Abstract

A new invisibility cloak was recently proposed for hiding objects in front of a highly reflecting mirror. This cloak requires only modest values of optical constants with minimal anisotropy and thus can be implemented by using non-resonant dielectric materials, making it an ideal system for optical frequency operation. We implemented the cloak using an array of silicon nanorods fabricated by electron-beam lithography. We then directly visualized the cloaking effect by monitoring the light propagation inside the device using the near-field optical microscopy.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. See, for reviewW. Park and J. Kim, “Negative-Index Materials: Optics by Design,” MRS Bull. 33, 907–911 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the Carpet: A New Strategy for Cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9794–9804 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036621 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Multifrequency optical invisibility cloak with layered plasmonic shells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 194102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Farhat, S. Guenneau, A. B. Movchan, and S. Enoch, “Achieving invisibility over a finite range of frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5656–5661 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. , Advanced Online Publication, DOI: .
  15. L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Cloaking at optical frequencies, Preprint at < http://arxiv.org/abs/0904.3508 > (2009).

2009 (1)

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

See, for reviewW. Park and J. Kim, “Negative-Index Materials: Optics by Design,” MRS Bull. 33, 907–911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the Carpet: A New Strategy for Cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Multifrequency optical invisibility cloak with layered plasmonic shells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Farhat, S. Guenneau, A. B. Movchan, and S. Enoch, “Achieving invisibility over a finite range of frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5656–5661 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Multifrequency optical invisibility cloak with layered plasmonic shells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. , Advanced Online Publication, DOI: .

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Q.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Multifrequency optical invisibility cloak with layered plasmonic shells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

Farhat, M.

Guenneau, S.

He, S.

P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, W. X.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

See, for reviewW. Park and J. Kim, “Negative-Index Materials: Optics by Design,” MRS Bull. 33, 907–911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the Carpet: A New Strategy for Cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. , Advanced Online Publication, DOI: .

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milton, G. W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Movchan, A. B.

Park, W.

See, for reviewW. Park and J. Kim, “Negative-Index Materials: Optics by Design,” MRS Bull. 33, 907–911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the Carpet: A New Strategy for Cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popa, B.-I.

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. , Advanced Online Publication, DOI: .

Yang, X. M.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. , Advanced Online Publication, DOI: .

Zhang, P.

P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. , Advanced Online Publication, DOI: .

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Zhang, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Obtaining a nonsingular two-dimensional cloak of complex shape from a perfect three-dimensional cloak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. M. Yang, Q. Cheng, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Invisibility cloak without singularity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 194102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

See, for reviewW. Park and J. Kim, “Negative-Index Materials: Optics by Design,” MRS Bull. 33, 907–911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (1)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. , Advanced Online Publication, DOI: .

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Multifrequency optical invisibility cloak with layered plasmonic shells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the Carpet: A New Strategy for Cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, Cloaking at optical frequencies, Preprint at < http://arxiv.org/abs/0904.3508 > (2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of (a) the ground plane cloak implemented with a silicon nanorod array and (b) reference sample made of unpatterned silicon with identical shape. The cloak structure consists of a square array of nanorods with a periodicity of 150 nm. The nanorod diameter is varied to produce the required index profile of ground plane cloak. In a small section in the middle, the periodicity and nanorod diameter were doubled to avoid feature sizes too small to fabricate. (c) SEM image of a silicon nanorod array fabricated by electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Only the area near the curved reflecting interface is shown. Not shown are input and output waveguides positioned at 45° with respect to the reflecting interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) FDTD simulation showing the performance of the silicon nanorod array cloak. The frequency was set to ωa/2πc = 0.1 which corresponds to a = 150 nm for an operating wavelength of λ = 1500 nm. (b) NSOM image of silicon nanorod array cloak for λ = 1500 nm. The input beam was fed into the structure vertically through the substrate. The reflected beam propagating to the left is circled for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The FDTD simulation and (b) NSOM image taken at λ = 1520 nm for the reference sample fabricated with identical dimensions as the cloak in Fig. 2 expect that the nanorod array is replaced with unpatterned silicon.

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