Abstract

Complex polarization ratio (CPR) in materials with birefringence and biattenuance is shown as a logarithmic spiral in the complex plane. A multi-state Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm using the CPR trajectory collected by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was developed to determine polarization properties of an anisotropic scattering medium. The Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm using the CPR trajectory is verified using simulated PS-OCT data with speckle noise. Birefringence and biattenuance of a birefringent film, ex-vivo rodent tail tendon and in-vivo primate retinal nerve fiber layer were determined using measured CPR trajectories and the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm.

© 2009 OSA

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2006

S. Makita, Y. Yasuno, T. Endo, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization contrast imaging of biological tissues by polarization-sensitive Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 45(6), 1142–1147 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Differential geometry of normalized Stokes vector trajectories in anisotropic media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 679–690 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6502–6515 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6502 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, and M. Pircher, “Birefringence properties of the human cornea measured with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol. 302(302), 153–168 (2006).

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107(3), 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jones, C. L. Darling, J. D. B. Featherstone, and D. Fried, “Remineralization of in vitro dental caries assessed with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(2), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Rylander, N. J. Kemp, J. S. Park, H. N. Zaatari, and T. E. Milner, “Birefringence of the primate retinal nerve fiber layer,” Exp. Eye Res. 81(1), 81–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Kemp, J. Park, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “High-sensitivity determination of birefringence in turbid media with enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(3), 552–560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Depth-resolved optic axis orientation in multiple layered anisotropic tissues measured with enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (EPS-OCT),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4507–4518 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4507 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4611–4628 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4611 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jiao, M. Todorović, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Mueller matrix optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Appl. Opt. 44(26), 5463–5467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-25-10217 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

1999

1992

1975

A. R. Gallant, “Nonlinear-Regression,” Am. Stat. 29(2), 73–81 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107(3), 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(2), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courtney, B. K.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107(3), 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darling, C. L.

R. S. Jones, C. L. Darling, J. D. B. Featherstone, and D. Fried, “Remineralization of in vitro dental caries assessed with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 359–371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 300–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ducros, M. G.

Endo, T.

S. Makita, Y. Yasuno, T. Endo, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Polarization contrast imaging of biological tissues by polarization-sensitive Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 45(6), 1142–1147 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Featherstone, J. D. B.

R. S. Jones, C. L. Darling, J. D. B. Featherstone, and D. Fried, “Remineralization of in vitro dental caries assessed with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Fried, D.

R. S. Jones, C. L. Darling, J. D. B. Featherstone, and D. Fried, “Remineralization of in vitro dental caries assessed with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107(3), 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(2), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gallant, A. R.

A. R. Gallant, “Nonlinear-Regression,” Am. Stat. 29(2), 73–81 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Giattina, S. D.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107(3), 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetzinger, E.

Götzinger, E.

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, and M. Pircher, “Birefringence properties of the human cornea measured with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol. 302(302), 153–168 (2006).

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-25-10217 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harman, M.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107(3), 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

Herz, P. R.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107(3), 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

Hyle Park, B.

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Jiao, S. L.

Jones, R. S.

R. S. Jones, C. L. Darling, J. D. B. Featherstone, and D. Fried, “Remineralization of in vitro dental caries assessed with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katada, C.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, N. J.

Liu, B.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107(3), 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Marsack, J. D.

Milner, T. E.

J. Park, N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Differential geometry of normalized Stokes vector trajectories in anisotropic media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 679–690 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kemp, J. Park, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “High-sensitivity determination of birefringence in turbid media with enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(3), 552–560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Depth-resolved optic axis orientation in multiple layered anisotropic tissues measured with enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (EPS-OCT),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4507–4518 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4507 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4611–4628 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4611 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Rylander, N. J. Kemp, J. S. Park, H. N. Zaatari, and T. E. Milner, “Birefringence of the primate retinal nerve fiber layer,” Exp. Eye Res. 81(1), 81–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 359–371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Ducros, J. D. Marsack, H. G. Rylander, S. L. Thomsen, and T. E. Milner, “Primate retina imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(12), 2945–2956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 300–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mutoh, M.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001).
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J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 300–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. H.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Park, J. S.

H. G. Rylander, N. J. Kemp, J. S. Park, H. N. Zaatari, and T. E. Milner, “Birefringence of the primate retinal nerve fiber layer,” Exp. Eye Res. 81(1), 81–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, N. A.

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(2), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Optic axis determination accuracy for fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2587–2589 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

Rylander, H. G.

J. Park, N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Differential geometry of normalized Stokes vector trajectories in anisotropic media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 679–690 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kemp, J. Park, H. N. Zaatari, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “High-sensitivity determination of birefringence in turbid media with enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(3), 552–560 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Depth-resolved optic axis orientation in multiple layered anisotropic tissues measured with enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (EPS-OCT),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4507–4518 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4507 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4611–4628 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4611 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Rylander, N. J. Kemp, J. S. Park, H. N. Zaatari, and T. E. Milner, “Birefringence of the primate retinal nerve fiber layer,” Exp. Eye Res. 81(1), 81–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Ducros, J. D. Marsack, H. G. Rylander, S. L. Thomsen, and T. E. Milner, “Primate retina imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(12), 2945–2956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheridan, R. L.

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shortkroff, S.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107(3), 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamper, D. L.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107(3), 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(2), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

Stoica, G.

Sutoh, Y.

Swanson, E. A.

Takahashi, M.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, S. L.

Todorovic, M.

Wang, L. V.

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Zaatari, H. N.

Zoeller, J.

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(2), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. Stat.

A. R. Gallant, “Nonlinear-Regression,” Am. Stat. 29(2), 73–81 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, M. Takahashi, C. Katada, and M. Mutoh, “Polarization-sensitive complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for Jones matrix imaging of biological samples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3023–3025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol.

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, and M. Pircher, “Birefringence properties of the human cornea measured with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol. 302(302), 153–168 (2006).

Burns

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res.

H. G. Rylander, N. J. Kemp, J. S. Park, H. N. Zaatari, and T. E. Milner, “Birefringence of the primate retinal nerve fiber layer,” Exp. Eye Res. 81(1), 81–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

N. A. Patel, J. Zoeller, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Monitoring osteoarthritis in the rat model using optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(2), 155–159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cardiol.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Int. J. Cardiol. 107(3), 400–409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(8), 2606–2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 359–371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jones, C. L. Darling, J. D. B. Featherstone, and D. Fried, “Remineralization of in vitro dental caries assessed with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-9-13-780 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6502–6515 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6502 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5892–5906 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5892 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Depth-resolved optic axis orientation in multiple layered anisotropic tissues measured with enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (EPS-OCT),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4507–4518 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4507 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, “Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT),” Opt. Express 13(12), 4611–4628 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4611 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10217–10229 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-25-10217 .
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Assignment of polarization states in the (h, v) basis Cartesian complex plane (L=0°: Linearly horizontal, L=45°: Linearly 45°, L=−45°: Linearly −45°, R.C.: right circular, L.C.: left circular polarization states) (b) Loci of polarization states of constant relative magnitude (|Cvh |=|Ev |/|Eh |) and phase (∠Cvh =θv θh ). (c) Relationship between (h, v) basis complex plane and Poincaré sphere. The Poincaré sphere of unit diameter is transformed to the complex plane by stereographic projection.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CPR trajectories in the complex plane. (a) Trajectory with only phase retardation (δ(z)=360°) uniformly rotates around the origin (black dot) (b) Trajectory with phase retardation (δ(z)=360°) and amplitude attenuation (ε(z)=36°) is a logarithmic spiral converging toward the origin. (Red and blue dots represent the first and last CPRs, respectively).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Trajectories of CPRs in the (h, v) and (x, y) basis complex planes. (a) Trajectory with double-pass phase retardation (2δ(z)=360°) and an optic axis (cvh_oa =0.3exp(j45°), black dot) in the (h, v) basis complex plane (b) Trajectory in the (x, y) basis complex plane. The optic axis (cyx_oa ) in (x, y) basis complex plane is zero and at the origin of trajectory (Red and blue dots represent the first and last CPRs, respectively).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Multi-state trajectories of CPRs in the (h, v) and (x, y) basis complex planes (a) Trajectories with 2δ(z)=60°, 2ε(z)=6.0° and an optic axis (cvh_oa =0.3exp(j45°), black dot) in the (h, v) basis complex plane (b) Trajectories in the (x, y) basis complex plane. Identical δ(z) and ε(z) are visually observed (Red and blue dots represent the first and last CPRs, respectively).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CPRs of simulated PS-OCT data in the (h, v) basis complex plane. The CPR of optic axis (black dot) and noise-free polarization arcs (black trajectories) were estimated from speckle-noise CPRs (colored trajectories)(Red dot behind the black dot represents true CPR of optic axis).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Trajectory of CPRs by ex-vivo rodent tail tendon specimen in the (h, v) basis complex plane. The CPR of optic axis (black dot) and noise-free polarization arcs (black trajectory) are estimated from speckle-noise CPRs (red trajectory) (Red and blue dots represents the first and last CPRs, respectively).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Multi-states trajectories of CPRs by in-vivo primate RNFL in the (h, v) basis complex planes (a) Speckle noise-corrupted and fitted (black) trajectories in an inferior region (thickness z=150.0µm). Phase retardation is δRNFL (z=150.0µm)=28.2° (b) Speckle noise-corrupted and fitted (black) trajectories in a nasal region (thickness z=53.5µm). Phase retardation is δRNFL (z=53.5µm)=2.78° (Black dots represents the CPR of optic axis).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relative processing times between the two nonlinear fitting algorithms using CPRs and Stokes vectors. The relative processing times were measured by 100 independent estimate sets using simulated PS-OCT data (a) Relative processing times with different phase retardation (δ(z)=10°, 30°, 50°, 70° and 90°) at a high speckle noise with standard deviation (σ=5°) (b) Difference of relative processing times computed from (a) (c) Relative processing times with speckle noise (σ=1°, 2°, 3°, 4° and 5°) at a fixed phase retardation (δ(z)=30°) (d) Difference of relative processing times computed from (c).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Estimated retardation and 95% confidence intervals by simulated PS-OCT data in two Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithms using CPRs and Stokes vectors (a) Confidence intervals with different phase retardation (δ(z)=10°, 30°, 50°, 70° and 90°) at a fixed optic axis and high speckle noise with standard deviation (σ=5°) (b) Estimated retardation and 95% confidence intervals (green error bar) from (a) (c) Confidence intervals with speckle noise (σ=1°, 2°, 3°, 4° and 5°) at a true phase retardation (δ(z)=30°) (d) Estimated retardation and 95% confidence intervals (green error bar) from (c).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Cyx=EyEx=EyejθyExejθx=EyExej(θyθx)
[ExEy]=[f11f12f21f22][EaEb],
Cyx=f22Cba+f21f12Cba+f11.
Cba(z)=Eb(z)Ea(z)=exp (ε(z)) · exp (iδ(z))
Ro=Σzcyx(z)yx[Cvh{z;2δ,2ε,Cvh_oa,Cvh(0)}]2
RM=Σm=1MRo[cyx(m)(z);2δ,2ε,Cvh_oa,Cvh(m)(0)]
CIi=± t s2Pii

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