anisotropic layers," Phys. Rev. A 79, 023806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, S. B. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Q. Zhang, B. W. Chen, and J. F. Wang, "Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Farhat, S. Guenneau, S. Enoch, and A. Movchan, "Cloaking bending waves propagating in thin elastic plates," Phys. Rev. B 79, 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

W. X. Jiang, J. Y. Chin, Z. Li, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and T. J. Cui, "Analytical design of conformally invisible cloaks for arbitrarily shaped objects," Phys. Rev. E 77, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, "Numerical method for designing approximate cloaks with arbitrary shapes," Phys. Rev. E 78, 036608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Qiu, L. W. Li, T. S. Yeo, and S. Zouhdi, "Scattering by rotationally symmetric anisotropic spheres: Potential formulation and parametric studies," Phys. Rev. E 75, 026609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. Yan, Z. Chao, and M. Qiu, "Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Farhat, S. Enoch, S. Guenneau, and A. B. Movchan, "Broadband cylindrical acoustic cloak for linear surface waves in a fluid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 1345011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, H. Chen, B. I. Wu, and J. A. Kong, "Extraordinary Surface Voltage Effect in the Invisibility Cloak with an Active Device Inside," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT," Physiol. Meas. 24, 413-419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

U. Leonhardt,"Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband Ground-Plane Cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. K. Kildishev, G. W. Milton, and V. M. Shalaev, "Non-magnetic cloak without reflection," arXiv:0707.3641v1.

C. W. Qiu, L. Hu, and L. Gao, "Trade-off between forward and backward scatterings of Linear and Nonlinear Spherical Invisibility Cloaks," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, to be submitted (2009).

M. Yan, Z. Chao, and M. Qiu, "Scattering characteristics of simplified cylindrical invisibility cloaks," Opt. Express 15, 17772C17782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The geometry of a spherical cloaking structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The discretization of a general anisotropic spherical cloak (a) into an equivalent isotropic coated structure (b). An illustrative example for the conversion from the n-th anisotropic initial-layer (width is rn rn −1) into its two sub-layers (isotropic) with equal thickness (rn rn −1)=2 has been shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The concave-down nonlinear transformation. When x<0.1, all mapping curves are overlapping, meaning they effectively lead to the same performance. When x becomes large, the curve will nearly become a step function over 1λ<r<2λ.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Near-field interaction in the presence of the proposed nonlinear spherical cloak with different values of x for the concave-down class. The inner region 0<r<R 1 is filled by PEC. M is set to be 40. Frequency is 2GHz. The total electric fields are plotted only in the region r>R 2 in (e–h).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Bistatic RCS of the concave-down nonlinear cloaks. M=40.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The concave-up nonlinear transformation. When x=1, it is exactly Pendry’s linear cloak, which can be verified by inserting x=1 into Eq. (12). When x gets extremely large, the mapping curve will nearly become a sharp impulse when r→2λ.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Re[Etotal] on x-z plane for the proposed concave-up nonlinear transformation cloaks at x=1, x=4 and x=10, respectively. Figs. 7(a–c) present total electric fields in all areas while Figs. 7(e–f) show the total fields only outside the cloak (r>R 2). M=40 and f=2GHz . In order to show the disturbance in surrounding outer space, the plot range is larger (from -0.6m to 0.6m) in the right column.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Bistatic RCS of the concave-up nonlinear cloaks.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The total scattering cross section (unit: dBsm) for concave-up nonlinearly transformed spherical cloaks (x=4) under various segmentations in physical space.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{2r2+[kt2Ae,mn(n+1)r2]}f(r)=0 ,
{2r2+[kt2n(n+1)(rR1)2]}f(r)=0 .
εA=μA=εt+εt2εtεr
εB=μB=εtεt2εtεr.
r(x)=R2x+1R2xR1x[1(R1r)x]
r(x)=R2Ln[rR1]Ln[R2R1].
εˉ(r)=Aεˉ(r)ATdet(A),μˉ(r)=Aμˉ(r)ATdet(A)
εˉ=μˉ=diag[λr2,λθ2,λϕ2]λrλθλϕ=diag [λrλθλϕ,λθλrλϕ,λϕλrλθ]
λr=rr=(R2xR1x)rx+1xR1xR2x+1
λθ=λϕ=rr=(R2xR1x)rx+1R2x+1(rxR1x)
εr=μr=R2x+1(rxR1x)2xR1x(R2xR1x)rx+1
εθ=μθ=εϕ=μϕ=xR1xR2x+1(R2xR1x)rx+1.
rn(x)=[1R2xR1xR2xnM]1x·R1,n=1 , 2 , . . . , M .
r(x)=R2R1xR2xR1x[(rR1)x1].
εr=μr=R2(rxR1x)2x(R2xR1x)rx+1
εθ=μθ=εϕ=μϕ=xR2rx1R2xR1x .
rn(x)=[R2xR1xR1xnM+1]1x.R1, n=1,2,...,M.

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