Abstract

Dispersion properties, loss and optimum design of kagome lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled with argon are studied for the purpose of possible applications in ultrafast nonlinear optics. As will be shown numerically and by using an approximate analytical formula these fibers exhibit anomalous dispersion for visible or UV wavelengths both for a 1-cell-core as well for a 3-ring-core which can be controlled by the gas pressure and do not suffer from high loss. It is shown that while the loss is mainly influenced by the strut thickness of the kagome lattice the group velocity dispersion is almost independently controlled by the core size. These results demonstrate that kagome lattice hollow fibers have a promising potential in ultrashort pulse delivering of high-energy pulses and in several interesting applications in ultrafast nonlinear optics.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3574–3576 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. J. Pearce, G. S. Wiederhecker, C. G. Poulton, S. Burger, and P. St J Russell, “Models for guidance in kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12680–12685 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. V. Neuman and E. Wigner, “On curious discrete eigenvalues,” Phys. Z. 30, 465–467 (1975).
  8. E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Wave-guides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).
  9. M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(20), 2793–2797 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 697–699 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Tzankov, O. Steinkellner, J. Zheng, M. Mero, W. Freyer, A. Husakou, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, and F. Noack, “High-power fifth-harmonic generation of femtosecond pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet using a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6389–6395 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. I. Babushkin and J. Herrmann, “High energy sub-10 fs pulse generation in vacuum ultraviolet using chirped four wave mixing in hollow waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17774–17779 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Dispersion control in ultrabroadband dielectric-coated metallic hollow waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3834–3843 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Husakov and J. Herrmann, “Chirped multilayer hollow waveguides with broadband transmission,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3025–3033 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “High-power supercontinuum generation in dielectric-coated metallic hollow waveguides," http://arXiv.org/abs/0903.0080 .
  17. D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, and G. Steinmeyer, “A chirped photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 679–683 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2003 (2)

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 697–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(20), 2793–2797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. V. Neuman and E. Wigner, “On curious discrete eigenvalues,” Phys. Z. 30, 465–467 (1975).

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Wave-guides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babushkin, I.

Backus, S.

C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 697–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beloglasov, V. I.

J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, and G. Steinmeyer, “A chirped photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 679–683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3574–3576 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethge, J.

J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, and G. Steinmeyer, “A chirped photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 679–683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bock, M.

J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, and G. Steinmeyer, “A chirped photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 679–683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

Chang, Z. H.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couny, F.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3574–3576 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(20), 2793–2797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 697–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, D.

J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, and G. Steinmeyer, “A chirped photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 679–683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freyer, W.

Gaeta, A. L.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herne, C.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

Husakou, A.

Husakov, A.

Iliew, R.

J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, and G. Steinmeyer, “A chirped photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 679–683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 697–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, K. W.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Light, P. S.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3574–3576 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Wave-guides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).

Mero, M.

Müller, D.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 697–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuman, J. V.

J. V. Neuman and E. Wigner, “On curious discrete eigenvalues,” Phys. Z. 30, 465–467 (1975).

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(20), 2793–2797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearce, G. J.

Poulton, C. G.

Raymer, M. G.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. J.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P.

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Wave-guides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skibina, J. S.

J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, and G. Steinmeyer, “A chirped photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 679–683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

St J Russell, P.

Steinkellner, O.

Steinmeyer, G.

J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, and G. Steinmeyer, “A chirped photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 679–683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(20), 2793–2797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzankov, P.

Venkataraman, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wedell, R.

J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, and G. Steinmeyer, “A chirped photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 679–683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiederhecker, G. S.

Wigner, E.

J. V. Neuman and E. Wigner, “On curious discrete eigenvalues,” Phys. Z. 30, 465–467 (1975).

Zheng, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(20), 2793–2797 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Wave-guides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. S. Skibina, R. Iliew, J. Bethge, M. Bock, D. Fischer, V. I. Beloglasov, R. Wedell, and G. Steinmeyer, “A chirped photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 679–683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Z. (1)

J. V. Neuman and E. Wigner, “On curious discrete eigenvalues,” Phys. Z. 30, 465–467 (1975).

Science (6)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. H. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Husakou, and J. Herrmann, “High-power supercontinuum generation in dielectric-coated metallic hollow waveguides," http://arXiv.org/abs/0903.0080 .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross sections of a 1-cell-core (a) and a 3-ring-core (b) kagome lattice HC-PCF. The outer region is made of fused silica.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Losses of kagome lattice HC-PCFs with a pitch of 16 μm and a strut thickness of 0.2 μm for a 1-cell-core (a) and a 3-ring-core (b). The blue crosses represent the direct numerical simulations, the red solid are averaged results over longitudinal inhomogeneity using 5% of the wavelengths interval, the green dashed line is the loss of a hollow silica waveguide with the same core-size as the one of the kagome lattice HC-PCF and the black vertical dotted lines indicate the strut-resonance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Loss of a kagome lattice HC-PCFs with a pitch of 24 μm and a strut thickness of 0.2 μm for a 1-cell-core. The meanings of colors are same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mode field distributions at wavelengths 600 nm (a) and 420 nm (b) of a 1-cell-core kagome lattice HC-PCFs with a pitch of 24 μm and a strut thickness of 0.2 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy fractions in the cladding of a 1-cell-core kagome lattice HC-PCFs with a pitch of 16 μm and strut sizes of 0.3 μm (a), 0.25 μm (b), 0.2 μm (c) and 0.1 μm (d) respectively. The blue crosses represent the direct numerical simulations, the red solid are averaged results over longitudinal inhomogeneity using 5% of the wavelengths interval and the black vertical dotted lines indicate the strut-resonance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The effect of strut thickness t on the waveguide loss in a 1-cell-core kagome lattice HC-PCF. Here the black circles, blue squares and red crosses are the losses of a kagome lattice HC-PCF with a pitch of 16 μm and a strut thickness of 0.4 μm, 0.2 μm and 0.1 μm, respectively. The green dashed line is the loss of a hollow core silica waveguide with the same core diameter as to the one of the kagome lattice HC-PCF.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

GVD of kagome lattice HC-PCFs with a 1-cell-core (a) and a 3-ring-core (b) with a pitch of 16 μm and a strut thickness t of 0.2 μm filled with argon at a pressure of 1 atm. The blue circles represent numerical simulations and the red solid curve is calculated by the Eq. (1).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

GVD of a 1-cell-core kagome lattice HC-PCF filled with argon at 1atm (a) and 2 atm (b) with a pitch of 24 μm and a strut thickness of 0.2 μm. The blue circles represent numerical simulations and the red solid curve is calculated by the Eq. (1).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dispersion control and ultrashort pulse delivery in a kagome lattice HC-PCF. In (a) and (b), the GVD and TOD parameters at 800 nm versus the argon pressure are shown, respectively. In (c), the linear temporal broadening of a 13 fs-input pulse (blue solid line) centered at the wavelength 800 nm is shown after propagation of 1.05 m through the kagome lattice HC-PCF filled with argon at pressures of 1 atm (red solid line), 2 atm (black dot-dashed line), 4 atm (green dashed line) and 6 atm (pink dotted line). The 3-ring core kagome lattice HC-PCF has a pitch of 16 μm and a strut thickness of 0.2 μm.

Equations (1)

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β=2πλ[n(λ)core12(uλπD)2]

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