Abstract

High-energy metallic ions were implanted in silica matrices, obtaining spherical-like metallic nanoparticles (NPs) after a proper thermal treatment. These NPs were then deformed by irradiation with Si ions, obtaining an anisotropic metallic nanocomposite. An average large birefringence of 0.06 was measured for these materials in the 300-800 nm region. Besides, their third order nonlinear optical response was measured using self-diffraction and P-scan techniques at 532 nm with 26 ps pulses. By adjusting the incident light’s polarization and the angular position of the nanocomposite, the measurements could be directly related to, at least, two of the three linear independent components of its third order susceptibility tensor, finding a large, but anisotropic, response of around 10−7 esu with respect to other isotropic metallic systems. For the nonlinear optical absorption, we were able to shift from saturable to reverse saturable absorption depending on probing the Au NP’s major or minor axes, respectively. This fact could be related to local field calculations and NP’s electronic properties. For the nonlinear optical refraction, we passed from self-focusing to self-defocusing, when changing from Ag to Au.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (4)

Y. Guillet, M. Rashidi-Huyeh, and B. Palpant, “Influence of laser pulse characteristics on the hot electron contribution to the third-order nonlinear optical response of gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 045410 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Silva-Pereyra, J. Arenas-Alatorre, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, and A. Oliver, “High stability of the crystalline configuration of Au nanoparticles embedded in silica under ion and electron irradiation,” submitted to J. Nanopart. Res. May (2009).

Y.-F. Chau, M. W. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Three-dimensional analysis of surface plasmon resonance modes on a gold nanorod,” Appl. Opt. 48(3), 617–622 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. López-Suárez, C. Torres-Torres, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, G. Santana, J. C. Alonso, A. Ortiz, and A. Oliver, “Modification of the nonlinear optical absorption and optical Kerr response exhibited by nc-Si embedded in a silicon-nitride film,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10056–10068 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (22)

Y. H. Wang, J. D. Lu, R. W. Wang, S. J. Peng, Y. L. Mao, and Y. G. Cheng, “Optical nonlinearities of Au nanocluster composite fabricated by 300 keV ion implantation,” Physica B 403(19-20), 3399–3402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Panasyuk, J. C. Schotland, and V. A. Markel, “Classical theory of optical nonlinearity in conducting nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(4), 047402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Davis, A. J. Moad, G. S. Goeken, R. D. Wampler, and G. J. Simpson, “Selection rules and symmetry relations for four-wave mixing measurements of uniaxial assemblies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(18), 5834–5848 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Torres-Torres, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, and A. Oliver, “Optical third order nonlinearity by nanosecond and picosecond pulses in Cu nanoparticles in ion-implanted silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, C. Noguez, and A. Oliver, “Large optical birefringence by anisotropic silver nanocomposites,” Opt. Express 16(2), 710–717 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tsuchiya, S. Nagayasu, S. Okamoto, T. Hayakawa, T. Hihara, K. Yamamoto, I. Takumi, S. Hara, H. Hasegawa, S. Akasaka, and N. Kosikawa, “Nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticles selectively introduced into the periodic microdomains of block copolymers,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5362–5371 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Piredda, D. D. Smith, B. Wendling, and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear optical properties of a gold-silica composite with high gold fill fraction and the sign change of its nonlinear absorption coefficient,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 945–950 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Lamarre, F. Billard, and L. Martinu, “Local field calculations of the anisotropic nonlinear absorption coefficient of aligned gold nanorods embedded in silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 961–971 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Lamarre, F. Billard, C. H. Kerboua, M. Lequime, S. Roorda, and L. Martinu, “Anisotropic nonlinear optical absorption of gold nanorods in a silica matrix,” Opt. Commun. 281(2), 331–340 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Karthikeyan, M. Anija, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, T. M. Muhammad Nadeer, and R. Philip, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanocomposite glasses annealed near the glass softening temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(10), 2933–2937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Klein, H. F. Hamann, Y.-Y. Au, and S. Ingvarsson, “Coherence properties of infrared thermal emission from heated metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. He, Z. Cai, P. Li, Y. Cheng, and Y. Mo “Third-order nonlinear response of Ag/methyl orange composite thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(6), 975–983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wang, C. Z. Jiang, X. H. Xiao, and Y. G. Cheng, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of Cu/Ag nanoclusters by ion implantation under 1064 nm laser excitation,” Physica B 403(12), 2143–2147 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gonzalez, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, and C. Noguez, “Optical properties of elongated noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(19), 7356–7362 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, A. B. Salvador, and R. Zanella, “Size control of Au nanoparticles on TiO2 and Al2O3 by DP Urea: optical absorption and electron microscopy as control probes,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(8), 3843–3850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Rodríguez-Iglesias, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, G. Kellerman, and A. Oliver, “MeV Si ion irradiation effects on the optical absorption properties of metallic nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 266(12-13), 3138–3142 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, K. Fujita, Y. Zong, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Random lasers with coherent feedback from highly transparent polymer films embedded with silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Zheludev, S. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Reece, “Plasmonics: Finer optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 333–334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(2), 151–160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Noguez, “Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(10), 3806–3819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Liu, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, “Synthesis of gold regular octahedra with controlled size and plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 163122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Grzelczak, J. Pérez-Juste, F. J. García de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Optical properties of platinum-coated gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(17), 6183–6188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, S. Zhang, J. Liu, and K. Zhang, “Quantum correlation between fundamental and second-harmonic fields via second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(3), 660–663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (9)

A. Ryasnyansky, B. Palpant, S. Debrus, R. I. Khaibullin, and A. L. Stepanov, “Nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles synthesized in indium tin oxide matrix by ion implantation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(7), 1348–1353 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. S. Kim, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of Cu nanoparticle-dispersed Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films prepared by alternating pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(4), 2332–2336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dowling, “Quantum information: to compute or not to compute?” Nature 439(7079), 919–920 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beugnon, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, B. Darquié, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Quantum interference between two single photons emitted by independently trapped atoms,” Nature 440(7085), 779–782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. B. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, K. McKenzie, and P. K. Lam, “Harmonic entanglement with second-order nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. de Visser and M. Blaauboer, “Deterministic teleportation of electrons in a quantum dot nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(24), 246801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tao, P. Sinsermsuksakul, and P. Yang, “Polyhedral silver nanoparticles with distinct scattering signatures,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(28), 4597–4601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. L. González, C. Noguez, G. P. Ortíz, and G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, “Optical absorbance of colloidal suspensions of silver polyhedral nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17512–17517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438(7069), 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. P. Drachev, A. K. Buin, H. Nakotte, and V. M. Shalaev, “Size dependent χ(3) for conduction electrons in Ag nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1535–1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. Polloni, B. F. Scremin, P. Calvelli, E. Cataruzza, G. Battaglin, and G. Mattei, “Metal nanoparticles-silica composites: Z-scan determination of non-linear refractive index,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322(1-3), 300–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Maillard, S. Giorgio, and M.-P. Pileni, “Tuning the size of silver nanodisks with similar aspect ratios: synthesis and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(11), 2466–2470 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Orléans, J. P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, C. Cerruti, J. J. Grob, J. L. Guille, F. Haas, D. Muller, and M. Richard-Plouet, “Anisotropy of Co nanoparticles induced by swift heavy ions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 220101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solís, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 47(4), 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abdelsalam, M.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solís, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akasaka, S.

Alonso, J. C.

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

André, A.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438(7069), 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anija, M.

B. Karthikeyan, M. Anija, C. S. Suchand Sandeep, T. M. Muhammad Nadeer, and R. Philip, “Optical and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanocomposite glasses annealed near the glass softening temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(10), 2933–2937 (2008).
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Arenas-Alatorre, J.

H. G. Silva-Pereyra, J. Arenas-Alatorre, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, and A. Oliver, “High stability of the crystalline configuration of Au nanoparticles embedded in silica under ion and electron irradiation,” submitted to J. Nanopart. Res. May (2009).

Au, Y.-Y.

L. J. Klein, H. F. Hamann, Y.-Y. Au, and S. Ingvarsson, “Coherence properties of infrared thermal emission from heated metallic nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213102 (2008).
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Baker, L. A.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ballesteros, J. M.

J. M. Ballesteros, R. Serna, J. Solís, C. N. Afonso, A. K. Petford-Long, D. H. Osborne, and R. F. Haglund., “Pulsed laser deposition of Cu:Al2O3 nanocrystal thin films with high third-order optical susceptibility,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2445–2447 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P. P.

Bartlett, P. N.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Battaglin, G.

R. Polloni, B. F. Scremin, P. Calvelli, E. Cataruzza, G. Battaglin, and G. Mattei, “Metal nanoparticles-silica composites: Z-scan determination of non-linear refractive index,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322(1-3), 300–305 (2003).
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Baumberg, J. J.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
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Becker, K.

Beugnon, J.

J. Beugnon, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, B. Darquié, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Quantum interference between two single photons emitted by independently trapped atoms,” Nature 440(7085), 779–782 (2006).
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J.-M. Lamarre, F. Billard, and L. Martinu, “Local field calculations of the anisotropic nonlinear absorption coefficient of aligned gold nanorods embedded in silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 961–971 (2008).
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J.-M. Lamarre, F. Billard, C. H. Kerboua, M. Lequime, S. Roorda, and L. Martinu, “Anisotropic nonlinear optical absorption of gold nanorods in a silica matrix,” Opt. Commun. 281(2), 331–340 (2008).
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Blaauboer, M.

R. L. de Visser and M. Blaauboer, “Deterministic teleportation of electrons in a quantum dot nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(24), 246801 (2006).
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Bloch, J.

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
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Borisov, A. G.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, W. P.

N. B. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, K. McKenzie, and P. K. Lam, “Harmonic entanglement with second-order nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063601 (2006).
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Boyd, R. W.

G. Piredda, D. D. Smith, B. Wendling, and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear optical properties of a gold-silica composite with high gold fill fraction and the sign change of its nonlinear absorption coefficient,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 945–950 (2008).
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D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, E.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Browaeys, A.

J. Beugnon, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, B. Darquié, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Quantum interference between two single photons emitted by independently trapped atoms,” Nature 440(7085), 779–782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bubb, D. M.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buin, A. K.

V. P. Drachev, A. K. Buin, H. Nakotte, and V. M. Shalaev, “Size dependent χ(3) for conduction electrons in Ag nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1535–1539 (2004).
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Bukasov, R.

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
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Cai, Z.

T. He, Z. Cai, P. Li, Y. Cheng, and Y. Mo “Third-order nonlinear response of Ag/methyl orange composite thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(6), 975–983 (2008).
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Calvelli, P.

R. Polloni, B. F. Scremin, P. Calvelli, E. Cataruzza, G. Battaglin, and G. Mattei, “Metal nanoparticles-silica composites: Z-scan determination of non-linear refractive index,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322(1-3), 300–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. K.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cataruzza, E.

R. Polloni, B. F. Scremin, P. Calvelli, E. Cataruzza, G. Battaglin, and G. Mattei, “Metal nanoparticles-silica composites: Z-scan determination of non-linear refractive index,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 322(1-3), 300–305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerruti, C.

C. D’Orléans, J. P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, C. Cerruti, J. J. Grob, J. L. Guille, F. Haas, D. Muller, and M. Richard-Plouet, “Anisotropy of Co nanoparticles induced by swift heavy ions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 220101 (2003).
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Chau, Y.-F.

Cheang-Wong, J. C.

H. G. Silva-Pereyra, J. Arenas-Alatorre, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, and A. Oliver, “High stability of the crystalline configuration of Au nanoparticles embedded in silica under ion and electron irradiation,” submitted to J. Nanopart. Res. May (2009).

V. Rodríguez-Iglesias, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, G. Kellerman, and A. Oliver, “MeV Si ion irradiation effects on the optical absorption properties of metallic nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 266(12-13), 3138–3142 (2008).
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C. Torres-Torres, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, and A. Oliver, “Optical third order nonlinearity by nanosecond and picosecond pulses in Cu nanoparticles in ion-implanted silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014306 (2008).
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J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, C. Noguez, and A. Oliver, “Large optical birefringence by anisotropic silver nanocomposites,” Opt. Express 16(2), 710–717 (2008).
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A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. W.

Cheng, Y.

T. He, Z. Cai, P. Li, Y. Cheng, and Y. Mo “Third-order nonlinear response of Ag/methyl orange composite thin films,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(6), 975–983 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. G.

Y. H. Wang, C. Z. Jiang, X. H. Xiao, and Y. G. Cheng, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of Cu/Ag nanoclusters by ion implantation under 1064 nm laser excitation,” Physica B 403(12), 2143–2147 (2008).
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Y. H. Wang, J. D. Lu, R. W. Wang, S. J. Peng, Y. L. Mao, and Y. G. Cheng, “Optical nonlinearities of Au nanocluster composite fabricated by 300 keV ion implantation,” Physica B 403(19-20), 3399–3402 (2008).
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Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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Ciuti, C.

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
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Crespo-Sosa, A.

H. G. Silva-Pereyra, J. Arenas-Alatorre, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, and A. Oliver, “High stability of the crystalline configuration of Au nanoparticles embedded in silica under ion and electron irradiation,” submitted to J. Nanopart. Res. May (2009).

V. Rodríguez-Iglesias, H. G. Silva-Pereyra, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, G. Kellerman, and A. Oliver, “MeV Si ion irradiation effects on the optical absorption properties of metallic nanoparticles embedded in silica,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 266(12-13), 3138–3142 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, C. Noguez, and A. Oliver, “Large optical birefringence by anisotropic silver nanocomposites,” Opt. Express 16(2), 710–717 (2008).
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C. Torres-Torres, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, and A. Oliver, “Optical third order nonlinearity by nanosecond and picosecond pulses in Cu nanoparticles in ion-implanted silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 014306 (2008).
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A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24), 245425 (2006).
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Crooks, R. M.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
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D’Orléans, C.

C. D’Orléans, J. P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, C. Cerruti, J. J. Grob, J. L. Guille, F. Haas, D. Muller, and M. Richard-Plouet, “Anisotropy of Co nanoparticles induced by swift heavy ions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 220101 (2003).
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Danileiko, A. Y.

Darquié, B.

J. Beugnon, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, B. Darquié, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Quantum interference between two single photons emitted by independently trapped atoms,” Nature 440(7085), 779–782 (2006).
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Dasbach, G.

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
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R. P. Davis, A. J. Moad, G. S. Goeken, R. D. Wampler, and G. J. Simpson, “Selection rules and symmetry relations for four-wave mixing measurements of uniaxial assemblies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(18), 5834–5848 (2008).
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R. L. de Visser and M. Blaauboer, “Deterministic teleportation of electrons in a quantum dot nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(24), 246801 (2006).
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Debrus, S.

Delalande, C.

C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
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C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
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Dingjan, J.

J. Beugnon, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, B. Darquié, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Quantum interference between two single photons emitted by independently trapped atoms,” Nature 440(7085), 779–782 (2006).
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J. P. Dowling, “Quantum information: to compute or not to compute?” Nature 439(7079), 919–920 (2006).
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V. P. Drachev, A. K. Buin, H. Nakotte, and V. M. Shalaev, “Size dependent χ(3) for conduction electrons in Ag nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1535–1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438(7069), 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Estournès, C.

C. D’Orléans, J. P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, C. Cerruti, J. J. Grob, J. L. Guille, F. Haas, D. Muller, and M. Richard-Plouet, “Anisotropy of Co nanoparticles induced by swift heavy ions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 220101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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N. Zheludev, S. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 351–354 (2008).
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Fleischhauer, M.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438(7069), 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flytzanis, C.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 47(4), 347–357 (1988).
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Fujita, K.

X. Meng, K. Fujita, Y. Zong, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Random lasers with coherent feedback from highly transparent polymer films embedded with silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201112 (2008).
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García de Abajo, F. J.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 299–301 (2008).
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M. Grzelczak, J. Pérez-Juste, F. J. García de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Optical properties of platinum-coated gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(17), 6183–6188 (2007).
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George, M.

D. D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R. W. Boyd, J. K. Campbell, L. A. Baker, R. M. Crooks, and M. George, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear absorption of a thin gold film,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 6200–6205 (1999).
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Giorgio, S.

M. Maillard, S. Giorgio, and M.-P. Pileni, “Tuning the size of silver nanodisks with similar aspect ratios: synthesis and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(11), 2466–2470 (2003).
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Goeken, G. S.

R. P. Davis, A. J. Moad, G. S. Goeken, R. D. Wampler, and G. J. Simpson, “Selection rules and symmetry relations for four-wave mixing measurements of uniaxial assemblies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(18), 5834–5848 (2008).
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A. L. Gonzalez, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, and C. Noguez, “Optical properties of elongated noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(19), 7356–7362 (2008).
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A. L. González, C. Noguez, G. P. Ortíz, and G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, “Optical absorbance of colloidal suspensions of silver polyhedral nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(37), 17512–17517 (2005).
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J. Beugnon, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, B. Darquié, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Quantum interference between two single photons emitted by independently trapped atoms,” Nature 440(7085), 779–782 (2006).
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C. D’Orléans, J. P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, C. Cerruti, J. J. Grob, J. L. Guille, F. Haas, D. Muller, and M. Richard-Plouet, “Anisotropy of Co nanoparticles induced by swift heavy ions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 220101 (2003).
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N. B. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, K. McKenzie, and P. K. Lam, “Harmonic entanglement with second-order nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063601 (2006).
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M. Grzelczak, J. Pérez-Juste, F. J. García de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Optical properties of platinum-coated gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(17), 6183–6188 (2007).
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C. D’Orléans, J. P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, C. Cerruti, J. J. Grob, J. L. Guille, F. Haas, D. Muller, and M. Richard-Plouet, “Anisotropy of Co nanoparticles induced by swift heavy ions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 220101 (2003).
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Y. Guillet, M. Rashidi-Huyeh, and B. Palpant, “Influence of laser pulse characteristics on the hot electron contribution to the third-order nonlinear optical response of gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 045410 (2009).
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Gurudas, U.

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532 nm using picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haas, F.

C. D’Orléans, J. P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, C. Cerruti, J. J. Grob, J. L. Guille, F. Haas, D. Muller, and M. Richard-Plouet, “Anisotropy of Co nanoparticles induced by swift heavy ions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 220101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 47(4), 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

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J.-M. Lamarre, F. Billard, C. H. Kerboua, M. Lequime, S. Roorda, and L. Martinu, “Anisotropic nonlinear optical absorption of gold nanorods in a silica matrix,” Opt. Commun. 281(2), 331–340 (2008).
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C. Diederichs, J. Tignon, G. Dasbach, C. Ciuti, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Ph. Roussignol, and C. Delalande, “Parametric oscillation in vertical triple microcavities,” Nature 440(7086), 904–907 (2006).
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Physica B (2)

Y. H. Wang, J. D. Lu, R. W. Wang, S. J. Peng, Y. L. Mao, and Y. G. Cheng, “Optical nonlinearities of Au nanocluster composite fabricated by 300 keV ion implantation,” Physica B 403(19-20), 3399–3402 (2008).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. S. Kim, “Third-order optical nonlinearity of Cu nanoparticle-dispersed Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films prepared by alternating pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(4), 2332–2336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear Optics,” Academic Press, San Diego, (1992).

R. L. Sutherland, “Handbook of Nonlinear Optics,” Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, (1996).

V. Rodríguez-Iglesias, “Characterization and optical properties of elongated nanoclusters of Au and Ag embedded in silica,” Ph. D. thesis (2008).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for birefringence measurements with white light. Ein stands for the incident electric field, L for a lens, A for analyzer, P for polarizer, and PD for a photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reference systems for the laboratory (primed) and the anisotropic metallic nanoparticle (unprimed).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fully degenerate wave mixing measurements for anisotropic metallic nanocomposites. a) measurement at normal incidence generally implying all the three components of the tensor, b) determination of χ1111(3) at normal incidence, and c) determination, if possible due to the light refraction (not illustrated), of χ3333(3) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup used for self-diffraction and P-scan measurements (dashed components).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

RBS spectra of the implanted samples after the corresponding annealing treatments: a) Ag, and b) Au. Typical optical absorption spectra of the anisotropic nanocomposites: c) Ag, and d) Au.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Z contrast (HAADF) image showing the Ag NPs deformed by Si ion irradiation, obtained with a TEM, at 200 KV, with a point to point resolution of 0.19 nm at IFUNAM. b) HRTEM micrograph of a deformed Au NP in [011] zone axis orientation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical intensities measurement obtained in the range of 300-800 nm with setup shown in Fig. 1. Ag NPs (x ions/cm2 fluence) deformed at 80° by a Si fluence of 0.5 × 1015 ions/cm2. Discontinuous curves are the theoretical calculations given for Eqs. (1) and (2) by taking the birefringence calculated with Eq. (15) for selected wavelengths. a) parallel and b) perpendicular polarizers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical intensities measurement obtained in the range of 300-800 nm with setup shown in Fig. 1. Au NPs (x ions/cm2 fluence) deformed at 45° by a Si fluence of 1.25 × 1016 ions/cm2. Discontinuous curves are the theoretical calculations given for Eqs. (1) and (2) by taking the birefringence calculated with Eq. (15) for selected wavelengths. a) parallel and b) perpendicular polarizers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Typical birefringence in the range of 300-800 nm for Ag NPs deformed at 45 and 80°, and for Au NPs deformed at 80°, altogether with their absorption spectra, which are two curves for each case since they show the absorption for the minor and the major axes, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

a) Real and b) imaginary parts of the third order nonlinear susceptibility of the Au anisotropic nanocomposites, for each volume concentration, as a function of the aspect ratio.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Comparative of the measured birefringence peaks of the anisotropic metallic nanocomposites and the corresponding SP resonance positions.

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Table 2 |χeff(3)|(×109 esu) measurement for each angular position, Ag nanocomposites (4.7 × 1016 iones/cm2), Δ|χeff(3)|=±1011 esu.

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Table 5 Im(χeff(3))(×109 esu) and Re(χeff(3))(×107 esu) measurement for each angular position, Au nanocomposites.

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Table 4 |χeff(3)|(×107 esu) measurement for each angular position, Au nanocomposites, Δ|χeff(3)|=±1010 esu.

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Table 3 Im(χeff(3))(×1012 esu) and Re(χeff(3))(×109 esu) measurement for each angular position, Ag nanocomposites (4.7 × 1016 iones/cm2).

Equations (17)

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I(α,λ,0)=As2sin4α+Ap2cos4α+12AsApsin22αcos2πLΔnαλ,
I(α,λ,π2)=14sin22α[As2+Ap22AsApcos2πLΔnαλ],
P(3)=χ(3)EEE,
Pi(3)(ω4)=6jklχijkl(3)(ω4;ω1,ω2,ω3)Ej(ω1)Ek(ω2)El(ω3),
P1(ω)=[χ1111(3){3E1(ω)E1(ω)E1*(ω)+2E1(ω)E2(ω)E2*(ω)+E2(ω)E2(ω)E1*(ω)}+χ1133(3){6E1(ω)E3*(ω)+3E3(ω)E1*(ω)}E3(ω)];P2(ω)=[χ1111(3){3E2(ω)E2(ω)E2*(ω)+2E1(ω)E2(ω)E1*(ω)+E1(ω)E1(ω)E2*(ω)}+χ1133(3){6E2(ω)E3*(ω)+3E3(ω)E2*(ω)}E3(ω)];P3(ω)=[χ1133(3){3(E1(ω)E1(ω)+E2(ω)E2(ω))E3*(ω)+6(E1(ω)E1*(ω)+E2(ω)E2*(ω))E3(ω)}+3χ3333(3)E3(ω)E3(ω)E3*(ω)],
PNL(3)(ω)=χ1111(3)[{3Ex(ω)|Ex(ω)|2+2Ex(ω)|Ey(ω)|2+Ey2(ω)Ex*(ω)}i^+{3Ey(ω)|Ey(ω)|2+2Ey(ω)|Ex(ω)|2+Ex2(ω)Ey*(ω)}j^]++χ1133(3)[{6Ey(ω)Ez*(ω)+3Ez(ω)Ey*(ω)}Ez(ω)i^+{6Ex(ω)Ez*(ω)+3Ez(ω)Ex*(ω)}Ez(ω)j^+{3(Ex2(ω)+Ey2(ω))Ez*(ω)+6(|Ex(ω)|2+|Ey(ω)|2)Ez(ω)}k^]++3χ3333(3)Ez(ω)|Ez(ω)|2k^,
Ex(ω)=Ex*(ω)=0,Ey(ω)=E(ω)sinθEz(ω)=E(ω)cosθ.
PNL(3)(θ;ω)=3|E(ω)|2E(ω)[χ1111(3)sin3θj^+32χ1133(3)sin2θ{cosθj^+sinθk^}+χ3333(3)cos3θk^].
PNL(3)(ω)=PNL,lab(3)(ω)=3|E(ω)|2E(ω)χ1111(3)i^.
PNL,lab(3)(θ;ω)=3|E(ω)|2E(ω)[χ1111(3)sin3θ(cosθj^'sinθk^')+3χ1133(3)sinθcosθj^'+χ3333(3)cos3θ(sinθj^'+cosθk^')].
PNL(3)(ω)=6EE*Eχ1122(3)+3EEE*χ1221(3),
PNL(3)(θ;ω)=|E(ω)|2E(ω)χeff(3),
χeff(3)=3[(χ1111(3)sin3θ+32χ1133(3)sin2θcosθ)j^+(32χ1133(3)sin2θsinθ+χ3333(3)cos3θ)k^],
|χeff(3)|2=9[|χ1111(3)|2sin6θ+|χ3333(3)|2cos6θ+32sin22θ{32|χ1133(3)|2+sin2θ(Reχ1111(3)Reχ1133(3)+Imχ1111(3)Imχ1133(3))+cos2θ(Reχ1133(3)Reχ3333(3)+Imχ1133(3)Imχ3333(3))}].
Δnmax(λ)=λ2πLcos1[As2+Ap22AsAp2ImeasmaxAsAp].
Reχeff,j(3)=pεd41(A02+B02)(Ap2+Bp2)2((Ap2Bp2)Reχm(3)+2ApBpImχm(3))
Imχeff,j(3)=pεd41(A02+B02)(Ap2+Bp2)2(2ApBpReχm(3)+(Ap2Bp2)Imχm(3)),

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