Abstract

The video stream captured by an in-line holographic microscope can be analyzed on a frame-by-frame basis to track individual colloidal particles’ three-dimensional motions with nanometer resolution, and simultaneously to measure their sizes and refractive indexes. Through a combination of hardware acceleration and software optimization, this analysis can be carried out in near real time with off-the-shelf instrumentation. An efficient particle identification algorithm automates initial position estimation with sufficient accuracy to enable unattended holographic tracking and characterization. This technique’s resolution for particle size is fine enough to detect molecular-scale coatings on the surfaces of colloidal spheres, without requiring staining or fluorescent labeling. We demonstrate this approach to label-free holographic flow cytometry by detecting the binding of avidin to biotinylated polystyrene spheres.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S.-H. Lee, Y. Roichman, G.-R. Yi, S.-H. Kim, S.-M. Yang, A. van Blaaderen, P. van Oostrum, D. G. Grier, “Characterizing and tracking single colloidal particles with video holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 18275–18282 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-18275.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, J. Katz, “Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3893–3901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S.-H. Lee, D. G. Grier, “Holographic microscopy of holographically trapped three-dimensional structures,” Opt. Express 15, 1505–1512 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-4-1505.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Savin, P. S. Doyle, “Role of finite exposure time on measuring an elastic modulus using microrheology,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 041106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Savin, P. S. Doyle, “Static and dynamic errors in particle tracking microrheology,” Biophys. J. 88, 623–638 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1983).
  7. J. C. Crocker, D. G. Grier, “Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298–310 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Roichman, B. Sun, A. Stolarski, D. G. Grier, “Influence of non-conservative optical forces on the dynamics of optically trapped colloidal spheres: The fountain of probability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 128301 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  9. F. C. Cheong, S. Duarte, S.-H. Lee, D. G. Grier, “Holographic microrheology of polysaccharides from Streptococcus mutans biofilms,” Rheologica Acta 48, 109–115 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, D. G. Grier, “Characterization of individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92, 95–99 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. D. Owens, D. Luebke, N. Govinadaraju, M. Harris, J. Kruger, A. E. Lefohn, T. J. Purcell, “A survey of general-purpose computation on graphics hardware,” Comp. Graph. Forum 26, 80–113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. B. Markwardt, “Non-linear least squares fitting in IDL with MPFIT,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII, D. Bohlender, P. Dowler, D. Durand, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009), in press.
  13. P. Messmer, P. J. Mullowney, B. E. Granger, “GPULib: GPU computing in high-level languages,” Comp. Sci. Eng. 10, 70–73 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15, 11–15 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165–4172 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

F. C. Cheong, S. Duarte, S.-H. Lee, D. G. Grier, “Holographic microrheology of polysaccharides from Streptococcus mutans biofilms,” Rheologica Acta 48, 109–115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, D. G. Grier, “Characterization of individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92, 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

P. Messmer, P. J. Mullowney, B. E. Granger, “GPULib: GPU computing in high-level languages,” Comp. Sci. Eng. 10, 70–73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, J. Katz, “Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3893–3901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. Savin, P. S. Doyle, “Role of finite exposure time on measuring an elastic modulus using microrheology,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 041106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Savin, P. S. Doyle, “Static and dynamic errors in particle tracking microrheology,” Biophys. J. 88, 623–638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. C. Crocker, D. G. Grier, “Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15, 11–15 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1983).

Brock, R. S.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, F. C.

F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, D. G. Grier, “Characterization of individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92, 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Cheong, S. Duarte, S.-H. Lee, D. G. Grier, “Holographic microrheology of polysaccharides from Streptococcus mutans biofilms,” Rheologica Acta 48, 109–115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crocker, J. C.

J. C. Crocker, D. G. Grier, “Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, P. S.

T. Savin, P. S. Doyle, “Static and dynamic errors in particle tracking microrheology,” Biophys. J. 88, 623–638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Savin, P. S. Doyle, “Role of finite exposure time on measuring an elastic modulus using microrheology,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 041106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, S.

F. C. Cheong, S. Duarte, S.-H. Lee, D. G. Grier, “Holographic microrheology of polysaccharides from Streptococcus mutans biofilms,” Rheologica Acta 48, 109–115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duda, R. O.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15, 11–15 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Govinadaraju, N.

J. D. Owens, D. Luebke, N. Govinadaraju, M. Harris, J. Kruger, A. E. Lefohn, T. J. Purcell, “A survey of general-purpose computation on graphics hardware,” Comp. Graph. Forum 26, 80–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Granger, B. E.

P. Messmer, P. J. Mullowney, B. E. Granger, “GPULib: GPU computing in high-level languages,” Comp. Sci. Eng. 10, 70–73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

F. C. Cheong, S. Duarte, S.-H. Lee, D. G. Grier, “Holographic microrheology of polysaccharides from Streptococcus mutans biofilms,” Rheologica Acta 48, 109–115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, D. G. Grier, “Characterization of individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92, 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Lee, Y. Roichman, G.-R. Yi, S.-H. Kim, S.-M. Yang, A. van Blaaderen, P. van Oostrum, D. G. Grier, “Characterizing and tracking single colloidal particles with video holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 18275–18282 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-26-18275.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Lee, D. G. Grier, “Holographic microscopy of holographically trapped three-dimensional structures,” Opt. Express 15, 1505–1512 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-4-1505.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Crocker, D. G. Grier, “Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, A. Stolarski, D. G. Grier, “Influence of non-conservative optical forces on the dynamics of optically trapped colloidal spheres: The fountain of probability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 128301 (2008).
[PubMed]

Harris, M.

J. D. Owens, D. Luebke, N. Govinadaraju, M. Harris, J. Kruger, A. E. Lefohn, T. J. Purcell, “A survey of general-purpose computation on graphics hardware,” Comp. Graph. Forum 26, 80–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hart, P. E.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15, 11–15 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.-H.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1983).

Jacobs, K. M.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Katz, J.

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, J. Katz, “Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3893–3901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

Kruger, J.

J. D. Owens, D. Luebke, N. Govinadaraju, M. Harris, J. Kruger, A. E. Lefohn, T. J. Purcell, “A survey of general-purpose computation on graphics hardware,” Comp. Graph. Forum 26, 80–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-H.

Lefohn, A. E.

J. D. Owens, D. Luebke, N. Govinadaraju, M. Harris, J. Kruger, A. E. Lefohn, T. J. Purcell, “A survey of general-purpose computation on graphics hardware,” Comp. Graph. Forum 26, 80–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. Q.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luebke, D.

J. D. Owens, D. Luebke, N. Govinadaraju, M. Harris, J. Kruger, A. E. Lefohn, T. J. Purcell, “A survey of general-purpose computation on graphics hardware,” Comp. Graph. Forum 26, 80–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malkiel, E.

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, J. Katz, “Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3893–3901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Markwardt, C. B.

C. B. Markwardt, “Non-linear least squares fitting in IDL with MPFIT,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII, D. Bohlender, P. Dowler, D. Durand, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009), in press.

Messmer, P.

P. Messmer, P. J. Mullowney, B. E. Granger, “GPULib: GPU computing in high-level languages,” Comp. Sci. Eng. 10, 70–73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mullowney, P. J.

P. Messmer, P. J. Mullowney, B. E. Granger, “GPULib: GPU computing in high-level languages,” Comp. Sci. Eng. 10, 70–73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Owens, J. D.

J. D. Owens, D. Luebke, N. Govinadaraju, M. Harris, J. Kruger, A. E. Lefohn, T. J. Purcell, “A survey of general-purpose computation on graphics hardware,” Comp. Graph. Forum 26, 80–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, T. J.

J. D. Owens, D. Luebke, N. Govinadaraju, M. Harris, J. Kruger, A. E. Lefohn, T. J. Purcell, “A survey of general-purpose computation on graphics hardware,” Comp. Graph. Forum 26, 80–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roichman, Y.

Savin, T.

T. Savin, P. S. Doyle, “Role of finite exposure time on measuring an elastic modulus using microrheology,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 041106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Savin, P. S. Doyle, “Static and dynamic errors in particle tracking microrheology,” Biophys. J. 88, 623–638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, J.

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, J. Katz, “Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3893–3901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stolarski, A.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, A. Stolarski, D. G. Grier, “Influence of non-conservative optical forces on the dynamics of optically trapped colloidal spheres: The fountain of probability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 128301 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sun, B.

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, A. Stolarski, D. G. Grier, “Influence of non-conservative optical forces on the dynamics of optically trapped colloidal spheres: The fountain of probability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 128301 (2008).
[PubMed]

van Blaaderen, A.

van Oostrum, P.

Xiao, K.

F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, D. G. Grier, “Characterization of individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92, 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-M.

Yi, G.-R.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Sheng, E. Malkiel, J. Katz, “Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3893–3901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

T. Savin, P. S. Doyle, “Static and dynamic errors in particle tracking microrheology,” Biophys. J. 88, 623–638 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Commun. ACM (1)

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15, 11–15 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Comp. Graph. Forum (1)

J. D. Owens, D. Luebke, N. Govinadaraju, M. Harris, J. Kruger, A. E. Lefohn, T. J. Purcell, “A survey of general-purpose computation on graphics hardware,” Comp. Graph. Forum 26, 80–113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Comp. Sci. Eng. (1)

P. Messmer, P. J. Mullowney, B. E. Granger, “GPULib: GPU computing in high-level languages,” Comp. Sci. Eng. 10, 70–73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

J. C. Crocker, D. G. Grier, “Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298–310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Dairy Sci. (1)

F. C. Cheong, K. Xiao, D. G. Grier, “Characterization of individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy,” J. Dairy Sci. 92, 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Med. Bio. (1)

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 4165–4172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T. Savin, P. S. Doyle, “Role of finite exposure time on measuring an elastic modulus using microrheology,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 041106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Roichman, B. Sun, A. Stolarski, D. G. Grier, “Influence of non-conservative optical forces on the dynamics of optically trapped colloidal spheres: The fountain of probability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 128301 (2008).
[PubMed]

Rheologica Acta (1)

F. C. Cheong, S. Duarte, S.-H. Lee, D. G. Grier, “Holographic microrheology of polysaccharides from Streptococcus mutans biofilms,” Rheologica Acta 48, 109–115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1983).

C. B. Markwardt, “Non-linear least squares fitting in IDL with MPFIT,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII, D. Bohlender, P. Dowler, D. Durand, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2009), in press.

Supplementary Material (1)

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