Abstract

In-fiber polarimeters or polarization mode interferometers (PMIs) are fabricated by cascading two CO2-laser-induced in-fiber polarizers along a piece of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber. Since the two interfering beams are the orthogonal polarizations of the fundamental mode, which are tightly confined to the core and have much lower loss than higher order modes, the PMIs can have either short (e.g., a few millimeters) or long (tens of meters or longer) device length without significantly changing the fringe contrast and hence provide design flexibility for applications required different device lengths. As examples of potential applications, the PMIs have been experimentally demonstrated for wavelength-dependent group birefringence measurement; and for strain, temperature and torsion sensors. The PMI sensors are quite sensitive to strain but relatively insensitive to temperature as compared with fiber Bragg grating sensors. The PMIs function as good directional torsion sensors that can determine the rate and direction of twist at the same time.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

H. Y. Choi, K. S. Park, and B. H. Lee, "Photonic crystal fiber interferometer composed of a long period f iber grating and one point collapsing of air holes," Opt. Lett. 33, 812-814 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q2. J. Jian, J. Wei, and H. Hoi Lut, "Compact In-Fiber Interferometer Formed by Long-Period Gratings in Photonic Crystal Fiber," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 20, 1899-1901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q3. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M.H. Chen, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer," Optics Letters 33 (2008).

Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. M. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Optics Express 16, 2784-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazao, S. O. Silva, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, "Simultaneous measurement of multiparameters using a Sagnac interferometer with polarization maintaining side-hole fiber," Appl. Opt. 47, 4841-4848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

E. Li, "Temperature compensation of multimode-interference-based fiber devices," Optics Letters 32, 2064-2066 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, "All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber," Optics Express 15, 5711-5720 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, "Wavelength-selective all-fiber filter based on a single long-period fiber grating and a misaligned splicing point," Optics Communications 258, 159-163 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y.-P. Wang, J.-P. Chen, and Y.-J. Rao, "Torsion characteristics of long-period fiber gratings induced by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1167-1172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550 nm," Optics Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Optics Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

L. Chunn-Yenn, A. W. Lon, and C. Gia-Wei, "Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 19, 1159-1168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis," Optical Engineering 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. C. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, and R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic dual-technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 12, 170-177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, and B. Y. Kim, "Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 8, 23-33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. B. Dyott, J. Bello, and V. A. Handerek, "Indium-Coated D-Shaped-Fiber Polarizer," Optics Letters 12, 287-289 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

Allan, D. C.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baptista, J. M.

Bello, J.

R. B. Dyott, J. Bello, and V. A. Handerek, "Indium-Coated D-Shaped-Fiber Polarizer," Optics Letters 12, 287-289 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, J. N.

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, and B. Y. Kim, "Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 8, 23-33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Optics Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broeng, J.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550 nm," Optics Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carberry, J.

Chan, C. C.

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, "Wavelength-selective all-fiber filter based on a single long-period fiber grating and a misaligned splicing point," Optics Communications 258, 159-163 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-P.

Chen, M.H.

Q3. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M.H. Chen, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer," Optics Letters 33 (2008).

Chen, X.

Choi, H. Y.

H. Y. Choi, K. S. Park, and B. H. Lee, "Photonic crystal fiber interferometer composed of a long period f iber grating and one point collapsing of air holes," Opt. Lett. 33, 812-814 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, "All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber," Optics Express 15, 5711-5720 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, Y.

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, "Wavelength-selective all-fiber filter based on a single long-period fiber grating and a misaligned splicing point," Optics Communications 258, 159-163 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chunn-Yenn, L.

L. Chunn-Yenn, A. W. Lon, and C. Gia-Wei, "Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 19, 1159-1168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. C. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, and R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic dual-technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 12, 170-177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crowley, A.

Culshaw, B.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis," Optical Engineering 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. C. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, and R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic dual-technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 12, 170-177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, "Wavelength-selective all-fiber filter based on a single long-period fiber grating and a misaligned splicing point," Optics Communications 258, 159-163 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dyott, R. B.

R. B. Dyott, J. Bello, and V. A. Handerek, "Indium-Coated D-Shaped-Fiber Polarizer," Optics Letters 12, 287-289 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farr, L.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Optics Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frazao, O.

Gallagher, M.

Gallagher, M. T.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gia-Wei, C.

L. Chunn-Yenn, A. W. Lon, and C. Gia-Wei, "Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 19, 1159-1168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550 nm," Optics Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Handerek, V. A.

R. B. Dyott, J. Bello, and V. A. Handerek, "Indium-Coated D-Shaped-Fiber Polarizer," Optics Letters 12, 287-289 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, T. P.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550 nm," Optics Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, H. L.

Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. M. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Optics Express 16, 2784-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoi Lut, H.

Q2. J. Jian, J. Wei, and H. Hoi Lut, "Compact In-Fiber Interferometer Formed by Long-Period Gratings in Photonic Crystal Fiber," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 20, 1899-1901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, and B. Y. Kim, "Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 8, 23-33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. K.

Jakobsen, C.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550 nm," Optics Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, H. S.

Jankovic, L.

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. C. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, and R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic dual-technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 12, 170-177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jian, J.

Q2. J. Jian, J. Wei, and H. Hoi Lut, "Compact In-Fiber Interferometer Formed by Long-Period Gratings in Photonic Crystal Fiber," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 20, 1899-1901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Q3. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M.H. Chen, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer," Optics Letters 33 (2008).

Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. M. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Optics Express 16, 2784-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis," Optical Engineering 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J.

Q3. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M.H. Chen, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer," Optics Letters 33 (2008).

Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. M. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Optics Express 16, 2784-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B. K.

Kim, B. Y.

B. K. Kim, S. H. Yun, I. K. Hwang, and B. Y. Kim, "Nonlinear strain response of two-mode fiber-optic interferometer," Opt. Lett. 21, 934-936 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, and B. Y. Kim, "Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 8, 23-33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

Kim, M. J.

H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, "All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber," Optics Express 15, 5711-5720 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-J.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Optics Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, K.

Koch, K. W.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konstantaki, M.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis," Optical Engineering 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, K. S.

Legre, M.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550 nm," Optics Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, E.

E. Li, "Temperature compensation of multimode-interference-based fiber devices," Optics Letters 32, 2064-2066 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.-J.

Liao, Y. B.

Q3. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M.H. Chen, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer," Optics Letters 33 (2008).

Lim, J. H.

Lon, A. W.

L. Chunn-Yenn, A. W. Lon, and C. Gia-Wei, "Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 19, 1159-1168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Optics Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangan, B. J.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Optics Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michie, W. C.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis," Optical Engineering 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. C. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, and R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic dual-technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 12, 170-177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muller, D.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. S. Pieter, "Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor," Measurement Science and Technology 15, 1576-1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Rashleigh, S. C.

Russell, P. S. J.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Optics Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabert, H.

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Optics Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
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Shum, P.

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, "Wavelength-selective all-fiber filter based on a single long-period fiber grating and a misaligned splicing point," Optics Communications 258, 159-163 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Silva, S. O.

Smith, C. M.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Su, L.

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, "Wavelength-selective all-fiber filter based on a single long-period fiber grating and a misaligned splicing point," Optics Communications 258, 159-163 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thursby, G.

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis," Optical Engineering 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, W. C. Michie, L. Jankovic, B. Culshaw, and R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic dual-technique sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," Lightwave Technology, Journal of 12, 170-177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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X. Chen, M.-J. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, W. Wood, A. Crowley, J. Carberry, L. Zenteno, and K. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 12, 3888-3893 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. M. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Optics Express 16, 2784-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. M. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Optics Express 16, 2784-2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Wang, Y.-P.

Wegmuller, M.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550 nm," Optics Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, J.

Q2. J. Jian, J. Wei, and H. Hoi Lut, "Compact In-Fiber Interferometer Formed by Long-Period Gratings in Photonic Crystal Fiber," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 20, 1899-1901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojcik, J.

Wood, W.

Xiao, L. M.

Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. M. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Optics Express 16, 2784-2790 (2008).
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Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. M. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Optics Express 16, 2784-2790 (2008).
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Yun, S. H.

Zenteno, L.

Zhang, M.

Q3. H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M.H. Chen, "Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer," Optics Letters 33 (2008).

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[CrossRef]

Measurement Science and Technology

L. S. Pieter, "Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor," Measurement Science and Technology 15, 1576-1580 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
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Opt. Lett.

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W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, and B. Culshaw, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: error analysis," Optical Engineering 36, 598-609 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Optics Communications

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, "Wavelength-selective all-fiber filter based on a single long-period fiber grating and a misaligned splicing point," Optics Communications 258, 159-163 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Optics Express

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550 nm," Optics Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Optics Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
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Y. P. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. F. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. M. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Optics Express 16, 2784-2790 (2008).
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Figures (10)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

(a) Schematic of an in-fiber PMI, (b) Side view of an in-fiber polarizer formed by CO2 laser heating the HC-PBF, (c) SEM micrograph of the original HC-1550-02 PBF, (d) Cross-sectional view of the CO2 laser heated section.

Fig.2 .
Fig.2 .

Experimental setup for PMI fabrication

Fig.3 .
Fig.3 .

Evolution of wavelength domain fringes during PMI fabrication process. The device length of the PMI is 531mm and the resolution of the OSA is 0.1nm.

Fig.4 .
Fig.4 .

(a) The result obtained from the Short-Time Fourier Transform of Fig.3. (b) |Bg (λ)| - λ relationships deduced from Differential Group Delay measurement and from transmission spectrum of PMI.

Fig5.
Fig5.

(a) Shift of fringe around 1624nm with temperature. (b) Linear fit showing the relationship between the dip wavelength and temperature. The device length of the PMI is 230mm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Temperature responses of three different dips; (b) Relative shift of dip wavelength with temperature. The PMI is the same as that in Fig.5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Shift of fringe around 1626nm with longitudinal strain; (b) Linear fit showing the relationship between the dip wavelength and strain. The device length of the PMI is 531mm

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Strain responses of three different dips at different wavelengths; (b) Relative shift of dip wavelengths with strain. The PMI is the same as that in Fig.7.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

a) Experimental setup for testing the torsion characteristics of the PMI (b) Dip wavelength against twist rate applied. The device length of the PMI is 147mm

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Responses of different dips to twist rate. (b) Relative shift of dip wavelengths with twist rate. The PMI is the same as in Fig. 9.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ip=I02(1+cos(2πλ·L·B))
Δλλ2BgL.

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