Abstract

The SPATRAM (Spectrometer for Atmospheric TRAcers Monitoring) instrument has been developed as a result of the collaboration between CGE-UE, ISAC-CNR and Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA). SPATRAM is a multi-purpose UV-Vis-scanning spectrometer (250 – 950 nm) and it is installed at the Observatory of the CGE, in Evora, since April 2004. A brief description of the instrument is given, highlighting the technological innovations with respect to the previous version of similar equipment. The need for such measurements automatically taken on a routine basis in south-western European regions, specifically in Portugal, has encouraged the development and installation of the equipment and constitutes a major driving force for the present work. The main features and some improvements introduced in the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) algorithms are discussed. The results obtained applying DOAS methodology to the SPATRAM spectrometer measurements of diffused spectral sky radiation are presented in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). NO2 confirms the typical seasonal cycle reaching the maximum of (6.5 ± 0.3) × 10+15 molecules cm−2 for the sunset values (PM), during the summer season, and the minimum of (1.55 ± 0.07) × 10+15 molecules cm−2 for the sunrise values (AM) in winter. O3 presents the maximum total column of (433 ± 5) Dobson Unit (DU) in the spring season and the minimum of (284 ± 3) DU during the fall period. The huge daily variations of the O3 total column during the spring season are analyzed and discussed. The ground-based results obtained for NO2 and O3 column contents are compared with data from satellite-borne equipment (GOME - Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment; SCIAMACHY - Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY; TOMS - Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) and it is shown that the two data sets are in good agreement. The correlation coefficient for the comparison of the ground-based/satellite data for O3 is of 0.97.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Antón, M. L. Cancillo, A. Serrano, J. M. Vaquero, and J. A. García, “Ozone mini-hole over southwestern Spain during January 2004: Influence over ultraviolet radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L10808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Poberovskii, A. Shashkin, D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeev, D. Ionov, and Y. Timofeev, “NO2 content variations near St. Petersburg as inferred from ground-based and satellite measurements of scattered solar radiation,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 43(4), 505–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. V. Ionov, V. P. Sinyakov, and V. K. Semenov, “Validation of GOME (ERS-2) NO2 vertical column data with ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan),” Adv. Space Res. 37(12), 2254–2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

G. Nikulin and A. Karpechko, “The mean meridional circulation and mid-latitude ozone buildup,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3159–3172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Koch, H. Wernli, C. Schwierz, J. Staehelin, and T. Peter, “A composite study on the structure and formation of ozone miniholes and minihighs over central Europe,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(12), L12810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Wohltmann, M. Rex, D. Brunner, and J. Mader, “Integrated equivalent latitude as a proxy for dynamical changes in ozone column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(9), 3395–3412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Bortoli, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, I. Kostadinov, and A. Petritoli, “Stratospheric Nitrogen Dioxide in the Antarctic,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(16), 3395–3412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. J. Orsolini, H. Eskes, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, A. Kylling, E. Kyrö, J. Notholt, R. A. van der and P. von der Gathen, “Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 3256–3275 (2003).

2002 (1)

V. E. Fioletov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, N. Krotkov, and J. R. Herman, “Comparison of Brewer ultraviolet irradiance measurements with total ozone mapping spectrometer satellite retrievals,” Opt. Eng. 41(12), 3051–3061 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. D. Bojkov and D. S. Balis, “Characteristics of episodes with extremely low ozone values in the northern middle latitudes 1957-2000,” Ann. Geophys. 19, 797–807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. S. Elokhov and A. N. Gruzdev, “Nitrogen Dioxide Column Content and Vertical Profile Measurements at the Zvenigorod Research Station,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 46, 763–777 (2000).

1999 (4)

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, T. Colombo, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, D. Bortoli, Iv. Kostadinov, and F. Ravegnani, “Ground Based NO2 and O3 Analysis at Mt. Cimone Station during 1995-1996: a case study for spring 1995 NO2 concentration profile, in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques,” Proc. SPIE 3867, 280–289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Randel, R. S. Stolarski, D. M. Cunnold, J. A. Logan, M. J. Newchurch, and J. M. Zawodny, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone,” Science 285(5434), 1689–1692 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

K. E. Preston, D. J. Fish, H. K. Roscoe, and R. L. Jones, “Accurate Derivation of Total and Stratospheric Vertical Columns of NO2 from Ground-Based Zenith-Sky Measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 163–172 (1998).

1997 (3)

K. V. Chance and R. J. D. Spurr, “Ring effect studies: Rayleigh scattering, including molecular parameters for rotational Raman scattering, and the Fraunhofer spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 36(21), 5224–5230 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, R. Werner, and U. Bonafè, “Polarization and Ring Effect Influences upon Stratospheric DOAS Measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3106, 74–83 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Galliani, A. M. Siani, N. J. Muthama, and S. Palmieri, “Synoptic-scale fluctuations of total ozone in the atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 14(10), 1044–1050 (1996).

1995 (3)

F. Evangelisti, A. Baroncelli, P. Bonasoni, G. Giovanelli, and F. Ravegnani, “Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2737–2744 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bojkov and V. E. Fioletov, “Estimating the global ozone characteristics during the last 30 years,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16537–16551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

W. C. Wang, Y.-C. Zhuang, and R. D. Bojkov, “Climate implication of observed changes in ozone vertical distribution at middle and high latitudes in the northern hemisphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20(15), 1567–1570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Salby and P. F. Callaghan, “Fluctuations of total ozone and their relationship to stratospheric air motions,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D2), 2715–2727 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(D8), 15499–15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

J. K. Angell and J. Korshover, “Global variation in total ozone and layer mean ozone: an update through 1981,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 22(9), 1611–1627 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon and R. Garcia, “On the distribution of Nitrogen Dioxide in the High latitude stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C9), 5229–5239 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, and R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2 1. Observational Method and behaviour at mid latitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).

Aliwell, S. R.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, S. B.

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Angell, J. K.

J. K. Angell and J. Korshover, “Global variation in total ozone and layer mean ozone: an update through 1981,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 22(9), 1611–1627 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Antón, M.

M. Antón, M. L. Cancillo, A. Serrano, J. M. Vaquero, and J. A. García, “Ozone mini-hole over southwestern Spain during January 2004: Influence over ultraviolet radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L10808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arlander, D. W.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balis, D. S.

R. D. Bojkov and D. S. Balis, “Characteristics of episodes with extremely low ozone values in the northern middle latitudes 1957-2000,” Ann. Geophys. 19, 797–807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baroncelli, A.

Bartlett, L. M.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, T. Colombo, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, D. Bortoli, Iv. Kostadinov, and F. Ravegnani, “Ground Based NO2 and O3 Analysis at Mt. Cimone Station during 1995-1996: a case study for spring 1995 NO2 concentration profile, in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques,” Proc. SPIE 3867, 280–289 (1999).
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H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
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Colombo, T.

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, T. Colombo, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, D. Bortoli, Iv. Kostadinov, and F. Ravegnani, “Ground Based NO2 and O3 Analysis at Mt. Cimone Station during 1995-1996: a case study for spring 1995 NO2 concentration profile, in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques,” Proc. SPIE 3867, 280–289 (1999).
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H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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de Beek, R.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
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D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
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DeCuyper, W.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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Didier, R.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
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Dzienus, S.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
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Eisinger, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
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H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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Erle, F.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
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Y. J. Orsolini, H. Eskes, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, A. Kylling, E. Kyrö, J. Notholt, R. A. van der and P. von der Gathen, “Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 3256–3275 (2003).

Evangelisti, F.

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, T. Colombo, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, D. Bortoli, Iv. Kostadinov, and F. Ravegnani, “Ground Based NO2 and O3 Analysis at Mt. Cimone Station during 1995-1996: a case study for spring 1995 NO2 concentration profile, in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques,” Proc. SPIE 3867, 280–289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, R. Werner, and U. Bonafè, “Polarization and Ring Effect Influences upon Stratospheric DOAS Measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3106, 74–83 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Evangelisti, A. Baroncelli, P. Bonasoni, G. Giovanelli, and F. Ravegnani, “Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2737–2744 (1995).
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G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
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H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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S. Solomon and R. Garcia, “On the distribution of Nitrogen Dioxide in the High latitude stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C9), 5229–5239 (1983).
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M. Antón, M. L. Cancillo, A. Serrano, J. M. Vaquero, and J. A. García, “Ozone mini-hole over southwestern Spain during January 2004: Influence over ultraviolet radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L10808 (2007).
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Gil, M.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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Giovanelli, G.

D. Bortoli, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, I. Kostadinov, and A. Petritoli, “Stratospheric Nitrogen Dioxide in the Antarctic,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(16), 3395–3412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, T. Colombo, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, D. Bortoli, Iv. Kostadinov, and F. Ravegnani, “Ground Based NO2 and O3 Analysis at Mt. Cimone Station during 1995-1996: a case study for spring 1995 NO2 concentration profile, in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques,” Proc. SPIE 3867, 280–289 (1999).
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I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, R. Werner, and U. Bonafè, “Polarization and Ring Effect Influences upon Stratospheric DOAS Measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3106, 74–83 (1997).
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F. Evangelisti, A. Baroncelli, P. Bonasoni, G. Giovanelli, and F. Ravegnani, “Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2737–2744 (1995).
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D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
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D. Bortoli, A. M. Silva, and G. Giovanelli, “A new multipurpose UV-Vis spectrometer for air quality monitoring and climatic studies,” Int. J. Remote Sens. (to be published).

Goldman, A.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goutail, F.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
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Gruzdev, A. N.

A. S. Elokhov and A. N. Gruzdev, “Nitrogen Dioxide Column Content and Vertical Profile Measurements at the Zvenigorod Research Station,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 46, 763–777 (2000).

Hansen, G.

Y. J. Orsolini, H. Eskes, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, A. Kylling, E. Kyrö, J. Notholt, R. A. van der and P. von der Gathen, “Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 3256–3275 (2003).

Harder, J.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heese, B.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hegels, E.

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J. R.

V. E. Fioletov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, N. Krotkov, and J. R. Herman, “Comparison of Brewer ultraviolet irradiance measurements with total ozone mapping spectrometer satellite retrievals,” Opt. Eng. 41(12), 3051–3061 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hermans, C.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Høiskar, B. A. K.

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
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Hoogen, R.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
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Hoppe, U. P.

Y. J. Orsolini, H. Eskes, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, A. Kylling, E. Kyrö, J. Notholt, R. A. van der and P. von der Gathen, “Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 3256–3275 (2003).

Hottier, J.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, P. A.

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
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Hyde, R. S.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, and R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2 1. Observational Method and behaviour at mid latitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).

Ionov, D.

A. Poberovskii, A. Shashkin, D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeev, D. Ionov, and Y. Timofeev, “NO2 content variations near St. Petersburg as inferred from ground-based and satellite measurements of scattered solar radiation,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 43(4), 505–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ionov, D. V.

A. Poberovskii, A. Shashkin, D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeev, D. Ionov, and Y. Timofeev, “NO2 content variations near St. Petersburg as inferred from ground-based and satellite measurements of scattered solar radiation,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 43(4), 505–513 (2007).
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D. V. Ionov, V. P. Sinyakov, and V. K. Semenov, “Validation of GOME (ERS-2) NO2 vertical column data with ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan),” Adv. Space Res. 37(12), 2254–2260 (2006).
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Jakoubek, R.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, P.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, P. V.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(D8), 15499–15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. L.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Preston, D. J. Fish, H. K. Roscoe, and R. L. Jones, “Accurate Derivation of Total and Stratospheric Vertical Columns of NO2 from Ground-Based Zenith-Sky Measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 163–172 (1998).

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karlsen, K.

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karlsen Tornkvist, K.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karpechko, A.

G. Nikulin and A. Karpechko, “The mean meridional circulation and mid-latitude ozone buildup,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3159–3172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kastad Hoiskar, B. A.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kenntner, M.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

V. E. Fioletov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, N. Krotkov, and J. R. Herman, “Comparison of Brewer ultraviolet irradiance measurements with total ozone mapping spectrometer satellite retrievals,” Opt. Eng. 41(12), 3051–3061 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(D8), 15499–15511 (1991).
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Kerr, J. E.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
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G. Koch, H. Wernli, C. Schwierz, J. Staehelin, and T. Peter, “A composite study on the structure and formation of ozone miniholes and minihighs over central Europe,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(12), L12810 (2005).
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D. Bortoli, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, I. Kostadinov, and A. Petritoli, “Stratospheric Nitrogen Dioxide in the Antarctic,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(16), 3395–3412 (2005).
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H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, R. Werner, and U. Bonafè, “Polarization and Ring Effect Influences upon Stratospheric DOAS Measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3106, 74–83 (1997).
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Kostadinov, Iv.

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, T. Colombo, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, D. Bortoli, Iv. Kostadinov, and F. Ravegnani, “Ground Based NO2 and O3 Analysis at Mt. Cimone Station during 1995-1996: a case study for spring 1995 NO2 concentration profile, in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques,” Proc. SPIE 3867, 280–289 (1999).
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Krotkov, N.

V. E. Fioletov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, N. Krotkov, and J. R. Herman, “Comparison of Brewer ultraviolet irradiance measurements with total ozone mapping spectrometer satellite retrievals,” Opt. Eng. 41(12), 3051–3061 (2002).
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Kylling, A.

Y. J. Orsolini, H. Eskes, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, A. Kylling, E. Kyrö, J. Notholt, R. A. van der and P. von der Gathen, “Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 3256–3275 (2003).

Kyrö, E.

Y. J. Orsolini, H. Eskes, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, A. Kylling, E. Kyrö, J. Notholt, R. A. van der and P. von der Gathen, “Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 3256–3275 (2003).

Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
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Lambert, J.-C.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
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Logan, J. A.

W. J. Randel, R. S. Stolarski, D. M. Cunnold, J. A. Logan, M. J. Newchurch, and J. M. Zawodny, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone,” Science 285(5434), 1689–1692 (1999).
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Mader, J.

I. Wohltmann, M. Rex, D. Brunner, and J. Mader, “Integrated equivalent latitude as a proxy for dynamical changes in ozone column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(9), 3395–3412 (2005).
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Marquard, L. C.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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McElroy, C. T.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(D8), 15499–15511 (1991).
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Mcelroy, T.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
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Mckenzie, R.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
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R. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(D8), 15499–15511 (1991).
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Mellqvist, J.

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
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Moore, D.

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mount, G.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
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Muthama, N. J.

A. Galliani, A. M. Siani, N. J. Muthama, and S. Palmieri, “Synoptic-scale fluctuations of total ozone in the atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 14(10), 1044–1050 (1996).

Newchurch, M. J.

W. J. Randel, R. S. Stolarski, D. M. Cunnold, J. A. Logan, M. J. Newchurch, and J. M. Zawodny, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone,” Science 285(5434), 1689–1692 (1999).
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G. Nikulin and A. Karpechko, “The mean meridional circulation and mid-latitude ozone buildup,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3159–3172 (2005).
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Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, and R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2 1. Observational Method and behaviour at mid latitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).

O’Connor, F. M.

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
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Orsolini, Y. J.

Y. J. Orsolini, H. Eskes, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, A. Kylling, E. Kyrö, J. Notholt, R. A. van der and P. von der Gathen, “Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 3256–3275 (2003).

Palmieri, S.

A. Galliani, A. M. Siani, N. J. Muthama, and S. Palmieri, “Synoptic-scale fluctuations of total ozone in the atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 14(10), 1044–1050 (1996).

Perner, D.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peter, T.

G. Koch, H. Wernli, C. Schwierz, J. Staehelin, and T. Peter, “A composite study on the structure and formation of ozone miniholes and minihighs over central Europe,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(12), L12810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petritoli, A.

D. Bortoli, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, I. Kostadinov, and A. Petritoli, “Stratospheric Nitrogen Dioxide in the Antarctic,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(16), 3395–3412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, T. Colombo, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, D. Bortoli, Iv. Kostadinov, and F. Ravegnani, “Ground Based NO2 and O3 Analysis at Mt. Cimone Station during 1995-1996: a case study for spring 1995 NO2 concentration profile, in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques,” Proc. SPIE 3867, 280–289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pfeilsticker, K.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poberovskii, A.

A. Poberovskii, A. Shashkin, D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeev, D. Ionov, and Y. Timofeev, “NO2 content variations near St. Petersburg as inferred from ground-based and satellite measurements of scattered solar radiation,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 43(4), 505–513 (2007).
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Pommereau, J. P.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, J.-P.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Premuda, M.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K. E.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Preston, D. J. Fish, H. K. Roscoe, and R. L. Jones, “Accurate Derivation of Total and Stratospheric Vertical Columns of NO2 from Ground-Based Zenith-Sky Measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 163–172 (1998).

Puentedura, O.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pundt, I.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Randel, W. J.

W. J. Randel, R. S. Stolarski, D. M. Cunnold, J. A. Logan, M. J. Newchurch, and J. M. Zawodny, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone,” Science 285(5434), 1689–1692 (1999).
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Ravegnani, F.

D. Bortoli, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, I. Kostadinov, and A. Petritoli, “Stratospheric Nitrogen Dioxide in the Antarctic,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(16), 3395–3412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
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A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, T. Colombo, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, D. Bortoli, Iv. Kostadinov, and F. Ravegnani, “Ground Based NO2 and O3 Analysis at Mt. Cimone Station during 1995-1996: a case study for spring 1995 NO2 concentration profile, in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques,” Proc. SPIE 3867, 280–289 (1999).
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I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, R. Werner, and U. Bonafè, “Polarization and Ring Effect Influences upon Stratospheric DOAS Measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3106, 74–83 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Evangelisti, A. Baroncelli, P. Bonasoni, G. Giovanelli, and F. Ravegnani, “Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2737–2744 (1995).
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Rex, M.

I. Wohltmann, M. Rex, D. Brunner, and J. Mader, “Integrated equivalent latitude as a proxy for dynamical changes in ozone column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(9), 3395–3412 (2005).
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Richter, A.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roscoe, H. K.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Preston, D. J. Fish, H. K. Roscoe, and R. L. Jones, “Accurate Derivation of Total and Stratospheric Vertical Columns of NO2 from Ground-Based Zenith-Sky Measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 163–172 (1998).

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roscoe, J.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rozanov, V.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
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Salby, M. L.

M. L. Salby and P. F. Callaghan, “Fluctuations of total ozone and their relationship to stratospheric air motions,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D2), 2715–2727 (1993).
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Sarkissian, A.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
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Schwierz, C.

G. Koch, H. Wernli, C. Schwierz, J. Staehelin, and T. Peter, “A composite study on the structure and formation of ozone miniholes and minihighs over central Europe,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(12), L12810 (2005).
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Semenov, V. K.

D. V. Ionov, V. P. Sinyakov, and V. K. Semenov, “Validation of GOME (ERS-2) NO2 vertical column data with ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan),” Adv. Space Res. 37(12), 2254–2260 (2006).
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Serrano, A.

M. Antón, M. L. Cancillo, A. Serrano, J. M. Vaquero, and J. A. García, “Ozone mini-hole over southwestern Spain during January 2004: Influence over ultraviolet radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L10808 (2007).
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Shashkin, A.

A. Poberovskii, A. Shashkin, D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeev, D. Ionov, and Y. Timofeev, “NO2 content variations near St. Petersburg as inferred from ground-based and satellite measurements of scattered solar radiation,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 43(4), 505–513 (2007).
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Siani, A. M.

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Silva, A. M.

D. Bortoli, A. M. Silva, and G. Giovanelli, “A new multipurpose UV-Vis spectrometer for air quality monitoring and climatic studies,” Int. J. Remote Sens. (to be published).

Simon, P.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P. C.

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sinyakov, V. P.

D. V. Ionov, V. P. Sinyakov, and V. K. Semenov, “Validation of GOME (ERS-2) NO2 vertical column data with ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan),” Adv. Space Res. 37(12), 2254–2260 (2006).
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Solomon, S.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
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R. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(D8), 15499–15511 (1991).
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S. Solomon and R. Garcia, “On the distribution of Nitrogen Dioxide in the High latitude stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C9), 5229–5239 (1983).
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Spurr, R. J. D.

Staehelin, J.

G. Koch, H. Wernli, C. Schwierz, J. Staehelin, and T. Peter, “A composite study on the structure and formation of ozone miniholes and minihighs over central Europe,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(12), L12810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stolarski, R. S.

W. J. Randel, R. S. Stolarski, D. M. Cunnold, J. A. Logan, M. J. Newchurch, and J. M. Zawodny, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone,” Science 285(5434), 1689–1692 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stutz, J.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tellefsen, C. W.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, A.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Timofeev, Y.

A. Poberovskii, A. Shashkin, D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeev, D. Ionov, and Y. Timofeev, “NO2 content variations near St. Petersburg as inferred from ground-based and satellite measurements of scattered solar radiation,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 43(4), 505–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Timofeev, Y. M.

A. Poberovskii, A. Shashkin, D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeev, D. Ionov, and Y. Timofeev, “NO2 content variations near St. Petersburg as inferred from ground-based and satellite measurements of scattered solar radiation,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 43(4), 505–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van der, A. R.

Y. J. Orsolini, H. Eskes, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, A. Kylling, E. Kyrö, J. Notholt, R. A. van der and P. von der Gathen, “Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 3256–3275 (2003).

van Roozendael, M.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vaquero, J. M.

M. Antón, M. L. Cancillo, A. Serrano, J. M. Vaquero, and J. A. García, “Ozone mini-hole over southwestern Spain during January 2004: Influence over ultraviolet radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L10808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

vom der Gathen, P.

Y. J. Orsolini, H. Eskes, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, A. Kylling, E. Kyrö, J. Notholt, R. A. van der and P. von der Gathen, “Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 3256–3275 (2003).

Wagner, T.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. C.

W. C. Wang, Y.-C. Zhuang, and R. D. Bojkov, “Climate implication of observed changes in ozone vertical distribution at middle and high latitudes in the northern hemisphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20(15), 1567–1570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wardle, D. I.

V. E. Fioletov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, N. Krotkov, and J. R. Herman, “Comparison of Brewer ultraviolet irradiance measurements with total ozone mapping spectrometer satellite retrievals,” Opt. Eng. 41(12), 3051–3061 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Werner, R.

I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, R. Werner, and U. Bonafè, “Polarization and Ring Effect Influences upon Stratospheric DOAS Measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3106, 74–83 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wernli, H.

G. Koch, H. Wernli, C. Schwierz, J. Staehelin, and T. Peter, “A composite study on the structure and formation of ozone miniholes and minihighs over central Europe,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(12), L12810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Whipple, E. C.

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, and R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2 1. Observational Method and behaviour at mid latitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).

Winterrath, T.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wohltmann, I.

I. Wohltmann, M. Rex, D. Brunner, and J. Mader, “Integrated equivalent latitude as a proxy for dynamical changes in ozone column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(9), 3395–3412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yela, M.

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zawodny, J. M.

W. J. Randel, R. S. Stolarski, D. M. Cunnold, J. A. Logan, M. J. Newchurch, and J. M. Zawodny, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone,” Science 285(5434), 1689–1692 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, Y.-C.

W. C. Wang, Y.-C. Zhuang, and R. D. Bojkov, “Climate implication of observed changes in ozone vertical distribution at middle and high latitudes in the northern hemisphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20(15), 1567–1570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

D. V. Ionov, V. P. Sinyakov, and V. K. Semenov, “Validation of GOME (ERS-2) NO2 vertical column data with ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan),” Adv. Space Res. 37(12), 2254–2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (2)

A. Galliani, A. M. Siani, N. J. Muthama, and S. Palmieri, “Synoptic-scale fluctuations of total ozone in the atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 14(10), 1044–1050 (1996).

R. D. Bojkov and D. S. Balis, “Characteristics of episodes with extremely low ozone values in the northern middle latitudes 1957-2000,” Ann. Geophys. 19, 797–807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. Nikulin and A. Karpechko, “The mean meridional circulation and mid-latitude ozone buildup,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3159–3172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (5)

G. Koch, H. Wernli, C. Schwierz, J. Staehelin, and T. Peter, “A composite study on the structure and formation of ozone miniholes and minihighs over central Europe,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(12), L12810 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Wohltmann, M. Rex, D. Brunner, and J. Mader, “Integrated equivalent latitude as a proxy for dynamical changes in ozone column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(9), 3395–3412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Antón, M. L. Cancillo, A. Serrano, J. M. Vaquero, and J. A. García, “Ozone mini-hole over southwestern Spain during January 2004: Influence over ultraviolet radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L10808 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, and R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2 1. Observational Method and behaviour at mid latitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).

W. C. Wang, Y.-C. Zhuang, and R. D. Bojkov, “Climate implication of observed changes in ozone vertical distribution at middle and high latitudes in the northern hemisphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20(15), 1567–1570 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (2)

D. Bortoli, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, I. Kostadinov, and A. Petritoli, “Stratospheric Nitrogen Dioxide in the Antarctic,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(16), 3395–3412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Bortoli, A. M. Silva, and G. Giovanelli, “A new multipurpose UV-Vis spectrometer for air quality monitoring and climatic studies,” Int. J. Remote Sens. (to be published).

Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. (2)

A. S. Elokhov and A. N. Gruzdev, “Nitrogen Dioxide Column Content and Vertical Profile Measurements at the Zvenigorod Research Station,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 46, 763–777 (2000).

A. Poberovskii, A. Shashkin, D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeev, D. Ionov, and Y. Timofeev, “NO2 content variations near St. Petersburg as inferred from ground-based and satellite measurements of scattered solar radiation,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 43(4), 505–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Preston, D. J. Fish, H. K. Roscoe, and R. L. Jones, “Accurate Derivation of Total and Stratospheric Vertical Columns of NO2 from Ground-Based Zenith-Sky Measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 163–172 (1998).

J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

J. K. Angell and J. Korshover, “Global variation in total ozone and layer mean ozone: an update through 1981,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 22(9), 1611–1627 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

R. Bojkov and V. E. Fioletov, “Estimating the global ozone characteristics during the last 30 years,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16537–16551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon and R. Garcia, “On the distribution of Nitrogen Dioxide in the High latitude stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C9), 5229–5239 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(D8), 15499–15511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Salby and P. F. Callaghan, “Fluctuations of total ozone and their relationship to stratospheric air motions,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D2), 2715–2727 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

V. E. Fioletov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, N. Krotkov, and J. R. Herman, “Comparison of Brewer ultraviolet irradiance measurements with total ozone mapping spectrometer satellite retrievals,” Opt. Eng. 41(12), 3051–3061 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, T. Colombo, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, D. Bortoli, Iv. Kostadinov, and F. Ravegnani, “Ground Based NO2 and O3 Analysis at Mt. Cimone Station during 1995-1996: a case study for spring 1995 NO2 concentration profile, in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques,” Proc. SPIE 3867, 280–289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, R. Werner, and U. Bonafè, “Polarization and Ring Effect Influences upon Stratospheric DOAS Measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3106, 74–83 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

Y. J. Orsolini, H. Eskes, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, A. Kylling, E. Kyrö, J. Notholt, R. A. van der and P. von der Gathen, “Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 3256–3275 (2003).

Science (1)

W. J. Randel, R. S. Stolarski, D. M. Cunnold, J. A. Logan, M. J. Newchurch, and J. M. Zawodny, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone,” Science 285(5434), 1689–1692 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, O. Torres, L. Moy, G. Labow, W. Byerly, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, and R. P. Cebula, Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide (NASA Technical Publication, Maryland, 1998).

S. Noel, M. W. Wuttke, J. Skupin, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Gottwald, and E. Krieg, “The SCIAMACHY instrument on ENVISAT: first performance monitoring results,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium5 (Centre de Congrè Pierre Baudés, Toulouse,2003), pp. 3120–3122.

U. Platt, “Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring By Spectroscopic Techniques, Sigrist, M. W, ed. (Wiley-IEEE, 1994), pp 27–84.

D. Bortoli, “SPATRAM – SPectrometer for Atmospheric Tracers Measurements, A prototype equipment for the monitoring of minor compounds of the Atmosphere, Ph.D. thesis, University of Evora (2005).

W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, and W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipies - The Art of Scientific Computing, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986).

D. J. Fish, “Measurements of stratospheric composition using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy,” Ph. D. thesis, University of Cambridge (1994).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the SPATRAM instrument from 2 different points of view, allowing for the identification of its main modules

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flux Index – FI – (ratio of the signal obtained by the spectrometer and its “exposure” time) calculated at the Evora station for 2 days under different meteorological conditions. The FI on 24 December 2007 - cloudless day – presents a regular behavior, while on 25 December 2007 - cloudy day – more scattered values of FI are obtained

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The ‘Differential’ spectrum – black line – (the difference between Log_Ratio and Smooth (Log_Ratio), where Smooth(x) is a low pass filter operator) and the O3 Differential Cross Section – red line – are plotted towards the left and right axis respectively. In the selected spectral range, the differential spectrum features show good agreement with the differential cross section ozone, allowing for the determination of its atmospheric content. In addition also the residual of the DOAS processing – gray line – is shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) NO2 DSCD AM and PM values, obtained for the 29 July 2004, plotted versus the calculated AMF. The best fits for the AM values (black line), PM values (blue line) and for both (red line) are shown; (b) O3 DSCD AM and PM values, obtained for 3 April 2004, plotted versus the calculated AMF. The best fit for the AM and PM values is shown

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) NO2 SCD AM and PM values, obtained for the 29 July 2004, plotted versus the Solar Zenith Angle; (b) O3 SCD AM and PM values, obtained for 3 April 2004, and calculated AMF, plotted versus the Solar Zenith Angle

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

NO2 Vertical Column Density(VCD) at 90° of SZA (AM - sunrise and PM - sunset) obtained with SPATRAM and GOME results during the first 2 months of activity of the ground based equipment at the Evora station.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Time series of the NO2 Vertical Column Densities (VCD)obtained with the SPATRAM equipment installed at the Evora station at sunrise (AM) and sunset (PM) – SZA = 90°, and the NO2 data from the SCIAMACHY spectrometer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the seasonal variation of O3 VCD at Evora Station with the seasonal variation reported by the TOMS instrument.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Scatter plot of the SPATRAM vs TOMS O3 vertical column, from October 2006 to June 2008. The number of data points for the SPATRAM O3 values is n = 212. The linear fitting give the equation O3 SPATRAM=0 .936×O3 TOMS+20 .107 and the correlation’s coefficient is R = 0.97.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NO2 + O3    NO3 + O2
NO3 + hν  (~90%)λ<580nm NO + O2
NO3 + hν  (~10%)λ<640nm NO2 + O
NO3+NO2+M   N2O5+M
N2O5 + hν   NO3 + NO2
Log(Io(λ,θ)Is(λ,θ))-Log(Io(λ,θ)Is(λ,θ))¯=gΔσg(λ)SCDg(θ)
AMFg(θ,λ)=SCDg(θ)/VCDg
SCDg(θ)=DSCDg(θ)+SCDg,Io(θMin)

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