Abstract

Nanoscale voids (or ‘anti-nanoparticles’) embedded in gold films possess plasmon modes with a strong field component at the cavity entrance, radically different to nanoparticle plasmon modes. By creating Ni/Au hybrid rim nanostructures we show how selective coupling to void plasmons provides strong electric field enhancements leading to large surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals from molecules adsorbed on the nanovoid film. Since the rim plasmon modes are relatively independent of the supporting void material these results pave the way for hybrid nanovoid structures which combine plasmonic and catalytic properties of the constituent materials in a controllable and reproducible way.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Otto, "Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection " Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-plasmon resonance effect in grating diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, "Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104-109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Matthias, and N. Lukas, "Optical frequency mixing at coupled gold nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. L. Demming, F. Festy, and D. Richards, "Plasmon resonances on metal tips: Understanding tip- enhanced Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184716 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. M. Stockle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, "Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 131-136 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, "Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids," Nano Lett. 7, 2094-2100 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, S. Pelfrey, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, "Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284- 9289 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D.-Y. Wu, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering:From noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 9463-9483 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Ren, Q. J. Huang, W. B. Cai, B. W. Mao, F. M. Liu, and Z. Q. Tian, "Surface Raman spectra of pyridine and hydrogen on bare platinum and nickel electrodes," J. Electroanal. Chem. 415, 175-178 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Q. Tian, and B. Ren, "Adsorption and reaction at electrochemical interfaces as probed by surface- enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 55, 197-229 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, J.-F. Li, and Z.-L. Yang, "Expanding generality of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with borrowing SERS activity strategy," Chem.l Commun.3514-3534 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Park, P. Yang, P. Corredor, and M. J. Weaver, "Transition metal-coated nanoparticle films: Vibrational characterization with Surface-enhanced Raman scattering," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2428-2429 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, "Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres," Chem. Mater. 14, 2199-2208 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, and M. A. Ghanem, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous platinum, palladium and cobalt films using polystyrene latex sphere templates," Chem. Commun.1671-1672 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and C.-S. Toh, "Electrochemical syntheses of highly ordered macroporous conducting polymers grown around self-assembled colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 11, 849-853 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. N. Bartlett, T. Dunford, and M. A. Ghanem, "Templated electrochemical deposition of nanostructured macroporous PbO2," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3130-3135 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. N. Bartlett, M. A. Ghanem, I. S. El Hallag, P. de Groot, and A. Zhukov, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous magnetic networks using colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2596-2602 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, S. Coyle, and M. E. Abdelsalam, "Optical properties of nanostructured metal films," Faraday Discuss. 125, 117-132 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. N. D. Denkov, O. D. Velev, P. A. Kralchevsky, I. B. Ivanov, H. Yoshimura, and K. Nagayama, "Mechanism of formation of two-dimensional crystals from latex particles on substrates," Langmuir 8, 3183-3190 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. S. Dimitrov, and K. Nagayama, "Continuous convective assembling of fine particles into two- dimensional arrays on solid surfaces," Langmuir 12, 1303-1311 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, "Single Crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness," Chem. Mater. 11, 2132-2140 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. J. Baumberg, T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, "Angle- resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals," Nano Lett. 5, 2262-2267 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A brief retrospective," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 485-496 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, "Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B35426 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. E. C. L. Ru, and P. G. Etchegoin, "Rigourous justification of the E4 enhancement factor in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 423, 63-66 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Ulman, "Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers," Chem. Rev. 96, 1533-1554 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology," Chem. Rev. 105, 1103-1169 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Z. Mekhalif, J. Riga, J. J. Pireaux, and J. Delhalle, "Self-assembled monolayers of n-dodecanethiol on electrochemically modified polycrystalline nickel surfaces," Langmuir 13, 2285-2290 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Z. Mekhalif, F. Laffineur, N. Couturier, and J. Delhalle, "Elaboration of self-assembled monolayers of n- alkanethiols on nickel polycrystalline substrates: time, concentration, and solvent effects," Langmuir 19, 637-645 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, S. Pelfrey, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, "Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284- 9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, "Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104-109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Matthias, and N. Lukas, "Optical frequency mixing at coupled gold nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, "Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids," Nano Lett. 7, 2094-2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, J.-F. Li, and Z.-L. Yang, "Expanding generality of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with borrowing SERS activity strategy," Chem.l Commun.3514-3534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, "Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B35426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. C. L. Ru, and P. G. Etchegoin, "Rigourous justification of the E4 enhancement factor in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 423, 63-66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

A. L. Demming, F. Festy, and D. Richards, "Plasmon resonances on metal tips: Understanding tip- enhanced Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology," Chem. Rev. 105, 1103-1169 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A brief retrospective," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 485-496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, "Angle- resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals," Nano Lett. 5, 2262-2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, S. Coyle, and M. E. Abdelsalam, "Optical properties of nanostructured metal films," Faraday Discuss. 125, 117-132 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Tian, and B. Ren, "Adsorption and reaction at electrochemical interfaces as probed by surface- enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 55, 197-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. N. Bartlett, M. A. Ghanem, I. S. El Hallag, P. de Groot, and A. Zhukov, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous magnetic networks using colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2596-2602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Mekhalif, F. Laffineur, N. Couturier, and J. Delhalle, "Elaboration of self-assembled monolayers of n- alkanethiols on nickel polycrystalline substrates: time, concentration, and solvent effects," Langmuir 19, 637-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

P. N. Bartlett, T. Dunford, and M. A. Ghanem, "Templated electrochemical deposition of nanostructured macroporous PbO2," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3130-3135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D.-Y. Wu, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering:From noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 9463-9483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, P. Yang, P. Corredor, and M. J. Weaver, "Transition metal-coated nanoparticle films: Vibrational characterization with Surface-enhanced Raman scattering," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2428-2429 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, "Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres," Chem. Mater. 14, 2199-2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and C.-S. Toh, "Electrochemical syntheses of highly ordered macroporous conducting polymers grown around self-assembled colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 11, 849-853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, and M. A. Ghanem, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous platinum, palladium and cobalt films using polystyrene latex sphere templates," Chem. Commun.1671-1672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Stockle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, "Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 131-136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, "Single Crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness," Chem. Mater. 11, 2132-2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Z. Mekhalif, J. Riga, J. J. Pireaux, and J. Delhalle, "Self-assembled monolayers of n-dodecanethiol on electrochemically modified polycrystalline nickel surfaces," Langmuir 13, 2285-2290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

A. Ulman, "Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers," Chem. Rev. 96, 1533-1554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Dimitrov, and K. Nagayama, "Continuous convective assembling of fine particles into two- dimensional arrays on solid surfaces," Langmuir 12, 1303-1311 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Ren, Q. J. Huang, W. B. Cai, B. W. Mao, F. M. Liu, and Z. Q. Tian, "Surface Raman spectra of pyridine and hydrogen on bare platinum and nickel electrodes," J. Electroanal. Chem. 415, 175-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

N. D. Denkov, O. D. Velev, P. A. Kralchevsky, I. B. Ivanov, H. Yoshimura, and K. Nagayama, "Mechanism of formation of two-dimensional crystals from latex particles on substrates," Langmuir 8, 3183-3190 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

A. Otto, "Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection " Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-plasmon resonance effect in grating diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalam, M.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, "Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids," Nano Lett. 7, 2094-2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, "Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104-109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, "Angle- resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals," Nano Lett. 5, 2262-2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdelsalam, M. E.

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, S. Coyle, and M. E. Abdelsalam, "Optical properties of nanostructured metal films," Faraday Discuss. 125, 117-132 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, E. T.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-plasmon resonance effect in grating diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P.

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, "Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104-109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. N.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, S. Pelfrey, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, "Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284- 9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, "Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids," Nano Lett. 7, 2094-2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, "Angle- resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals," Nano Lett. 5, 2262-2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, S. Coyle, and M. E. Abdelsalam, "Optical properties of nanostructured metal films," Faraday Discuss. 125, 117-132 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Bartlett, M. A. Ghanem, I. S. El Hallag, P. de Groot, and A. Zhukov, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous magnetic networks using colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2596-2602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, "Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres," Chem. Mater. 14, 2199-2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, T. Dunford, and M. A. Ghanem, "Templated electrochemical deposition of nanostructured macroporous PbO2," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3130-3135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and C.-S. Toh, "Electrochemical syntheses of highly ordered macroporous conducting polymers grown around self-assembled colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 11, 849-853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, and M. A. Ghanem, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous platinum, palladium and cobalt films using polystyrene latex sphere templates," Chem. Commun.1671-1672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, S. Pelfrey, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, "Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284- 9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, "Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104-109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, "Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B35426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, "Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids," Nano Lett. 7, 2094-2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, "Angle- resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals," Nano Lett. 5, 2262-2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, S. Coyle, and M. E. Abdelsalam, "Optical properties of nanostructured metal films," Faraday Discuss. 125, 117-132 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, "Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres," Chem. Mater. 14, 2199-2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bertone, J. F.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, "Single Crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness," Chem. Mater. 11, 2132-2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Birkin, P. R.

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, "Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres," Chem. Mater. 14, 2199-2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and C.-S. Toh, "Electrochemical syntheses of highly ordered macroporous conducting polymers grown around self-assembled colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 11, 849-853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, and M. A. Ghanem, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous platinum, palladium and cobalt films using polystyrene latex sphere templates," Chem. Commun.1671-1672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W. B.

B. Ren, Q. J. Huang, W. B. Cai, B. W. Mao, F. M. Liu, and Z. Q. Tian, "Surface Raman spectra of pyridine and hydrogen on bare platinum and nickel electrodes," J. Electroanal. Chem. 415, 175-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. B.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, "Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B35426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cintra, S.

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, "Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104-109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, "Angle- resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals," Nano Lett. 5, 2262-2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, R. M.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, S. Pelfrey, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, "Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284- 9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, "Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids," Nano Lett. 7, 2094-2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V. L.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, "Single Crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness," Chem. Mater. 11, 2132-2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corredor, P.

S. Park, P. Yang, P. Corredor, and M. J. Weaver, "Transition metal-coated nanoparticle films: Vibrational characterization with Surface-enhanced Raman scattering," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2428-2429 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couturier, N.

Z. Mekhalif, F. Laffineur, N. Couturier, and J. Delhalle, "Elaboration of self-assembled monolayers of n- alkanethiols on nickel polycrystalline substrates: time, concentration, and solvent effects," Langmuir 19, 637-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, J. J.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-plasmon resonance effect in grating diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Coyle, S.

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, S. Coyle, and M. E. Abdelsalam, "Optical properties of nanostructured metal films," Faraday Discuss. 125, 117-132 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, L.

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Abajo, F. J. G.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, "Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B35426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, P.

P. N. Bartlett, M. A. Ghanem, I. S. El Hallag, P. de Groot, and A. Zhukov, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous magnetic networks using colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2596-2602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deckert, V.

R. M. Stockle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, "Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 131-136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delhalle, J.

Z. Mekhalif, F. Laffineur, N. Couturier, and J. Delhalle, "Elaboration of self-assembled monolayers of n- alkanethiols on nickel polycrystalline substrates: time, concentration, and solvent effects," Langmuir 19, 637-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Mekhalif, J. Riga, J. J. Pireaux, and J. Delhalle, "Self-assembled monolayers of n-dodecanethiol on electrochemically modified polycrystalline nickel surfaces," Langmuir 13, 2285-2290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demming, A. L.

A. L. Demming, F. Festy, and D. Richards, "Plasmon resonances on metal tips: Understanding tip- enhanced Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denkov, N. D.

N. D. Denkov, O. D. Velev, P. A. Kralchevsky, I. B. Ivanov, H. Yoshimura, and K. Nagayama, "Mechanism of formation of two-dimensional crystals from latex particles on substrates," Langmuir 8, 3183-3190 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, A. S.

A. S. Dimitrov, and K. Nagayama, "Continuous convective assembling of fine particles into two- dimensional arrays on solid surfaces," Langmuir 12, 1303-1311 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dunford, T.

P. N. Bartlett, T. Dunford, and M. A. Ghanem, "Templated electrochemical deposition of nanostructured macroporous PbO2," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3130-3135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

El Hallag, I. S.

P. N. Bartlett, M. A. Ghanem, I. S. El Hallag, P. de Groot, and A. Zhukov, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous magnetic networks using colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2596-2602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Estroff, L. A.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology," Chem. Rev. 105, 1103-1169 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etchegoin, P. G.

E. C. L. Ru, and P. G. Etchegoin, "Rigourous justification of the E4 enhancement factor in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 423, 63-66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Festy, F.

A. L. Demming, F. Festy, and D. Richards, "Plasmon resonances on metal tips: Understanding tip- enhanced Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, "Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids," Nano Lett. 7, 2094-2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghanem, M. A.

P. N. Bartlett, M. A. Ghanem, I. S. El Hallag, P. de Groot, and A. Zhukov, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous magnetic networks using colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2596-2602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, "Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres," Chem. Mater. 14, 2199-2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, T. Dunford, and M. A. Ghanem, "Templated electrochemical deposition of nanostructured macroporous PbO2," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3130-3135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and C.-S. Toh, "Electrochemical syntheses of highly ordered macroporous conducting polymers grown around self-assembled colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 11, 849-853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, and M. A. Ghanem, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous platinum, palladium and cobalt films using polystyrene latex sphere templates," Chem. Commun.1671-1672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, R. N.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-plasmon resonance effect in grating diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hayward, I. P.

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q. J.

B. Ren, Q. J. Huang, W. B. Cai, B. W. Mao, F. M. Liu, and Z. Q. Tian, "Surface Raman spectra of pyridine and hydrogen on bare platinum and nickel electrodes," J. Electroanal. Chem. 415, 175-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, K. S.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, "Single Crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness," Chem. Mater. 11, 2132-2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, I. B.

N. D. Denkov, O. D. Velev, P. A. Kralchevsky, I. B. Ivanov, H. Yoshimura, and K. Nagayama, "Mechanism of formation of two-dimensional crystals from latex particles on substrates," Langmuir 8, 3183-3190 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, P.

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, "Single Crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness," Chem. Mater. 11, 2132-2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kelf, T.

J. J. Baumberg, T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, "Angle- resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals," Nano Lett. 5, 2262-2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelf, T. A.

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kralchevsky, P. A.

N. D. Denkov, O. D. Velev, P. A. Kralchevsky, I. B. Ivanov, H. Yoshimura, and K. Nagayama, "Mechanism of formation of two-dimensional crystals from latex particles on substrates," Langmuir 8, 3183-3190 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kriebel, J. K.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology," Chem. Rev. 105, 1103-1169 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laffineur, F.

Z. Mekhalif, F. Laffineur, N. Couturier, and J. Delhalle, "Elaboration of self-assembled monolayers of n- alkanethiols on nickel polycrystalline substrates: time, concentration, and solvent effects," Langmuir 19, 637-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.-F.

Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, J.-F. Li, and Z.-L. Yang, "Expanding generality of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with borrowing SERS activity strategy," Chem.l Commun.3514-3534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F. M.

B. Ren, Q. J. Huang, W. B. Cai, B. W. Mao, F. M. Liu, and Z. Q. Tian, "Surface Raman spectra of pyridine and hydrogen on bare platinum and nickel electrodes," J. Electroanal. Chem. 415, 175-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. C.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology," Chem. Rev. 105, 1103-1169 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukas, N.

D. Matthias, and N. Lukas, "Optical frequency mixing at coupled gold nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, S.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, S. Pelfrey, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, "Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284- 9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, "Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids," Nano Lett. 7, 2094-2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, "Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104-109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mao, B. W.

B. Ren, Q. J. Huang, W. B. Cai, B. W. Mao, F. M. Liu, and Z. Q. Tian, "Surface Raman spectra of pyridine and hydrogen on bare platinum and nickel electrodes," J. Electroanal. Chem. 415, 175-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, D.

D. Matthias, and N. Lukas, "Optical frequency mixing at coupled gold nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mekhalif, Z.

Z. Mekhalif, F. Laffineur, N. Couturier, and J. Delhalle, "Elaboration of self-assembled monolayers of n- alkanethiols on nickel polycrystalline substrates: time, concentration, and solvent effects," Langmuir 19, 637-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Mekhalif, J. Riga, J. J. Pireaux, and J. Delhalle, "Self-assembled monolayers of n-dodecanethiol on electrochemically modified polycrystalline nickel surfaces," Langmuir 13, 2285-2290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A brief retrospective," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 485-496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nagayama, K.

A. S. Dimitrov, and K. Nagayama, "Continuous convective assembling of fine particles into two- dimensional arrays on solid surfaces," Langmuir 12, 1303-1311 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Denkov, O. D. Velev, P. A. Kralchevsky, I. B. Ivanov, H. Yoshimura, and K. Nagayama, "Mechanism of formation of two-dimensional crystals from latex particles on substrates," Langmuir 8, 3183-3190 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M. C.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, "Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B35426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, "Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres," Chem. Mater. 14, 2199-2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nuzzo, R. G.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology," Chem. Rev. 105, 1103-1169 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otto, A.

A. Otto, "Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection " Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park, P. Yang, P. Corredor, and M. J. Weaver, "Transition metal-coated nanoparticle films: Vibrational characterization with Surface-enhanced Raman scattering," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2428-2429 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelfrey, S.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, S. Pelfrey, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, "Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284- 9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perney, N. M. B.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, "Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B35426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pireaux, J. J.

Z. Mekhalif, J. Riga, J. J. Pireaux, and J. Delhalle, "Self-assembled monolayers of n-dodecanethiol on electrochemically modified polycrystalline nickel surfaces," Langmuir 13, 2285-2290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ren, B.

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, J.-F. Li, and Z.-L. Yang, "Expanding generality of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with borrowing SERS activity strategy," Chem.l Commun.3514-3534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Tian, and B. Ren, "Adsorption and reaction at electrochemical interfaces as probed by surface- enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 55, 197-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D.-Y. Wu, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering:From noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 9463-9483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ren, Q. J. Huang, W. B. Cai, B. W. Mao, F. M. Liu, and Z. Q. Tian, "Surface Raman spectra of pyridine and hydrogen on bare platinum and nickel electrodes," J. Electroanal. Chem. 415, 175-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richards, D.

A. L. Demming, F. Festy, and D. Richards, "Plasmon resonances on metal tips: Understanding tip- enhanced Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riga, J.

Z. Mekhalif, J. Riga, J. J. Pireaux, and J. Delhalle, "Self-assembled monolayers of n-dodecanethiol on electrochemically modified polycrystalline nickel surfaces," Langmuir 13, 2285-2290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-plasmon resonance effect in grating diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ru, E. C. L.

E. C. L. Ru, and P. G. Etchegoin, "Rigourous justification of the E4 enhancement factor in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 423, 63-66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, S. Pelfrey, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, "Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284- 9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, "Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104-109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A. E.

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, "Angle- resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals," Nano Lett. 5, 2262-2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soares, B.

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, S. Pelfrey, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, "Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284- 9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stockle, R. M.

R. M. Stockle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, "Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 131-136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, Y.

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, "Angle- resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals," Nano Lett. 5, 2262-2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suguwara, Y.

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, "Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104-109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suh, Y. D.

R. M. Stockle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, "Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 131-136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tang, A.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, "Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B35426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Tian, and B. Ren, "Adsorption and reaction at electrochemical interfaces as probed by surface- enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 55, 197-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Ren, Q. J. Huang, W. B. Cai, B. W. Mao, F. M. Liu, and Z. Q. Tian, "Surface Raman spectra of pyridine and hydrogen on bare platinum and nickel electrodes," J. Electroanal. Chem. 415, 175-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.-Q.

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, J.-F. Li, and Z.-L. Yang, "Expanding generality of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with borrowing SERS activity strategy," Chem.l Commun.3514-3534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D.-Y. Wu, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering:From noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 9463-9483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toh, C.-S.

P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and C.-S. Toh, "Electrochemical syntheses of highly ordered macroporous conducting polymers grown around self-assembled colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 11, 849-853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ulman, A.

A. Ulman, "Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers," Chem. Rev. 96, 1533-1554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velev, O. D.

N. D. Denkov, O. D. Velev, P. A. Kralchevsky, I. B. Ivanov, H. Yoshimura, and K. Nagayama, "Mechanism of formation of two-dimensional crystals from latex particles on substrates," Langmuir 8, 3183-3190 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, M. J.

S. Park, P. Yang, P. Corredor, and M. J. Weaver, "Transition metal-coated nanoparticle films: Vibrational characterization with Surface-enhanced Raman scattering," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2428-2429 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology," Chem. Rev. 105, 1103-1169 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, D.-Y.

Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D.-Y. Wu, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering:From noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 9463-9483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

S. Park, P. Yang, P. Corredor, and M. J. Weaver, "Transition metal-coated nanoparticle films: Vibrational characterization with Surface-enhanced Raman scattering," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2428-2429 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.-L.

Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, J.-F. Li, and Z.-L. Yang, "Expanding generality of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with borrowing SERS activity strategy," Chem.l Commun.3514-3534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, H.

N. D. Denkov, O. D. Velev, P. A. Kralchevsky, I. B. Ivanov, H. Yoshimura, and K. Nagayama, "Mechanism of formation of two-dimensional crystals from latex particles on substrates," Langmuir 8, 3183-3190 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zenobi, R.

R. M. Stockle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, "Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 131-136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, A.

P. N. Bartlett, M. A. Ghanem, I. S. El Hallag, P. de Groot, and A. Zhukov, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous magnetic networks using colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2596-2602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zoorob, M. E.

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, "Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B35426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

Z. Q. Tian, and B. Ren, "Adsorption and reaction at electrochemical interfaces as probed by surface- enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 55, 197-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (1)

P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, and M. A. Ghanem, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous platinum, palladium and cobalt films using polystyrene latex sphere templates," Chem. Commun.1671-1672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and M. C. Netti, "Highly ordered macroporous gold and platinum films formed by electrochemical deposition through templates assembled from submicron diameter monodisperse polystyrene spheres," Chem. Mater. 14, 2199-2208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, K. S. Hwang, and V. L. Colvin, "Single Crystal colloidal multilayers of controlled thickness," Chem. Mater. 11, 2132-2140 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. C. L. Ru, and P. G. Etchegoin, "Rigourous justification of the E4 enhancement factor in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 423, 63-66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Stockle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, "Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 131-136 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

A. Ulman, "Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers," Chem. Rev. 96, 1533-1554 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology," Chem. Rev. 105, 1103-1169 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem.l Commun. (1)

Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, J.-F. Li, and Z.-L. Yang, "Expanding generality of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with borrowing SERS activity strategy," Chem.l Commun.3514-3534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Discuss. (1)

P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, S. Coyle, and M. E. Abdelsalam, "Optical properties of nanostructured metal films," Faraday Discuss. 125, 117-132 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Park, P. Yang, P. Corredor, and M. J. Weaver, "Transition metal-coated nanoparticle films: Vibrational characterization with Surface-enhanced Raman scattering," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2428-2429 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. L. Demming, F. Festy, and D. Richards, "Plasmon resonances on metal tips: Understanding tip- enhanced Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

B. Ren, Q. J. Huang, W. B. Cai, B. W. Mao, F. M. Liu, and Z. Q. Tian, "Surface Raman spectra of pyridine and hydrogen on bare platinum and nickel electrodes," J. Electroanal. Chem. 415, 175-178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (3)

P. N. Bartlett, P. R. Birkin, M. A. Ghanem, and C.-S. Toh, "Electrochemical syntheses of highly ordered macroporous conducting polymers grown around self-assembled colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 11, 849-853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, T. Dunford, and M. A. Ghanem, "Templated electrochemical deposition of nanostructured macroporous PbO2," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3130-3135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Bartlett, M. A. Ghanem, I. S. El Hallag, P. de Groot, and A. Zhukov, "Electrochemical deposition of macroporous magnetic networks using colloidal templates," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2596-2602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

Z.-Q. Tian, B. Ren, and D.-Y. Wu, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering:From noble to transition metals and from rough surfaces to ordered nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 9463-9483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, S. Pelfrey, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. N. Bartlett, "Relating SERS intensity to specific plasmon modes on sphere segment void surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 9284- 9289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A brief retrospective," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 485-496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (4)

N. D. Denkov, O. D. Velev, P. A. Kralchevsky, I. B. Ivanov, H. Yoshimura, and K. Nagayama, "Mechanism of formation of two-dimensional crystals from latex particles on substrates," Langmuir 8, 3183-3190 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Dimitrov, and K. Nagayama, "Continuous convective assembling of fine particles into two- dimensional arrays on solid surfaces," Langmuir 12, 1303-1311 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Mekhalif, J. Riga, J. J. Pireaux, and J. Delhalle, "Self-assembled monolayers of n-dodecanethiol on electrochemically modified polycrystalline nickel surfaces," Langmuir 13, 2285-2290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Mekhalif, F. Laffineur, N. Couturier, and J. Delhalle, "Elaboration of self-assembled monolayers of n- alkanethiols on nickel polycrystalline substrates: time, concentration, and solvent effects," Langmuir 19, 637-645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

J. J. Baumberg, T. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, S. Cintra, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, and A. E. Russell, "Angle- resolved surface-enhanced Raman scattering on metallic nanostructured plasmonic crystals," Nano Lett. 5, 2262-2267 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, "Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids," Nano Lett. 7, 2094-2100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (2)

L. Cui, S. Mahajan, R. M. Cole, B. Soares, P. N. Bartlett, J. J. Baumberg, I. P. Hayward, B. Ren, A. E. Russell, and Z.-Q. Tian, "UV SERS at well ordered Pd sphere segment void (SSV) nanostuctures " Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 1023-1026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, Y. Suguwara, S. Cintra, A. Russell, J. Baumberg, and P. Bartlett, "Tuning plasmons on nano-structured substrates for NIR-SERS," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 104-109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, S. Cintra, S. Mahajan, A. E. Russell, and P. N. Bartlett, "Localized and delocalized plasmons in metallic nanovoids," Phys. Rev. B 74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. B. Perney, F. J. G. de Abajo, J. J. Baumberg, A. Tang, M. C. Netti, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. E. Zoorob, "Tuning localized plasmon cavities for optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. B35426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. Matthias, and N. Lukas, "Optical frequency mixing at coupled gold nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, and R. N. Hamm, "Surface-plasmon resonance effect in grating diffraction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

A. Otto, "Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection " Z. Phys. 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Sample fabrication procedure utilizing self-assembly of a monolayer of close-packed polymer spheres followed by electroplating. The electroplating is carried out in two steps to create layers of different metals to yield the hybrid nanovoid structure after dissolution of spheres. (b) Microscope image of a nanovoid structure showing regions with nickel voids (black arrow), gold voids with nickel rim (red arrow) and gold voids (blue arrow). (c) Schematic of the nanovoid geometry and definition of normalized thickness t̄. (d) Schematic of hybrid structure designed for novel plasmonic and catalytic properties. (e) Schematic of hybrid 2D photonic crystal designed for long wavelength absorption. SEM images showing (f) a monolayer of spheres embedded in electrodeposited metal and (g) long range order and the large domain size of nanovoid films.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a, e, j) Schematic of gold nanovoids at different normalised thickness, t̄. (b, f, j) Microscope images at ×10 show the resulting color change for each nanovoid structure upon nickel coating. SEM images for (c, g, k) thin and (d, h, l) thick nickel coatings on Au structures with the specified t̄.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a-j) Angle-resolved reflectivity plots for a series of D=600 nm nanovoid structures of different material compositions. Plots are of normalised reflectivity where blue corresponds to 100% reflectivity and white corresponds to 0% reflectivity. (k, l) Extracted absorption summed over 0 to 50° degrees for comparison with SERS experiments carried out with NA=0.85 objective. (Black arrow indicates energy of extracted absorption peaks shown in Fig. 4c). (m, n) Electric field distribution of the (m) 1P+ and (n) 1P localised plasmon modes which have (o) a strong rim component. (p) Schematic of the resonant plasmon cavity model.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Absorption map for D=600nm gold nanovoid structure graded in thickness t̄, with SERS intensity overlaid in blue, with marker size as the magnitude of the 1571 cm−1 line (see text). (b) SERS spectra for 785 nm laser excitation on gold, gold void/nickel rim and nickel void/gold rim structures of thickness t̄=0.6. The gold void with thicker nickel rim and the nickel-only structures show no observable SERS signals. (c) Measured absorption strength (red) of plasmon modes at t̄=0.8 with marker size corresponding to FWHM spectral linewidth, compared to observed SERS signal at 785 nm (blue solid line) plotted against rim metal composition ranging from fully gold to fully nickel. The error in SERS signal has been estimated from repeated runs across the sample. Calculated SERS signal from resonant plasmon cavity model (see text) shown dashed. (d) Maximum field intensity and cavity out-coupling calculated using resonant plasmon cavity model.

Equations (5)

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α=(1b2)(1r2)1rbeiφ2
b2 =exp{γ+β}
r2 =exp { γβ
fout1 =11b21r2
SERS Ein2 Eout2 fout

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