Abstract

In this study, we report the unequivocal demonstration of midinfrared mode-locked pulses from quantum cascade lasers. The train of short pulses was generated by actively modulating the current and hence the gain of an edge-emitting quantum cascade laser (QCL). Pulses with duration of about 3 ps at full-width-at-half-maxima and energy of 0.5 pJ were characterized using a second-order interferometric autocorrelation technique based on a nonlinear quantum well infrared photodetector. The mode-locking dynamics in the QCLs was modeled based on the Maxwell-Bloch equations in an open two-level system. Our model reproduces the overall shape of the measured autocorrelation traces and predicts that the short pulses are accompanied by substantial wings as a result of strong spatial hole burning. The range of parameters where short mode-locked pulses can be formed is found.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. 4. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414(6861), 286-289 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. 5. R. Torre, P. Bartolini, and R. Righini, "Structural relaxation in supercooled water by time-resolved spectroscopy," Nature 428(6980), 296-299 (2004).
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  6. 6. D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, "Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse," Nature 396(6708), 239-242 (1998).
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  11. 11. M. R. X. de Barros, R. S. Miranda, T. M. Jedju, and P. C. Becker, "High-Repetition-Rate Femtosecond Midinfrared Pulse Generation," Opt. Lett. 20(5), 480-482 (1995).
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  13. 13. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264(5158), 553-556 (1994).
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  14. 14. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415(6874), 883-887 (2002).
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  15. 15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
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  16. 16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. 17. H. Choi, T. B. Norris, T. Gresch, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Diehl, and F. Capasso, "Femtosecond dynamics of resonant tunneling and superlattice relaxation in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 122114-122117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. 18. H. A. Haus, "Mode-locking of lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173-1185 (2000).
  19. 19. F. Capasso, J. Faist, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser action by tuning the oscillator strength," Nature 387(6635), 777-782 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. 20. H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z. K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, "Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. 21. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290(5497), 1739-1742 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. 22. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169-171 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. 23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. 26. T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Two-photon QWIPs for quadratic detection of weak mid-infrared laser pulses," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 182-187 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. 27. P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, M. Buchanan, L. Wolfson, and H. Liu, "An ultra fast quantum well infrared photodetector," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 144-152 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. 28. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. 29. H. C. Liu, Jianmeng Li, M. Buchanan, and Z. R.  Wasilewski, "High-frequency quantum-well infrared photodetectors measured by microwave-rectification technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 1024-1028 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

17. H. Choi, T. B. Norris, T. Gresch, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Diehl, and F. Capasso, "Femtosecond dynamics of resonant tunneling and superlattice relaxation in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 122114-122117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

20. H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z. K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, "Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

28. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

26. T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Two-photon QWIPs for quadratic detection of weak mid-infrared laser pulses," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 182-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

27. P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, M. Buchanan, L. Wolfson, and H. Liu, "An ultra fast quantum well infrared photodetector," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 144-152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

5. R. Torre, P. Bartolini, and R. Righini, "Structural relaxation in supercooled water by time-resolved spectroscopy," Nature 428(6980), 296-299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

8. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416(6877), 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

14. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415(6874), 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

25. H. C. Liu, and E. Dupont, "Nonlinear quantum well infrared photodetector," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11(4), 433-443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

4. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414(6861), 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

21. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290(5497), 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

22. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169-171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

18. H. A. Haus, "Mode-locking of lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173-1185 (2000).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

6. D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, "Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse," Nature 396(6708), 239-242 (1998).

1997 (1)

19. F. Capasso, J. Faist, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser action by tuning the oscillator strength," Nature 387(6635), 777-782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

10. S. French, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and A. Miller, "High-power, high-repetition-rate picosecond optical parametric oscillators for the near- to mid-infrared," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 929-952 (1996).

29. H. C. Liu, Jianmeng Li, M. Buchanan, and Z. R.  Wasilewski, "High-frequency quantum-well infrared photodetectors measured by microwave-rectification technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 1024-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

29. H. C. Liu, Jianmeng Li, M. Buchanan, and Z. R.  Wasilewski, "High-frequency quantum-well infrared photodetectors measured by microwave-rectification technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 1024-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

11. M. R. X. de Barros, R. S. Miranda, T. M. Jedju, and P. C. Becker, "High-Repetition-Rate Femtosecond Midinfrared Pulse Generation," Opt. Lett. 20(5), 480-482 (1995).
[CrossRef]

12. H. Okamoto, and M. Tasumi, "Generation of Ultrashort Light-Pulses in the Midinfrared (3000-800 cm(1)) by 4-Wave-Mixing," Opt. Commun. 121(1-3), 63-68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

13. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264(5158), 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

7. W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, "Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive," Science 259(5101), 1581-1589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1. J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon3rd, "High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(6), 766-769 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

4. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414(6861), 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alton, J.

28. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

21. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290(5497), 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

28. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartolini, P.

5. R. Torre, P. Bartolini, and R. Righini, "Structural relaxation in supercooled water by time-resolved spectroscopy," Nature 428(6980), 296-299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

Beere, H. E.

28. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belyanin, A.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bichler, M.

4. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414(6861), 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Breuil, N.

28. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brodschelm, A.

4. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414(6861), 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T.

Buchanan, M.

27. P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, M. Buchanan, L. Wolfson, and H. Liu, "An ultra fast quantum well infrared photodetector," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 144-152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

29. H. C. Liu, Jianmeng Li, M. Buchanan, and Z. R.  Wasilewski, "High-frequency quantum-well infrared photodetectors measured by microwave-rectification technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 1024-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

17. H. Choi, T. B. Norris, T. Gresch, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Diehl, and F. Capasso, "Femtosecond dynamics of resonant tunneling and superlattice relaxation in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 122114-122117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

20. H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z. K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, "Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

14. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415(6874), 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

21. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290(5497), 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

22. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169-171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

19. F. Capasso, J. Faist, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser action by tuning the oscillator strength," Nature 387(6635), 777-782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

13. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264(5158), 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

14. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415(6874), 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

21. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290(5497), 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

22. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169-171 (2000).
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19. F. Capasso, J. Faist, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser action by tuning the oscillator strength," Nature 387(6635), 777-782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

13. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264(5158), 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

20. H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z. K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, "Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

17. H. Choi, T. B. Norris, T. Gresch, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Diehl, and F. Capasso, "Femtosecond dynamics of resonant tunneling and superlattice relaxation in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 122114-122117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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2. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

14. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415(6874), 883-887 (2002).
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16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
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7. W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, "Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive," Science 259(5101), 1581-1589 (1993).
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de Barros, M. R. X.

Dhillon, S. S.

28. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
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20. H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z. K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, "Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
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17. H. Choi, T. B. Norris, T. Gresch, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Diehl, and F. Capasso, "Femtosecond dynamics of resonant tunneling and superlattice relaxation in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 122114-122117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
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Dudek, R.

27. P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, M. Buchanan, L. Wolfson, and H. Liu, "An ultra fast quantum well infrared photodetector," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 144-152 (2005).
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Dudley, J. M.

2. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135-1184 (2006).
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25. H. C. Liu, and E. Dupont, "Nonlinear quantum well infrared photodetector," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11(4), 433-443 (2002).
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10. S. French, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and A. Miller, "High-power, high-repetition-rate picosecond optical parametric oscillators for the near- to mid-infrared," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 929-952 (1996).

Faist, J.

20. H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z. K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, "Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
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16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
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17. H. Choi, T. B. Norris, T. Gresch, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Diehl, and F. Capasso, "Femtosecond dynamics of resonant tunneling and superlattice relaxation in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 122114-122117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

19. F. Capasso, J. Faist, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser action by tuning the oscillator strength," Nature 387(6635), 777-782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

13. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264(5158), 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

French, S.

10. S. French, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and A. Miller, "High-power, high-repetition-rate picosecond optical parametric oscillators for the near- to mid-infrared," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 929-952 (1996).

Gaudiosi, D.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

2. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, E. A.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

20. H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z. K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, "Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

17. H. Choi, T. B. Norris, T. Gresch, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Diehl, and F. Capasso, "Femtosecond dynamics of resonant tunneling and superlattice relaxation in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 122114-122117 (2008).
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Gmachl, C.

23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

14. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415(6874), 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

22. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169-171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

21. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290(5497), 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, A.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, C. L.

1. J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon3rd, "High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(6), 766-769 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grant, P. D.

27. P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, M. Buchanan, L. Wolfson, and H. Liu, "An ultra fast quantum well infrared photodetector," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 144-152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gresch, T.

17. H. Choi, T. B. Norris, T. Gresch, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Diehl, and F. Capasso, "Femtosecond dynamics of resonant tunneling and superlattice relaxation in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 122114-122117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

8. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416(6877), 233-237 (2002).
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Haus, H. A.

18. H. A. Haus, "Mode-locking of lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173-1185 (2000).

Höfler, G.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
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15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
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Holzwarth, R.

8. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416(6877), 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

4. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414(6861), 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

22. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169-171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

21. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290(5497), 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

19. F. Capasso, J. Faist, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser action by tuning the oscillator strength," Nature 387(6635), 777-782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

13. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264(5158), 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

22. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169-171 (2000).
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Jedju, T. M.

Jianmeng Li, H. C.

29. H. C. Liu, Jianmeng Li, M. Buchanan, and Z. R.  Wasilewski, "High-frequency quantum-well infrared photodetectors measured by microwave-rectification technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 1024-1028 (1996).
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Jirauschek, C.

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
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15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kmetec, J. D.

1. J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon3rd, "High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(6), 766-769 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koidl, P.

26. T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Two-photon QWIPs for quadratic detection of weak mid-infrared laser pulses," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 182-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

4. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414(6861), 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

26. T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Two-photon QWIPs for quadratic detection of weak mid-infrared laser pulses," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 182-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

27. P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, M. Buchanan, L. Wolfson, and H. Liu, "An ultra fast quantum well infrared photodetector," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 144-152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

25. H. C. Liu, and E. Dupont, "Nonlinear quantum well infrared photodetector," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11(4), 433-443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

22. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169-171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

21. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290(5497), 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

29. H. C. Liu, Jianmeng Li, M. Buchanan, and Z. R.  Wasilewski, "High-frequency quantum-well infrared photodetectors measured by microwave-rectification technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 1024-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Macklin, J. J.

1. J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon3rd, "High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(6), 766-769 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maier, T.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

26. T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Two-photon QWIPs for quadratic detection of weak mid-infrared laser pulses," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 182-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maineult, W.

28. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meshulach, D.

6. D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, "Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse," Nature 396(6708), 239-242 (1998).

Miller, A.

10. S. French, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and A. Miller, "High-power, high-repetition-rate picosecond optical parametric oscillators for the near- to mid-infrared," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 929-952 (1996).

Miranda, R. S.

Missey, M.

Murnane, M. M.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

17. H. Choi, T. B. Norris, T. Gresch, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Diehl, and F. Capasso, "Femtosecond dynamics of resonant tunneling and superlattice relaxation in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 122114-122117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

20. H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z. K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, "Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

12. H. Okamoto, and M. Tasumi, "Generation of Ultrashort Light-Pulses in the Midinfrared (3000-800 cm(1)) by 4-Wave-Mixing," Opt. Commun. 121(1-3), 63-68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

22. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169-171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

21. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290(5497), 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peabody, M. L.

23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rabitz, H.

7. W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, "Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive," Science 259(5101), 1581-1589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

Righini, R.

5. R. Torre, P. Bartolini, and R. Righini, "Structural relaxation in supercooled water by time-resolved spectroscopy," Nature 428(6980), 296-299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

28. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, H.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

26. T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Two-photon QWIPs for quadratic detection of weak mid-infrared laser pulses," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 182-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, A. M.

23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Silberberg, Y.

6. D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, "Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse," Nature 396(6708), 239-242 (1998).

Sirtori, C.

28. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

19. F. Capasso, J. Faist, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser action by tuning the oscillator strength," Nature 387(6635), 777-782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

13. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264(5158), 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

14. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415(6874), 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

22. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169-171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

21. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290(5497), 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

19. F. Capasso, J. Faist, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser action by tuning the oscillator strength," Nature 387(6635), 777-782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

13. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264(5158), 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soibel,

23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tasumi, M.

12. H. Okamoto, and M. Tasumi, "Generation of Ultrashort Light-Pulses in the Midinfrared (3000-800 cm(1)) by 4-Wave-Mixing," Opt. Commun. 121(1-3), 63-68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tauser, F.

4. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414(6861), 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tobey, R.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Torre, R.

5. R. Torre, P. Bartolini, and R. Righini, "Structural relaxation in supercooled water by time-resolved spectroscopy," Nature 428(6980), 296-299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Troccoli, M.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

8. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416(6877), 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, N.

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

26. T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Two-photon QWIPs for quadratic detection of weak mid-infrared laser pulses," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 182-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

7. W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, "Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive," Science 259(5101), 1581-1589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

29. H. C. Liu, Jianmeng Li, M. Buchanan, and Z. R.  Wasilewski, "High-frequency quantum-well infrared photodetectors measured by microwave-rectification technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 1024-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolfson, L.

27. P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, M. Buchanan, L. Wolfson, and H. Liu, "An ultra fast quantum well infrared photodetector," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 144-152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. K.

20. H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z. K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, "Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

17. H. Choi, T. B. Norris, T. Gresch, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Diehl, and F. Capasso, "Femtosecond dynamics of resonant tunneling and superlattice relaxation in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 122114-122117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

22. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Monolithic active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(2), 169-171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

28. S. Barbieri, W. Maineult, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, N. Breuil, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "13 GHz direct modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

29. H. C. Liu, Jianmeng Li, M. Buchanan, and Z. R.  Wasilewski, "High-frequency quantum-well infrared photodetectors measured by microwave-rectification technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 1024-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

23. Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, M. L. Peabody, A. M. Sergent, R. Paiella, D. L. Sivco; A. Y. Cho; H. C. Liu, "Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 197-204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

18. H. A. Haus, "Mode-locking of lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173-1185 (2000).

Infrared Phys. Technol. (2)

26. T. Maier, H. Schneider, H. Liu, M. Walther, and P. Koidl, "Two-photon QWIPs for quadratic detection of weak mid-infrared laser pulses," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 182-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

27. P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, M. Buchanan, L. Wolfson, and H. Liu, "An ultra fast quantum well infrared photodetector," Infrared Phys. Technol. 47(1-2), 144-152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

10. S. French, M. Ebrahimzadeh, and A. Miller, "High-power, high-repetition-rate picosecond optical parametric oscillators for the near- to mid-infrared," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 929-952 (1996).

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

25. H. C. Liu, and E. Dupont, "Nonlinear quantum well infrared photodetector," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11(4), 433-443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (6)

14. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415(6874), 883-887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

19. F. Capasso, J. Faist, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Laser action by tuning the oscillator strength," Nature 387(6635), 777-782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

4. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414(6861), 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

5. R. Torre, P. Bartolini, and R. Righini, "Structural relaxation in supercooled water by time-resolved spectroscopy," Nature 428(6980), 296-299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

6. D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, "Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse," Nature 396(6708), 239-242 (1998).

8. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416(6877), 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

12. H. Okamoto, and M. Tasumi, "Generation of Ultrashort Light-Pulses in the Midinfrared (3000-800 cm(1)) by 4-Wave-Mixing," Opt. Commun. 121(1-3), 63-68 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

15. C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031802 (2007).
[CrossRef]

16. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, "Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning," Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

1. J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon3rd, "High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(6), 766-769 (1993).
[CrossRef]

20. H. Choi, L. Diehl, Z. K. Wu, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, F. Capasso, and T. B. Norris, "Gain recovery dynamics and photon-driven transport in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 167401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

2. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft x-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302(5642), 95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

7. W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, "Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive," Science 259(5101), 1581-1589 (1993).
[CrossRef]

21. R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, and H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290(5497), 1739-1742 (2000).
[CrossRef]

13. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264(5158), 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

24. J.-C. Diels, and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort laser pulse phenomena: fundamentals, techniques, and applications on a femtosecond time scale (Academic Press, Boston, 2nd ed. 2006)
[PubMed]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Calculated conduction band structure of the QCL. The plot represents the potential profile along the growth direction, and the moduli squared of the wavefunctions. The states involved in the laser transition are shown as solid red curves. The barriers (conduction bandoffset=0.52 eV) are made of Al0.48In0.52As and the quantum wells of Ga0.47In0.53 As (the barrier is indicated by vertical arrow). The layer thicknesses are (starting from the left, from the injection barrier, in nm): 3.8/4.7/3.1/3.5/2.3/2.6/2.2/2.0/2.0/2.0/2.5/1.8/2.7/1.9/3.8, where the barriers are indicated in boldface and the underlined layers are doped to n=6×1017 cm−3.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of the multi-section QCL, showing the dry-etched laser ridges in white (with active region in red), the 5 µm-thick SU-8 insulating layer in grey, and the gold top contact in yellow. The top metal contact layer and the underlying heavily doped region grown above the top cladding layer are disconnected between the sections. The whole 2.6 mm-long laser is biased under the same DC voltage, while a RF modulation is added to the short section (120–160µm) at the end of the ridge.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The current-voltage (I–V) and output power-current (L-I) characteristics of the 16 µm wide QCL with no RF modulation. The laser threshold is at 310 mA. A, B, C denote the currents (I=340 mA, 450 mA & 500mA) at which currents the pulse characterization was performed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Spectra of the QCL at 340 mA and (b) at 450 mA with 35 dBm of input RF modulation at various modulation frequencies. Note that the scales of the optical power of the spectra are different at 340 mA. All measurements were performed at a heat sink temperature of T=77K.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The experimental setup for the autocorrelation measurement using two-photon QWIP. Inset: conduction band diagram of the two-photon QWIP showing three equidistant energy levels.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Interferometric autocorrelation traces (IACs) of the 16 µm-wide QCL output with 35 dBm of applied modulation at (a) 340 mA (1.1 times the laser threshold), (b) 450 mA (1.45 times the laser threshold) and (c) 500 mA (1.61 times the laser threshold), respectively. Inset (b): detail of the interference fringes from 0.1 ps to 0.5 ps. All measurements were performed at a heat sink temperature of T=77K and RF modulation frequency at 17.86 GHz.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Interferometric autocorrelation traces (IACs) of the 12 µm-wide QCL output with 35 dBm of applied modulation at (a) 265 mA (1.08 times the laser threshold), (b) 323 mA (1.32 times the laser threshold) and (c) 450 mA (1.84 times the laser threshold), respectively. All measurements were performed at a heat sink temperature of T=77K and RF modulation frequency at 17.415 GHz.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Interferometric autocorrelation traces (IACs) of the 12 µm-wide QCL output at 265 mA (1.08 times the laser threshold) with (a) 35 dBm, (b) 28 dBm & (c) 12 dBm of RF input powers, respectively. All measurements were performed at a heat sink temperature of T=77 K and RF modulation frequency at 17.415 GHz.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Microwave spectrum of photocurrent generated by the 16 µm-wide laser pumped at 340 mA with 35 dBm of applied RF modulation.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Simulated interferometric autocorrelation traces (IACs) at (a) p=1.1, (b) p=1.45, and (c) p=1.61, with fixed modulation amplitude m=5. Insets show the corresponding intensity profile of one round-trip.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Simulated IACs with modulation amplitude (a) m=5, (b) m=3.5 and (c) m=0.5, respectively, with fixed DC pumping p=1.1. The insets show the corresponding intensity profile of one round-trip.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

DC I-V characteristics of the small section when the long section is float (black curve), biased at 8V (red curve), and the whole laser I-V scaled down 1/16.25.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Equivalent circuit of a packaged device. The QCL is mounted at the end of a 50-Ω transmission line. The QCL is modeled by a parallel resistance-capacitance equivalent circuit, and the parasitic inductance is caused by the short bonding wire connecting the line to the laser.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Simulated current amplitude vs. time across the resistor.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

tη±=i2(Δ0ε±+Δ2*ε) η±T2
tΔ0=λ+i(ε+*η+η+*ε++ε*ηη*ε)Δ0T1
tΔ2=i(η+*ε+ε+*η) Δ2T14k2DΔ2
(±z+nct)ε±=iωNd2ε0cnη±lε±
ZL=jωL+11R+jωC,
Γ=ZL50ZL+50

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