Abstract

We demonstrate that terahertz (THz) spectroscopy can be used to differentiate soft protein microstructures. Differentiation of soft microstructures in gels has to date been performed using optical imaging techniques (e.g. electron microscope), but a non-destructive differentiation tool is lacking. Particulate and fine-stranded (fibrillar) soft protein microstructures are of interest, particularly to medical researchers, because they form from naturally occurring proteins that are thought to be involved in several human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, globular ß -lactoglobulin structures with diameters of 2 μm, and fibrillar structures with diameters less than 0.03 μm are observed between 0.8 and 1.5 THz. Results show that the globular structures have a decline in THz transmission when compared to the fibrillar ones. The cause of this decline is possibly due to Rayleigh scattering from the globular microstructures.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

A. G. Markelz, "Terahertz dielectric sensitivity to biomolecular structure and function," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 180-190 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, "Protein sequenceand pH-dependent hydration probed by terahertz spectroscopy," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2374-2375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Png, J.-W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Kistner, A. Andre, T. Fischer, A. Thoma, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Gisler, G. Maret, and T. Dekorsy, "Hydration dynamics of oriented DNA films investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, "Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response," Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 413-417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. H. Krebs, G. L. Devlin, and A. M. Donald, "Protein particulates: Another generic form of protein aggregation?" Biophys. J. 92, 1336-1342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

E. H. C. Bromley, M. R. H. Krebs, and A. M. Donald, "Mechanisms of structure formation in particulate gels of b -lactoglobulin formed near the isoelectric point," Eur. Phys. J. E 21, 145-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Knab, J.-Y. Chen, and A. Markelz, "Hydration dependence of conformational dielectric relaxation of lysozyme," Biophys. J. 90, 2576-2581 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Siegrist, C. R. Bucher, I. Mandelbaum, A. R. H. Walker, R. Balu, S. K. Gregurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, "High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy of crystalline trialanine: Extreme sensitivity to b -sheet structure and cocrystallized water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 5764-5775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Mercad’e-Prieto and X. D. Chen, "Dissolution of whey protein concentrate gels in alkali," Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. (AIChE)J. 52, 792-803 (2006).

2005 (4)

J. Knab, B. Shah, J.-Y. Chen, and A. Markelz, "Critical hydration and temperature effects on terahertz biomolecular sensing," Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950P (2005).

L. N. Arnaudov and R. de Vries, "Thermally induced fibrillar aggregation of hen egg white lysozyme," Biophys. J. 88, 515-526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Resch, C. R. Daubert, and E. A. Foegeding, "b -Lactoglobulin gelation and modification: Effect of selected acidulants and heating conditions," J. Food Sci. 70, C79-C86 (2005).

E. H. C. Bromley, M. R. H. Krebs, and A. M. Donald, "Aggregation across the length-scales in b -lactoglobulin," Faraday Discuss. 128, 13-27 (2005).

2004 (4)

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -Lactoglobulin gels: Part 2. Dynamic mechanical characterization of heat-set systems," Biomacromolecules 5, 2420-2429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -lactoglobulin gels: Part 3. Dynamic mechanical characterization of solvent-induced systems," Biomacromolecules 5, 2430-2438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, E. Tarhan, A. K. Ramdas, A. M. Weiner, and S. M. Durbin, "Broadened far-infrared absorption spectra for hydrated and dehydrated myoglobin," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10,077-10,082 (2004).

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -Lactoglobulin gels: Part 1. Fibril formation and structure," Biomacromolecules 5, 2408-2419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. J. Selkoe, "Folding proteins in fatal ways," Nature 426, 900-904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Whitmire, D. Wolpert, A. G. Markelz, J. R. Hillebrecht, J. Galan, and R. R. Birge, "Protein flexibility and conformational state: A comparison of collective vibrational modes of wild-type and D96N bacteriorhodopsin," Biophys. J. 85, 1269-1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies," J. Biol. Phys. 129, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. de la Fuente, H. Singh, and Y. Hemar, "Recent advances in the characterisation of heat-induced aggregates and intermediates of whey proteins," Trends Food Sci. Technol. 13, 262-274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (6)

T. Lef`evre and M. Subirade, "Molecular differences in the formation and structure of fine-stranded and particulate b -lactoglobulin gels," Biopolymers 54, 578-586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Hudson, C. R. Daubert, and E. A. Foegeding, "Rheological and physical properties of derivitized whey protein isolate powders," J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 3112-3119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Kavanagh, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Heat-induced gelation of globular proteins: Part 3. Molecular studies on low pH b -lactoglobulin gels," Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 28, 41-50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Takata, T. Norisuye, N. Tanaka, and M. Shibayama, "Heat-induced gelation of b -lactoglobulin. 1. Timeresolved dynamic light scattering," Macromolecules 33, 5470-5475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, "Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz," Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42-48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Naslund, V. Haroutunian, R. Mohs, K. L. Davis, P. Davies, P. Greengard, and J. D. Buxbaum, "Correlation between elevated levels of amyloid b -peptide in the brain and cognitive decline," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 283, 1571-1577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Verheul, J. S. Pedersen, S. P. F. M. Roefs, and K. G. de Kruif, "Association behavior of nativeb -lactoglobulin," Biopolymers 49, 11-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Le Bon, T. Nicolai, and D. Durand, "Kinetics of aggregation and gelation of globular proteins after heatinduced denaturation," Macromolecules 32, 6120-6127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. M. Bryant and D. J. McClements, "Molecular basis of protein functionality with special consideration of cold-set gels derived from heat-denatured whey," Trends Food Sci. Technol. 9, 143-151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Qin, M. C. Bewley, L. K. Creamer, H. M. Baker, E. N. Baker, and G. B. Jameson, "Structural basis of the Tanford transition of bovine b -lactoglobulin," Biochemistry 37, 14,014-14,023 (1998).

1997 (1)

J. I. Boye, C. Y. Ma, A. Ismail, V. R. Harwalkar, and M. Kalab, "Molecular and microstructural studies of thermal denaturation and gelation of b -lactoglobulins A and B," J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1608-1618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. G. de Kruif, M. A. M. Hoffmann, M. E. van Marle, P. J. J. M. van Mil, S. P. F. M. Roefs, M. Verheul, and N. Zoon, "Gelation of proteins from milk," Faraday Discuss. 101, 185-200 (1995).

1994 (1)

S. Y. Tan and M. B. Pepys, "Amyloidosis," Histopathology 25, 403-414 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. E. Hines and E. A. Foegeding, "Interactions ofa-lactalbumin and bovine serum-albumin with b -lactoglobulin in thermally induced gelation," J. Agric. Food Chem. 41, 341-346 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. A. Foegeding, P. R. Kuhn, and C. C. Hardin, "Specific divalent cation-induced changes during gelation of b -lactoglobulin," J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 2092-2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

H. T. Meryman, "Mechanics of freezing in living cells and tissues," Science 124, 515-521 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

G. M. Png, J.-W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andre, A.

C. Kistner, A. Andre, T. Fischer, A. Thoma, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Gisler, G. Maret, and T. Dekorsy, "Hydration dynamics of oriented DNA films investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnaudov, L. N.

L. N. Arnaudov and R. de Vries, "Thermally induced fibrillar aggregation of hen egg white lysozyme," Biophys. J. 88, 515-526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baker, E. N.

B. Y. Qin, M. C. Bewley, L. K. Creamer, H. M. Baker, E. N. Baker, and G. B. Jameson, "Structural basis of the Tanford transition of bovine b -lactoglobulin," Biochemistry 37, 14,014-14,023 (1998).

Baker, H. M.

B. Y. Qin, M. C. Bewley, L. K. Creamer, H. M. Baker, E. N. Baker, and G. B. Jameson, "Structural basis of the Tanford transition of bovine b -lactoglobulin," Biochemistry 37, 14,014-14,023 (1998).

Balu, R.

K. Siegrist, C. R. Bucher, I. Mandelbaum, A. R. H. Walker, R. Balu, S. K. Gregurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, "High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy of crystalline trialanine: Extreme sensitivity to b -sheet structure and cocrystallized water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 5764-5775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baroni, F.

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

C. Kistner, A. Andre, T. Fischer, A. Thoma, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Gisler, G. Maret, and T. Dekorsy, "Hydration dynamics of oriented DNA films investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berry, E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies," J. Biol. Phys. 129, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bewley, M. C.

B. Y. Qin, M. C. Bewley, L. K. Creamer, H. M. Baker, E. N. Baker, and G. B. Jameson, "Structural basis of the Tanford transition of bovine b -lactoglobulin," Biochemistry 37, 14,014-14,023 (1998).

Birge, R. R.

S. E. Whitmire, D. Wolpert, A. G. Markelz, J. R. Hillebrecht, J. Galan, and R. R. Birge, "Protein flexibility and conformational state: A comparison of collective vibrational modes of wild-type and D96N bacteriorhodopsin," Biophys. J. 85, 1269-1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boye, J. I.

J. I. Boye, C. Y. Ma, A. Ismail, V. R. Harwalkar, and M. Kalab, "Molecular and microstructural studies of thermal denaturation and gelation of b -lactoglobulins A and B," J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1608-1618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bromley, E. H. C.

E. H. C. Bromley, M. R. H. Krebs, and A. M. Donald, "Mechanisms of structure formation in particulate gels of b -lactoglobulin formed near the isoelectric point," Eur. Phys. J. E 21, 145-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. H. C. Bromley, M. R. H. Krebs, and A. M. Donald, "Aggregation across the length-scales in b -lactoglobulin," Faraday Discuss. 128, 13-27 (2005).

Bryant, C. M.

C. M. Bryant and D. J. McClements, "Molecular basis of protein functionality with special consideration of cold-set gels derived from heat-denatured whey," Trends Food Sci. Technol. 9, 143-151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bucciantini, M.

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bucher, C. R.

K. Siegrist, C. R. Bucher, I. Mandelbaum, A. R. H. Walker, R. Balu, S. K. Gregurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, "High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy of crystalline trialanine: Extreme sensitivity to b -sheet structure and cocrystallized water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 5764-5775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buxbaum, J. D.

J. Naslund, V. Haroutunian, R. Mohs, K. L. Davis, P. Davies, P. Greengard, and J. D. Buxbaum, "Correlation between elevated levels of amyloid b -peptide in the brain and cognitive decline," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 283, 1571-1577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J. M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies," J. Biol. Phys. 129, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. Y.

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, "Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response," Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 413-417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-Y.

J. Knab, J.-Y. Chen, and A. Markelz, "Hydration dependence of conformational dielectric relaxation of lysozyme," Biophys. J. 90, 2576-2581 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Knab, B. Shah, J.-Y. Chen, and A. Markelz, "Critical hydration and temperature effects on terahertz biomolecular sensing," Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950P (2005).

Chiti, F.

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-W.

G. M. Png, J.-W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A. H.

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -Lactoglobulin gels: Part 2. Dynamic mechanical characterization of heat-set systems," Biomacromolecules 5, 2420-2429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -lactoglobulin gels: Part 3. Dynamic mechanical characterization of solvent-induced systems," Biomacromolecules 5, 2430-2438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -Lactoglobulin gels: Part 1. Fibril formation and structure," Biomacromolecules 5, 2408-2419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Kavanagh, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Heat-induced gelation of globular proteins: Part 3. Molecular studies on low pH b -lactoglobulin gels," Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 28, 41-50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Creamer, L. K.

B. Y. Qin, M. C. Bewley, L. K. Creamer, H. M. Baker, E. N. Baker, and G. B. Jameson, "Structural basis of the Tanford transition of bovine b -lactoglobulin," Biochemistry 37, 14,014-14,023 (1998).

Daubert, C. R.

J. J. Resch, C. R. Daubert, and E. A. Foegeding, "b -Lactoglobulin gelation and modification: Effect of selected acidulants and heating conditions," J. Food Sci. 70, C79-C86 (2005).

H. M. Hudson, C. R. Daubert, and E. A. Foegeding, "Rheological and physical properties of derivitized whey protein isolate powders," J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 3112-3119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davies, P.

J. Naslund, V. Haroutunian, R. Mohs, K. L. Davis, P. Davies, P. Greengard, and J. D. Buxbaum, "Correlation between elevated levels of amyloid b -peptide in the brain and cognitive decline," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 283, 1571-1577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. L.

J. Naslund, V. Haroutunian, R. Mohs, K. L. Davis, P. Davies, P. Greengard, and J. D. Buxbaum, "Correlation between elevated levels of amyloid b -peptide in the brain and cognitive decline," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 283, 1571-1577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Kruif, K. G.

M. Verheul, J. S. Pedersen, S. P. F. M. Roefs, and K. G. de Kruif, "Association behavior of nativeb -lactoglobulin," Biopolymers 49, 11-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. G. de Kruif, M. A. M. Hoffmann, M. E. van Marle, P. J. J. M. van Mil, S. P. F. M. Roefs, M. Verheul, and N. Zoon, "Gelation of proteins from milk," Faraday Discuss. 101, 185-200 (1995).

de la Fuente, M. A.

M. A. de la Fuente, H. Singh, and Y. Hemar, "Recent advances in the characterisation of heat-induced aggregates and intermediates of whey proteins," Trends Food Sci. Technol. 13, 262-274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, R.

L. N. Arnaudov and R. de Vries, "Thermally induced fibrillar aggregation of hen egg white lysozyme," Biophys. J. 88, 515-526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

C. Kistner, A. Andre, T. Fischer, A. Thoma, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Gisler, G. Maret, and T. Dekorsy, "Hydration dynamics of oriented DNA films investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devlin, G. L.

M. R. H. Krebs, G. L. Devlin, and A. M. Donald, "Protein particulates: Another generic form of protein aggregation?" Biophys. J. 92, 1336-1342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dobson, C. M.

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Donald, A. M.

M. R. H. Krebs, G. L. Devlin, and A. M. Donald, "Protein particulates: Another generic form of protein aggregation?" Biophys. J. 92, 1336-1342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. H. C. Bromley, M. R. H. Krebs, and A. M. Donald, "Mechanisms of structure formation in particulate gels of b -lactoglobulin formed near the isoelectric point," Eur. Phys. J. E 21, 145-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. H. C. Bromley, M. R. H. Krebs, and A. M. Donald, "Aggregation across the length-scales in b -lactoglobulin," Faraday Discuss. 128, 13-27 (2005).

Durand, D.

C. Le Bon, T. Nicolai, and D. Durand, "Kinetics of aggregation and gelation of globular proteins after heatinduced denaturation," Macromolecules 32, 6120-6127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Durbin, S. M.

C. Zhang, E. Tarhan, A. K. Ramdas, A. M. Weiner, and S. M. Durbin, "Broadened far-infrared absorption spectra for hydrated and dehydrated myoglobin," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10,077-10,082 (2004).

Ebbinghaus, S.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, "Protein sequenceand pH-dependent hydration probed by terahertz spectroscopy," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2374-2375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, T.

C. Kistner, A. Andre, T. Fischer, A. Thoma, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Gisler, G. Maret, and T. Dekorsy, "Hydration dynamics of oriented DNA films investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies," J. Biol. Phys. 129, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foegeding, E. A.

J. J. Resch, C. R. Daubert, and E. A. Foegeding, "b -Lactoglobulin gelation and modification: Effect of selected acidulants and heating conditions," J. Food Sci. 70, C79-C86 (2005).

H. M. Hudson, C. R. Daubert, and E. A. Foegeding, "Rheological and physical properties of derivitized whey protein isolate powders," J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 3112-3119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hines and E. A. Foegeding, "Interactions ofa-lactalbumin and bovine serum-albumin with b -lactoglobulin in thermally induced gelation," J. Agric. Food Chem. 41, 341-346 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Foegeding, P. R. Kuhn, and C. C. Hardin, "Specific divalent cation-induced changes during gelation of b -lactoglobulin," J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 2092-2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Formigli, L.

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Galan, J.

S. E. Whitmire, D. Wolpert, A. G. Markelz, J. R. Hillebrecht, J. Galan, and R. R. Birge, "Protein flexibility and conformational state: A comparison of collective vibrational modes of wild-type and D96N bacteriorhodopsin," Biophys. J. 85, 1269-1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giannoni, E.

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gisler, T.

C. Kistner, A. Andre, T. Fischer, A. Thoma, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Gisler, G. Maret, and T. Dekorsy, "Hydration dynamics of oriented DNA films investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gosal, W. S.

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -lactoglobulin gels: Part 3. Dynamic mechanical characterization of solvent-induced systems," Biomacromolecules 5, 2430-2438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -Lactoglobulin gels: Part 1. Fibril formation and structure," Biomacromolecules 5, 2408-2419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -Lactoglobulin gels: Part 2. Dynamic mechanical characterization of heat-set systems," Biomacromolecules 5, 2420-2429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greengard, P.

J. Naslund, V. Haroutunian, R. Mohs, K. L. Davis, P. Davies, P. Greengard, and J. D. Buxbaum, "Correlation between elevated levels of amyloid b -peptide in the brain and cognitive decline," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 283, 1571-1577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gregurick, S. K.

K. Siegrist, C. R. Bucher, I. Mandelbaum, A. R. H. Walker, R. Balu, S. K. Gregurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, "High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy of crystalline trialanine: Extreme sensitivity to b -sheet structure and cocrystallized water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 5764-5775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gruebele, M.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, "Protein sequenceand pH-dependent hydration probed by terahertz spectroscopy," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2374-2375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hardin, C. C.

E. A. Foegeding, P. R. Kuhn, and C. C. Hardin, "Specific divalent cation-induced changes during gelation of b -lactoglobulin," J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 2092-2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haroutunian, V.

J. Naslund, V. Haroutunian, R. Mohs, K. L. Davis, P. Davies, P. Greengard, and J. D. Buxbaum, "Correlation between elevated levels of amyloid b -peptide in the brain and cognitive decline," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 283, 1571-1577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harwalkar, V. R.

J. I. Boye, C. Y. Ma, A. Ismail, V. R. Harwalkar, and M. Kalab, "Molecular and microstructural studies of thermal denaturation and gelation of b -lactoglobulins A and B," J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1608-1618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Havenith, M.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, "Protein sequenceand pH-dependent hydration probed by terahertz spectroscopy," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2374-2375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, "Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response," Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 413-417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heilweil, E. J.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, "Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz," Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42-48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hemar, Y.

M. A. de la Fuente, H. Singh, and Y. Hemar, "Recent advances in the characterisation of heat-induced aggregates and intermediates of whey proteins," Trends Food Sci. Technol. 13, 262-274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heyden, M.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, "Protein sequenceand pH-dependent hydration probed by terahertz spectroscopy," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2374-2375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hillebrecht, J. R.

S. E. Whitmire, D. Wolpert, A. G. Markelz, J. R. Hillebrecht, J. Galan, and R. R. Birge, "Protein flexibility and conformational state: A comparison of collective vibrational modes of wild-type and D96N bacteriorhodopsin," Biophys. J. 85, 1269-1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hines, M. E.

M. E. Hines and E. A. Foegeding, "Interactions ofa-lactalbumin and bovine serum-albumin with b -lactoglobulin in thermally induced gelation," J. Agric. Food Chem. 41, 341-346 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M. A. M.

K. G. de Kruif, M. A. M. Hoffmann, M. E. van Marle, P. J. J. M. van Mil, S. P. F. M. Roefs, M. Verheul, and N. Zoon, "Gelation of proteins from milk," Faraday Discuss. 101, 185-200 (1995).

Homer-Vanniasinkam, S.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies," J. Biol. Phys. 129, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, H. M.

H. M. Hudson, C. R. Daubert, and E. A. Foegeding, "Rheological and physical properties of derivitized whey protein isolate powders," J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 3112-3119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, A.

J. I. Boye, C. Y. Ma, A. Ismail, V. R. Harwalkar, and M. Kalab, "Molecular and microstructural studies of thermal denaturation and gelation of b -lactoglobulins A and B," J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1608-1618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jameson, G. B.

B. Y. Qin, M. C. Bewley, L. K. Creamer, H. M. Baker, E. N. Baker, and G. B. Jameson, "Structural basis of the Tanford transition of bovine b -lactoglobulin," Biochemistry 37, 14,014-14,023 (1998).

Janke, C.

C. Kistner, A. Andre, T. Fischer, A. Thoma, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Gisler, G. Maret, and T. Dekorsy, "Hydration dynamics of oriented DNA films investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalab, M.

J. I. Boye, C. Y. Ma, A. Ismail, V. R. Harwalkar, and M. Kalab, "Molecular and microstructural studies of thermal denaturation and gelation of b -lactoglobulins A and B," J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1608-1618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kavanagh, G. M.

G. M. Kavanagh, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Heat-induced gelation of globular proteins: Part 3. Molecular studies on low pH b -lactoglobulin gels," Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 28, 41-50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. J.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, "Protein sequenceand pH-dependent hydration probed by terahertz spectroscopy," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2374-2375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kistner, C.

C. Kistner, A. Andre, T. Fischer, A. Thoma, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Gisler, G. Maret, and T. Dekorsy, "Hydration dynamics of oriented DNA films investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knab, J.

J. Knab, J.-Y. Chen, and A. Markelz, "Hydration dependence of conformational dielectric relaxation of lysozyme," Biophys. J. 90, 2576-2581 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Knab, B. Shah, J.-Y. Chen, and A. Markelz, "Critical hydration and temperature effects on terahertz biomolecular sensing," Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950P (2005).

Knab, J. R.

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, "Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response," Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 413-417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, M. R. H.

M. R. H. Krebs, G. L. Devlin, and A. M. Donald, "Protein particulates: Another generic form of protein aggregation?" Biophys. J. 92, 1336-1342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. H. C. Bromley, M. R. H. Krebs, and A. M. Donald, "Mechanisms of structure formation in particulate gels of b -lactoglobulin formed near the isoelectric point," Eur. Phys. J. E 21, 145-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. H. C. Bromley, M. R. H. Krebs, and A. M. Donald, "Aggregation across the length-scales in b -lactoglobulin," Faraday Discuss. 128, 13-27 (2005).

Kuhn, P. R.

E. A. Foegeding, P. R. Kuhn, and C. C. Hardin, "Specific divalent cation-induced changes during gelation of b -lactoglobulin," J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 2092-2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Le Bon, C.

C. Le Bon, T. Nicolai, and D. Durand, "Kinetics of aggregation and gelation of globular proteins after heatinduced denaturation," Macromolecules 32, 6120-6127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lef`evre, T.

T. Lef`evre and M. Subirade, "Molecular differences in the formation and structure of fine-stranded and particulate b -lactoglobulin gels," Biopolymers 54, 578-586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, D. M.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, "Protein sequenceand pH-dependent hydration probed by terahertz spectroscopy," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2374-2375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C. Y.

J. I. Boye, C. Y. Ma, A. Ismail, V. R. Harwalkar, and M. Kalab, "Molecular and microstructural studies of thermal denaturation and gelation of b -lactoglobulins A and B," J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1608-1618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mandelbaum, I.

K. Siegrist, C. R. Bucher, I. Mandelbaum, A. R. H. Walker, R. Balu, S. K. Gregurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, "High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy of crystalline trialanine: Extreme sensitivity to b -sheet structure and cocrystallized water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 5764-5775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maret, G.

C. Kistner, A. Andre, T. Fischer, A. Thoma, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Gisler, G. Maret, and T. Dekorsy, "Hydration dynamics of oriented DNA films investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Markelz, A.

J. Knab, J.-Y. Chen, and A. Markelz, "Hydration dependence of conformational dielectric relaxation of lysozyme," Biophys. J. 90, 2576-2581 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Knab, B. Shah, J.-Y. Chen, and A. Markelz, "Critical hydration and temperature effects on terahertz biomolecular sensing," Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950P (2005).

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, "Terahertz dielectric sensitivity to biomolecular structure and function," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 180-190 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, "Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response," Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 413-417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Whitmire, D. Wolpert, A. G. Markelz, J. R. Hillebrecht, J. Galan, and R. R. Birge, "Protein flexibility and conformational state: A comparison of collective vibrational modes of wild-type and D96N bacteriorhodopsin," Biophys. J. 85, 1269-1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, "Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz," Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42-48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McClements, D. J.

C. M. Bryant and D. J. McClements, "Molecular basis of protein functionality with special consideration of cold-set gels derived from heat-denatured whey," Trends Food Sci. Technol. 9, 143-151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meryman, H. T.

H. T. Meryman, "Mechanics of freezing in living cells and tissues," Science 124, 515-521 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Mickan, S. P.

G. M. Png, J.-W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies," J. Biol. Phys. 129, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohs, R.

J. Naslund, V. Haroutunian, R. Mohs, K. L. Davis, P. Davies, P. Greengard, and J. D. Buxbaum, "Correlation between elevated levels of amyloid b -peptide in the brain and cognitive decline," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 283, 1571-1577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naslund, J.

J. Naslund, V. Haroutunian, R. Mohs, K. L. Davis, P. Davies, P. Greengard, and J. D. Buxbaum, "Correlation between elevated levels of amyloid b -peptide in the brain and cognitive decline," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 283, 1571-1577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B. W.-H.

G. M. Png, J.-W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nicolai, T.

C. Le Bon, T. Nicolai, and D. Durand, "Kinetics of aggregation and gelation of globular proteins after heatinduced denaturation," Macromolecules 32, 6120-6127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Norisuye, T.

S. I. Takata, T. Norisuye, N. Tanaka, and M. Shibayama, "Heat-induced gelation of b -lactoglobulin. 1. Timeresolved dynamic light scattering," Macromolecules 33, 5470-5475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J. S.

M. Verheul, J. S. Pedersen, S. P. F. M. Roefs, and K. G. de Kruif, "Association behavior of nativeb -lactoglobulin," Biopolymers 49, 11-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pepys, M. B.

S. Y. Tan and M. B. Pepys, "Amyloidosis," Histopathology 25, 403-414 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Plusquellic, D. F.

K. Siegrist, C. R. Bucher, I. Mandelbaum, A. R. H. Walker, R. Balu, S. K. Gregurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, "High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy of crystalline trialanine: Extreme sensitivity to b -sheet structure and cocrystallized water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 5764-5775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Png, G. M.

G. M. Png, J.-W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qin, B. Y.

B. Y. Qin, M. C. Bewley, L. K. Creamer, H. M. Baker, E. N. Baker, and G. B. Jameson, "Structural basis of the Tanford transition of bovine b -lactoglobulin," Biochemistry 37, 14,014-14,023 (1998).

Ramdas, A. K.

C. Zhang, E. Tarhan, A. K. Ramdas, A. M. Weiner, and S. M. Durbin, "Broadened far-infrared absorption spectra for hydrated and dehydrated myoglobin," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10,077-10,082 (2004).

Ramponi, G.

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Resch, J. J.

J. J. Resch, C. R. Daubert, and E. A. Foegeding, "b -Lactoglobulin gelation and modification: Effect of selected acidulants and heating conditions," J. Food Sci. 70, C79-C86 (2005).

Roefs, S. P. F. M.

M. Verheul, J. S. Pedersen, S. P. F. M. Roefs, and K. G. de Kruif, "Association behavior of nativeb -lactoglobulin," Biopolymers 49, 11-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. G. de Kruif, M. A. M. Hoffmann, M. E. van Marle, P. J. J. M. van Mil, S. P. F. M. Roefs, M. Verheul, and N. Zoon, "Gelation of proteins from milk," Faraday Discuss. 101, 185-200 (1995).

Roitberg, A.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, "Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz," Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42-48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ross-Murphy, S. B.

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -Lactoglobulin gels: Part 2. Dynamic mechanical characterization of heat-set systems," Biomacromolecules 5, 2420-2429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -Lactoglobulin gels: Part 1. Fibril formation and structure," Biomacromolecules 5, 2408-2419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -lactoglobulin gels: Part 3. Dynamic mechanical characterization of solvent-induced systems," Biomacromolecules 5, 2430-2438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Kavanagh, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Heat-induced gelation of globular proteins: Part 3. Molecular studies on low pH b -lactoglobulin gels," Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 28, 41-50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Selkoe, D. J.

D. J. Selkoe, "Folding proteins in fatal ways," Nature 426, 900-904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, B.

J. Knab, B. Shah, J.-Y. Chen, and A. Markelz, "Critical hydration and temperature effects on terahertz biomolecular sensing," Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950P (2005).

Shibayama, M.

S. I. Takata, T. Norisuye, N. Tanaka, and M. Shibayama, "Heat-induced gelation of b -lactoglobulin. 1. Timeresolved dynamic light scattering," Macromolecules 33, 5470-5475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Siegrist, K.

K. Siegrist, C. R. Bucher, I. Mandelbaum, A. R. H. Walker, R. Balu, S. K. Gregurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, "High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy of crystalline trialanine: Extreme sensitivity to b -sheet structure and cocrystallized water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 5764-5775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singh, H.

M. A. de la Fuente, H. Singh, and Y. Hemar, "Recent advances in the characterisation of heat-induced aggregates and intermediates of whey proteins," Trends Food Sci. Technol. 13, 262-274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies," J. Biol. Phys. 129, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stefani, M.

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Subirade, M.

T. Lef`evre and M. Subirade, "Molecular differences in the formation and structure of fine-stranded and particulate b -lactoglobulin gels," Biopolymers 54, 578-586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taddei, N.

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takata, S. I.

S. I. Takata, T. Norisuye, N. Tanaka, and M. Shibayama, "Heat-induced gelation of b -lactoglobulin. 1. Timeresolved dynamic light scattering," Macromolecules 33, 5470-5475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. Y.

S. Y. Tan and M. B. Pepys, "Amyloidosis," Histopathology 25, 403-414 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, N.

S. I. Takata, T. Norisuye, N. Tanaka, and M. Shibayama, "Heat-induced gelation of b -lactoglobulin. 1. Timeresolved dynamic light scattering," Macromolecules 33, 5470-5475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tarhan, E.

C. Zhang, E. Tarhan, A. K. Ramdas, A. M. Weiner, and S. M. Durbin, "Broadened far-infrared absorption spectra for hydrated and dehydrated myoglobin," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10,077-10,082 (2004).

Thoma, A.

C. Kistner, A. Andre, T. Fischer, A. Thoma, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Gisler, G. Maret, and T. Dekorsy, "Hydration dynamics of oriented DNA films investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Marle, M. E.

K. G. de Kruif, M. A. M. Hoffmann, M. E. van Marle, P. J. J. M. van Mil, S. P. F. M. Roefs, M. Verheul, and N. Zoon, "Gelation of proteins from milk," Faraday Discuss. 101, 185-200 (1995).

van Mil, P. J. J. M.

K. G. de Kruif, M. A. M. Hoffmann, M. E. van Marle, P. J. J. M. van Mil, S. P. F. M. Roefs, M. Verheul, and N. Zoon, "Gelation of proteins from milk," Faraday Discuss. 101, 185-200 (1995).

Verheul, M.

M. Verheul, J. S. Pedersen, S. P. F. M. Roefs, and K. G. de Kruif, "Association behavior of nativeb -lactoglobulin," Biopolymers 49, 11-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. G. de Kruif, M. A. M. Hoffmann, M. E. van Marle, P. J. J. M. van Mil, S. P. F. M. Roefs, M. Verheul, and N. Zoon, "Gelation of proteins from milk," Faraday Discuss. 101, 185-200 (1995).

Walker, A. R. H.

K. Siegrist, C. R. Bucher, I. Mandelbaum, A. R. H. Walker, R. Balu, S. K. Gregurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, "High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy of crystalline trialanine: Extreme sensitivity to b -sheet structure and cocrystallized water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 5764-5775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

C. Zhang, E. Tarhan, A. K. Ramdas, A. M. Weiner, and S. M. Durbin, "Broadened far-infrared absorption spectra for hydrated and dehydrated myoglobin," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10,077-10,082 (2004).

Whitmire, S. E.

S. E. Whitmire, D. Wolpert, A. G. Markelz, J. R. Hillebrecht, J. Galan, and R. R. Birge, "Protein flexibility and conformational state: A comparison of collective vibrational modes of wild-type and D96N bacteriorhodopsin," Biophys. J. 85, 1269-1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolpert, D.

S. E. Whitmire, D. Wolpert, A. G. Markelz, J. R. Hillebrecht, J. Galan, and R. R. Birge, "Protein flexibility and conformational state: A comparison of collective vibrational modes of wild-type and D96N bacteriorhodopsin," Biophys. J. 85, 1269-1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, "Protein sequenceand pH-dependent hydration probed by terahertz spectroscopy," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2374-2375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, E. Tarhan, A. K. Ramdas, A. M. Weiner, and S. M. Durbin, "Broadened far-infrared absorption spectra for hydrated and dehydrated myoglobin," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10,077-10,082 (2004).

Zhang, X.-C.

G. M. Png, J.-W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zinov’ev, N. N.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies," J. Biol. Phys. 129, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zoon, N.

K. G. de Kruif, M. A. M. Hoffmann, M. E. van Marle, P. J. J. M. van Mil, S. P. F. M. Roefs, M. Verheul, and N. Zoon, "Gelation of proteins from milk," Faraday Discuss. 101, 185-200 (1995).

Zurdo, J.

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Kistner, A. Andre, T. Fischer, A. Thoma, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Gisler, G. Maret, and T. Dekorsy, "Hydration dynamics of oriented DNA films investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biochemistry (1)

B. Y. Qin, M. C. Bewley, L. K. Creamer, H. M. Baker, E. N. Baker, and G. B. Jameson, "Structural basis of the Tanford transition of bovine b -lactoglobulin," Biochemistry 37, 14,014-14,023 (1998).

Biomacromolecules (3)

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -Lactoglobulin gels: Part 2. Dynamic mechanical characterization of heat-set systems," Biomacromolecules 5, 2420-2429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -lactoglobulin gels: Part 3. Dynamic mechanical characterization of solvent-induced systems," Biomacromolecules 5, 2430-2438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Gosal, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Fibrillar b -Lactoglobulin gels: Part 1. Fibril formation and structure," Biomacromolecules 5, 2408-2419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (4)

J. Knab, J.-Y. Chen, and A. Markelz, "Hydration dependence of conformational dielectric relaxation of lysozyme," Biophys. J. 90, 2576-2581 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Whitmire, D. Wolpert, A. G. Markelz, J. R. Hillebrecht, J. Galan, and R. R. Birge, "Protein flexibility and conformational state: A comparison of collective vibrational modes of wild-type and D96N bacteriorhodopsin," Biophys. J. 85, 1269-1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Arnaudov and R. de Vries, "Thermally induced fibrillar aggregation of hen egg white lysozyme," Biophys. J. 88, 515-526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. R. H. Krebs, G. L. Devlin, and A. M. Donald, "Protein particulates: Another generic form of protein aggregation?" Biophys. J. 92, 1336-1342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biopolymers (2)

T. Lef`evre and M. Subirade, "Molecular differences in the formation and structure of fine-stranded and particulate b -lactoglobulin gels," Biopolymers 54, 578-586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Verheul, J. S. Pedersen, S. P. F. M. Roefs, and K. G. de Kruif, "Association behavior of nativeb -lactoglobulin," Biopolymers 49, 11-20 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, "Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz," Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42-48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, "Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response," Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 413-417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

E. H. C. Bromley, M. R. H. Krebs, and A. M. Donald, "Mechanisms of structure formation in particulate gels of b -lactoglobulin formed near the isoelectric point," Eur. Phys. J. E 21, 145-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Discuss. (2)

E. H. C. Bromley, M. R. H. Krebs, and A. M. Donald, "Aggregation across the length-scales in b -lactoglobulin," Faraday Discuss. 128, 13-27 (2005).

K. G. de Kruif, M. A. M. Hoffmann, M. E. van Marle, P. J. J. M. van Mil, S. P. F. M. Roefs, M. Verheul, and N. Zoon, "Gelation of proteins from milk," Faraday Discuss. 101, 185-200 (1995).

Histopathology (1)

S. Y. Tan and M. B. Pepys, "Amyloidosis," Histopathology 25, 403-414 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. G. Markelz, "Terahertz dielectric sensitivity to biomolecular structure and function," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 180-190 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques (1)

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (1)

G. M. Kavanagh, A. H. Clark, and S. B. Ross-Murphy, "Heat-induced gelation of globular proteins: Part 3. Molecular studies on low pH b -lactoglobulin gels," Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 28, 41-50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. (1)

R. Mercad’e-Prieto and X. D. Chen, "Dissolution of whey protein concentrate gels in alkali," Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. (AIChE)J. 52, 792-803 (2006).

J. Agric. Food Chem. (4)

E. A. Foegeding, P. R. Kuhn, and C. C. Hardin, "Specific divalent cation-induced changes during gelation of b -lactoglobulin," J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 2092-2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Hudson, C. R. Daubert, and E. A. Foegeding, "Rheological and physical properties of derivitized whey protein isolate powders," J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 3112-3119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Boye, C. Y. Ma, A. Ismail, V. R. Harwalkar, and M. Kalab, "Molecular and microstructural studies of thermal denaturation and gelation of b -lactoglobulins A and B," J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1608-1618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hines and E. A. Foegeding, "Interactions ofa-lactalbumin and bovine serum-albumin with b -lactoglobulin in thermally induced gelation," J. Agric. Food Chem. 41, 341-346 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

S. Ebbinghaus, S. J. Kim, M. Heyden, X. Yu, M. Gruebele, D. M. Leitner, and M. Havenith, "Protein sequenceand pH-dependent hydration probed by terahertz spectroscopy," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 2374-2375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Siegrist, C. R. Bucher, I. Mandelbaum, A. R. H. Walker, R. Balu, S. K. Gregurick, and D. F. Plusquellic, "High-resolution terahertz spectroscopy of crystalline trialanine: Extreme sensitivity to b -sheet structure and cocrystallized water," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 5764-5775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1)

J. Naslund, V. Haroutunian, R. Mohs, K. L. Davis, P. Davies, P. Greengard, and J. D. Buxbaum, "Correlation between elevated levels of amyloid b -peptide in the brain and cognitive decline," J. Am. Med. Assoc. 283, 1571-1577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinov’ev, S. Homer-Vanniasinkam, R. E. Miles, J. M. Chamberlain, and M. A. Smith, "Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies," J. Biol. Phys. 129, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Food Sci. (1)

J. J. Resch, C. R. Daubert, and E. A. Foegeding, "b -Lactoglobulin gelation and modification: Effect of selected acidulants and heating conditions," J. Food Sci. 70, C79-C86 (2005).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. Zhang, E. Tarhan, A. K. Ramdas, A. M. Weiner, and S. M. Durbin, "Broadened far-infrared absorption spectra for hydrated and dehydrated myoglobin," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 10,077-10,082 (2004).

Macromolecules (2)

C. Le Bon, T. Nicolai, and D. Durand, "Kinetics of aggregation and gelation of globular proteins after heatinduced denaturation," Macromolecules 32, 6120-6127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Takata, T. Norisuye, N. Tanaka, and M. Shibayama, "Heat-induced gelation of b -lactoglobulin. 1. Timeresolved dynamic light scattering," Macromolecules 33, 5470-5475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. J. Selkoe, "Folding proteins in fatal ways," Nature 426, 900-904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bucciantini, E. Giannoni, F. Chiti, F. Baroni, L. Formigli, J. Zurdo, N. Taddei, G. Ramponi, C. M. Dobson, and M. Stefani, "Inherent toxicity of aggregates implies a common mechanism for protein misfolding diseases," Nature 416, 507-511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Png, J.-W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 3501-3517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Knab, B. Shah, J.-Y. Chen, and A. Markelz, "Critical hydration and temperature effects on terahertz biomolecular sensing," Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950P (2005).

Science (1)

H. T. Meryman, "Mechanics of freezing in living cells and tissues," Science 124, 515-521 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Trends Food Sci. Technol. (2)

M. A. de la Fuente, H. Singh, and Y. Hemar, "Recent advances in the characterisation of heat-induced aggregates and intermediates of whey proteins," Trends Food Sci. Technol. 13, 262-274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bryant and D. J. McClements, "Molecular basis of protein functionality with special consideration of cold-set gels derived from heat-denatured whey," Trends Food Sci. Technol. 9, 143-151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. C. Ashworth, J. A. Zeitler, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, "Terahertz spectroscopy of biologically relevant liquids at low temperatures," in Proceedings of Joint 31st International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves and 14th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (IRMMW-THz) (IEEE, Shanghai, China, 2006), p. 184.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles,Wiley science paperback series (John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1983).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 1957).

E. F. Knott, J. F. Shaeffer, and M. T. Tuley, Radar Cross Section, The SciTech radar and defense series, 2nd ed. (SciTech Publishing Inc., Rayleigh, NC, USA, 2004).

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