Abstract

A widely tunable low stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser is presented. The fiber laser structure utilizes a pre-amplified Brillouin pump (BP) technique with 100 m of PCF and a tunable band-pass filter within a Fabry-Perot cavity. A total of 14 Brillouin Stokes lines can be tuned over 29 nm from 1540 nm to 1569 nm. The wide tunability was only limited by the bandwidth of the tunable band-pass filter. A constant channel spacing of 0.079 nm and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of more than 20 dB for each Brillouin Stokes lines were also observed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres" Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff, W. Belardi, M. Ibsen, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Investigation of Brillouin effects in small-core holey optical fibre: lasing and scattering" Opt. Lett. 27, 927-929 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled Bragg grating and photonic crystal fibre" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. J. Cowle, and D. Y. Stepanov, "Multiple wavelength generation with Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1465-1467 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. H. Al-Mansoori, B. Bouzid, B. M. Ali, M. K. Abdullah, and M. A. Mahdi, "Multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser in a linear cavity" Opt. Commun. 242, 209-214 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. W. Harun, S. N. Aziz, N. S. Shahabuddin and H. Ahmad, "Brillouin fibre laser with 20 m-long photonic crystal fibre" Electron. Lett. 44, 1065-1066 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-C. Beugnot, T. Sylvestre, D. Alasia, H. Maillotte, V. Laude, A. Monteville, L. Provino, N. Traynor, S. Foaleng Mafang, and L. Thévenaz, "Complete experimental characterization of stimulated Brillouin scattering in photonic crystal fiber" Opt. Express 15, 15517-15522 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15517.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. H. Al-Mansoori and M. A. Mahdi "Tunable range enhancement of Brillouin-erbium fiber laser utilizing Brillouin pump pre-amplification technique" Opt. Express 16, 7649-7654 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-7649.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. N. Mohd Nasir, Z. Yusoff, M. H. Al-Mansoori, H. A. Abdul Rashid, and P. K. Choudhury, "Broadly Tunable Multi-wavelength Brillouin-Erbium Fiber Laser in a Fabry-Perot Cavity" Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 812-816 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1995).
  12. P. Bayvel, and P. M. Radmore, "Solutions of the SBS equations in single mode optical fibers and implications for fiber transmission system" Electron. Lett. 26, 434-435 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering" Appl. Opt. 11, 2489-2494 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. O. van Devender and A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in Single Mode Fibers" J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2008

M. H. Al-Mansoori and M. A. Mahdi "Tunable range enhancement of Brillouin-erbium fiber laser utilizing Brillouin pump pre-amplification technique" Opt. Express 16, 7649-7654 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-7649.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Mohd Nasir, Z. Yusoff, M. H. Al-Mansoori, H. A. Abdul Rashid, and P. K. Choudhury, "Broadly Tunable Multi-wavelength Brillouin-Erbium Fiber Laser in a Fabry-Perot Cavity" Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 812-816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Harun, S. N. Aziz, N. S. Shahabuddin and H. Ahmad, "Brillouin fibre laser with 20 m-long photonic crystal fibre" Electron. Lett. 44, 1065-1066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled Bragg grating and photonic crystal fibre" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. H. Al-Mansoori, B. Bouzid, B. M. Ali, M. K. Abdullah, and M. A. Mahdi, "Multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser in a linear cavity" Opt. Commun. 242, 209-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres" Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1996

G. J. Cowle, and D. Y. Stepanov, "Multiple wavelength generation with Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1465-1467 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. O. van Devender and A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in Single Mode Fibers" J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

P. Bayvel, and P. M. Radmore, "Solutions of the SBS equations in single mode optical fibers and implications for fiber transmission system" Electron. Lett. 26, 434-435 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1972

Abdul Rashid, H. A.

M. N. Mohd Nasir, Z. Yusoff, M. H. Al-Mansoori, H. A. Abdul Rashid, and P. K. Choudhury, "Broadly Tunable Multi-wavelength Brillouin-Erbium Fiber Laser in a Fabry-Perot Cavity" Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 812-816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Abdullah, M. K.

M. H. Al-Mansoori, B. Bouzid, B. M. Ali, M. K. Abdullah, and M. A. Mahdi, "Multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser in a linear cavity" Opt. Commun. 242, 209-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, H.

S. W. Harun, S. N. Aziz, N. S. Shahabuddin and H. Ahmad, "Brillouin fibre laser with 20 m-long photonic crystal fibre" Electron. Lett. 44, 1065-1066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alasia, D.

Ali, B. M.

M. H. Al-Mansoori, B. Bouzid, B. M. Ali, M. K. Abdullah, and M. A. Mahdi, "Multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser in a linear cavity" Opt. Commun. 242, 209-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Al-Mansoori, M. H.

M. H. Al-Mansoori and M. A. Mahdi "Tunable range enhancement of Brillouin-erbium fiber laser utilizing Brillouin pump pre-amplification technique" Opt. Express 16, 7649-7654 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-7649.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Mohd Nasir, Z. Yusoff, M. H. Al-Mansoori, H. A. Abdul Rashid, and P. K. Choudhury, "Broadly Tunable Multi-wavelength Brillouin-Erbium Fiber Laser in a Fabry-Perot Cavity" Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 812-816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Al-Mansoori, B. Bouzid, B. M. Ali, M. K. Abdullah, and M. A. Mahdi, "Multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser in a linear cavity" Opt. Commun. 242, 209-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, S. N.

S. W. Harun, S. N. Aziz, N. S. Shahabuddin and H. Ahmad, "Brillouin fibre laser with 20 m-long photonic crystal fibre" Electron. Lett. 44, 1065-1066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

P. Bayvel, and P. M. Radmore, "Solutions of the SBS equations in single mode optical fibers and implications for fiber transmission system" Electron. Lett. 26, 434-435 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Belardi, W.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff, W. Belardi, M. Ibsen, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Investigation of Brillouin effects in small-core holey optical fibre: lasing and scattering" Opt. Lett. 27, 927-929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beugnot, J.-C.

Boot, A. J.

M. O. van Devender and A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in Single Mode Fibers" J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bouzid, B.

M. H. Al-Mansoori, B. Bouzid, B. M. Ali, M. K. Abdullah, and M. A. Mahdi, "Multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser in a linear cavity" Opt. Commun. 242, 209-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, P. K.

M. N. Mohd Nasir, Z. Yusoff, M. H. Al-Mansoori, H. A. Abdul Rashid, and P. K. Choudhury, "Broadly Tunable Multi-wavelength Brillouin-Erbium Fiber Laser in a Fabry-Perot Cavity" Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 812-816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cowle, G. J.

G. J. Cowle, and D. Y. Stepanov, "Multiple wavelength generation with Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1465-1467 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled Bragg grating and photonic crystal fibre" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foaleng Mafang, S.

Furusawa, K.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harun, S. W.

S. W. Harun, S. N. Aziz, N. S. Shahabuddin and H. Ahmad, "Brillouin fibre laser with 20 m-long photonic crystal fibre" Electron. Lett. 44, 1065-1066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres" Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laude, V.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff, W. Belardi, M. Ibsen, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Investigation of Brillouin effects in small-core holey optical fibre: lasing and scattering" Opt. Lett. 27, 927-929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled Bragg grating and photonic crystal fibre" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled Bragg grating and photonic crystal fibre" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mahdi, M. A.

Maillotte, H.

Mohd Nasir, M. N.

M. N. Mohd Nasir, Z. Yusoff, M. H. Al-Mansoori, H. A. Abdul Rashid, and P. K. Choudhury, "Broadly Tunable Multi-wavelength Brillouin-Erbium Fiber Laser in a Fabry-Perot Cavity" Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 812-816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff, W. Belardi, M. Ibsen, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Investigation of Brillouin effects in small-core holey optical fibre: lasing and scattering" Opt. Lett. 27, 927-929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Monteville, A.

Petropoulos, P.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Provino, L.

Radmore, P. M.

P. Bayvel, and P. M. Radmore, "Solutions of the SBS equations in single mode optical fibers and implications for fiber transmission system" Electron. Lett. 26, 434-435 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff, W. Belardi, M. Ibsen, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Investigation of Brillouin effects in small-core holey optical fibre: lasing and scattering" Opt. Lett. 27, 927-929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shahabuddin, N. S.

S. W. Harun, S. N. Aziz, N. S. Shahabuddin and H. Ahmad, "Brillouin fibre laser with 20 m-long photonic crystal fibre" Electron. Lett. 44, 1065-1066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

Stepanov, D. Y.

G. J. Cowle, and D. Y. Stepanov, "Multiple wavelength generation with Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1465-1467 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sylvestre, T.

Thévenaz, L.

Traynor, N.

van Devender, M. O.

M. O. van Devender and A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in Single Mode Fibers" J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled Bragg grating and photonic crystal fibre" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yusoff, Z.

M. N. Mohd Nasir, Z. Yusoff, M. H. Al-Mansoori, H. A. Abdul Rashid, and P. K. Choudhury, "Broadly Tunable Multi-wavelength Brillouin-Erbium Fiber Laser in a Fabry-Perot Cavity" Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 812-816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, Z. Yusoff, W. Belardi, M. Ibsen, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Investigation of Brillouin effects in small-core holey optical fibre: lasing and scattering" Opt. Lett. 27, 927-929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled Bragg grating and photonic crystal fibre" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled Bragg grating and photonic crystal fibre" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

P. Bayvel, and P. M. Radmore, "Solutions of the SBS equations in single mode optical fibers and implications for fiber transmission system" Electron. Lett. 26, 434-435 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Harun, S. N. Aziz, N. S. Shahabuddin and H. Ahmad, "Brillouin fibre laser with 20 m-long photonic crystal fibre" Electron. Lett. 44, 1065-1066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Four-wave mixing based 10-Gb/s tunable wavelength conversion using a holey fiber with a high SBS threshold" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440-442 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, and C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled Bragg grating and photonic crystal fibre" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Cowle, and D. Y. Stepanov, "Multiple wavelength generation with Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1465-1467 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. O. van Devender and A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in Single Mode Fibers" J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

M. N. Mohd Nasir, Z. Yusoff, M. H. Al-Mansoori, H. A. Abdul Rashid, and P. K. Choudhury, "Broadly Tunable Multi-wavelength Brillouin-Erbium Fiber Laser in a Fabry-Perot Cavity" Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 812-816 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres" Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

M. H. Al-Mansoori, B. Bouzid, B. M. Ali, M. K. Abdullah, and M. A. Mahdi, "Multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser in a linear cavity" Opt. Commun. 242, 209-214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Brillouin threshold measurement setup. Inset, SEM image of the PCF. (b) Brillouin gain spectrum measurement setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmitted and backscattered power of the PCF as a function of the input power. (b) Brillouin gain spectrum linewidth.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup of Fabry-Perot linear cavity Brillouin-erbium photonic crystal fiber laser.

Fig.4.
Fig.4.

(a) BEFL self-lasing cavity modes at 200 mW of 980 nm LD power (b) Generation of 14 Brillouin Stokes lines with 7 dBm of BP power and 200 mW of 980 nm LD power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Number of Brillouin Stokes lines generated at (a) 5 dBm, (b) 6 dBm and (c) 7 dBm of BP power with various 980 nm LD power. (d) Number of Brillouin Stokes lines generated at over 44 nm tuning range with fixed BP power of 7 dBm and 980 nm LD power of 200 mW.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Output Spectra of the tunable BEFL with 14 Brillouin Stokes lines over 29 nm tuning range.

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