Abstract

Four very low birth weight, very premature infants were monitored during a 12° postural elevation using diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to measure microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBF) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) to measure macrovascular blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery. DCS data correlated significantly with peak systolic, end diastolic, and mean velocities measured by TCD (pA=0.036, 0.036, 0.047). Moreover, population averaged TCD and DCS data yielded no significant hemodynamic response to this postural change (p>0.05). We thus demonstrate feasibility of DCS in this population, we show correlation between absolute measures of blood flow from DCS and blood flow velocity from TCD, and we do not detect significant changes in CBF associated with a small postural change (12°) in these patients.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

2008

2007

2006

C. Zhou, G. Yu, F. Daisuke, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-1144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Greisen, "Brain Monitoring in the Neonate-the Rationale," Clin. Perinatol. 33(3), 613-618 (2006).

C. Romagnoli, C. Giannantonio, M. De Carolis, F. Gallini, E. Zecca, and P. Papacci, "Neonatal color Doppler US study: Normal values of cerebral blood flow velocities in preterm infants in the first month of life," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 32, 321-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wolfberg and A. J. du Plessis, "Near-infrared spectroscopy in the fetus and neonate," Clin. Perinatol. 33(3), 707-728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044,002-1-12 (2005).

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors," Opt. Lett. 30, 2915-2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pichler, B. Urlesberger, G. Schmolzer, W. Muller, "Effect of tilting on cerebral haemodynamics in preterm infants with periventricular leucencephalomalacia," Acta Paediatr. 93(1), 70-75 (2004).

2003

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, T. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

L. Schrod, and J. Walter, "Effect of head-up body tilt position on autonomic function and cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants," Biol. Neonate 81(4), 255-259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Evans, M. Kluckow, M. Simmons, and D. Osborn, "Which to measure, systemic or organ blood flow? Middle cerebral artery and superior vena cava flow in very preterm infants," Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 87(3), F181-184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. du Plessis and J. J. Volpe, "Perinatal brain injury in the preterm and term newborn," Curr. Opin. Neurol. 15, 151-7 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Back, B. H. Han, N. L. Luo, C. A. Chricton, S. Xanthoudakis, J. Tam, K. L. Arvin, and D. M. Holtzman," Selective Vulnerability of Late Oligodendrocyte Progenitors to Hypoxia-Ischemia," J. Neurosci. 22(2), 455-463 (2002).

2001

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pichler, M. C. van Boetzelar, W. M¨uller, and B. Urlesberger "Effect of tilting on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm and term infants,"Biol. Neonate 80(3), 179-185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. M. Perlman, "White matter injury in the preterm infant: an important determination of abnormal neurodevelopment outcome," Early Hum. Dev. 53, 99-120 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

R. Panerai, A. Wilfred, R. Kelsall, J. Rennie, and D. Evans, "Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in premature Newborns," Stroke 26, 74-80 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and Imaging with Diffusing Light," Phys. Today48, 34-40 (1995).

1991

B. Urlesberger,W. Muller, E. Ritschl, and F. Reiterer, "The influence of head position on the intracranial-pressure in preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus," Childs Nervous System 7(2), 85-87 (1991).

H. D. Dellagrammaticas, J. Kapetanakis, M. Papadimitriou, and G. Kourakis, "Effect of body tilting on physiological functions in stable very low birthweight neonates," Arch. Dis. Child. 66(4), 429-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

H. Lagercrantz, D. Edwards, D. Hendersonsmart, T. Hertzberg, and H. Jeffery, "Autonomic reflexes in preterm infants," Acta Paediatr. Scand. 79, 721-728 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

H. A. Kontos, "Validity of cerebral arterial blood flow calculations from velocity measurements," Stroke 20(1), 1-3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. R. Reynolds, "Cotside measurement of cerebral blood-flow in ill newborn infants by near-infrared spectroscopy," The Lancet 2(8614), 770-771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hochberg, "A sharper Bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance" Biometrika 75, 800-802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

C. Spearman, "The proof and measurement of association between two things. By C. Spearman, 1904." Am. J. Psychol. 100(3-4), 441-471 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Naturforsch. B 65(4), 409-413 (1987).

M. Drayton and R. Skidmore, "Vasoactivity of the major intracranial arteries in newborn infants," Arch. Dis. Child 62(3), 236-240 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

J. P. Finley, R. Hamilton, and M. G. MacKenzie, "Heart rate response to tilting in newborns in quiet and active sleep," Biol. Neonate 45(1), 1-10 (1984).

1945

F. Wilcoxon, "Individual Comparisons by Ranking Methods", Biometrics Bulletin 1(6), 80-83 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. C.

M. C. Allen, "Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants," Curr. Opin. Neurol. 21(2), 123-128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arvin, K. L.

S. A. Back, B. H. Han, N. L. Luo, C. A. Chricton, S. Xanthoudakis, J. Tam, K. L. Arvin, and D. M. Holtzman," Selective Vulnerability of Late Oligodendrocyte Progenitors to Hypoxia-Ischemia," J. Neurosci. 22(2), 455-463 (2002).

Austin, T.

J. Hebden and T. Austin, "Optical tomography of the neonatal brain," European Radiology 17(11), 2926-2933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Back, S. A.

S. A. Back, B. H. Han, N. L. Luo, C. A. Chricton, S. Xanthoudakis, J. Tam, K. L. Arvin, and D. M. Holtzman," Selective Vulnerability of Late Oligodendrocyte Progenitors to Hypoxia-Ischemia," J. Neurosci. 22(2), 455-463 (2002).

Bherer, L.

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, "Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 192-215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, M. G.

Busch, T. M.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, L. E.

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chaikin, P. M.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

A. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and Imaging with Diffusing Light," Phys. Today48, 34-40 (1995).

Cheung, C.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, T. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

Chricton, C. A.

S. A. Back, B. H. Han, N. L. Luo, C. A. Chricton, S. Xanthoudakis, J. Tam, K. L. Arvin, and D. M. Holtzman," Selective Vulnerability of Late Oligodendrocyte Progenitors to Hypoxia-Ischemia," J. Neurosci. 22(2), 455-463 (2002).

Cope, M.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. R. Reynolds, "Cotside measurement of cerebral blood-flow in ill newborn infants by near-infrared spectroscopy," The Lancet 2(8614), 770-771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cucchiara, B. L.

Culver, J. P.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, T. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

Daisuke, F.

De Carolis, M.

C. Romagnoli, C. Giannantonio, M. De Carolis, F. Gallini, E. Zecca, and P. Papacci, "Neonatal color Doppler US study: Normal values of cerebral blood flow velocities in preterm infants in the first month of life," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 32, 321-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dellagrammaticas, H. D.

H. D. Dellagrammaticas, J. Kapetanakis, M. Papadimitriou, and G. Kourakis, "Effect of body tilting on physiological functions in stable very low birthweight neonates," Arch. Dis. Child. 66(4), 429-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. R. Reynolds, "Cotside measurement of cerebral blood-flow in ill newborn infants by near-infrared spectroscopy," The Lancet 2(8614), 770-771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, M.

Detre, J. A.

Dietsche, G.

F. Jaillon, J. Li, G. Dietsche, T. Elbert, and T. Gisler, "Activity of the human visual cortex measured noninvasively by diffusing-wave spectroscopy," Opt. Express 15(11), 6643-6650 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044,002-1-12 (2005).

Drayton, M.

M. Drayton and R. Skidmore, "Vasoactivity of the major intracranial arteries in newborn infants," Arch. Dis. Child 62(3), 236-240 (1987).
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du Plessis, A. J.

A. J. Wolfberg and A. J. du Plessis, "Near-infrared spectroscopy in the fetus and neonate," Clin. Perinatol. 33(3), 707-728 (2006).
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A. J. du Plessis and J. J. Volpe, "Perinatal brain injury in the preterm and term newborn," Curr. Opin. Neurol. 15, 151-7 (2002).
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Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, "Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients," Opt. Express 17(5), 3884-3902 (2009).
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G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, "Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI," Opt. Express 15, 1064-1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, G. Yu, F. Daisuke, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-1144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors," Opt. Lett. 30, 2915-2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, T. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edlow, B. L.

Edwards, A. D.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. R. Reynolds, "Cotside measurement of cerebral blood-flow in ill newborn infants by near-infrared spectroscopy," The Lancet 2(8614), 770-771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D.

H. Lagercrantz, D. Edwards, D. Hendersonsmart, T. Hertzberg, and H. Jeffery, "Autonomic reflexes in preterm infants," Acta Paediatr. Scand. 79, 721-728 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elbert, T.

Evans, D.

R. Panerai, A. Wilfred, R. Kelsall, J. Rennie, and D. Evans, "Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in premature Newborns," Stroke 26, 74-80 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, N.

N. Evans, M. Kluckow, M. Simmons, and D. Osborn, "Which to measure, systemic or organ blood flow? Middle cerebral artery and superior vena cava flow in very preterm infants," Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 87(3), F181-184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Everdell, N.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finley, J. P.

J. P. Finley, R. Hamilton, and M. G. MacKenzie, "Heart rate response to tilting in newborns in quiet and active sleep," Biol. Neonate 45(1), 1-10 (1984).

Floyd, T. F.

Furuya, T.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, T. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, L.

Gallini, F.

C. Romagnoli, C. Giannantonio, M. De Carolis, F. Gallini, E. Zecca, and P. Papacci, "Neonatal color Doppler US study: Normal values of cerebral blood flow velocities in preterm infants in the first month of life," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 32, 321-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannantonio, C.

C. Romagnoli, C. Giannantonio, M. De Carolis, F. Gallini, E. Zecca, and P. Papacci, "Neonatal color Doppler US study: Normal values of cerebral blood flow velocities in preterm infants in the first month of life," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 32, 321-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gisler, T.

Glatstein, E.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

Greisen, G.

G. Greisen, "Brain Monitoring in the Neonate-the Rationale," Clin. Perinatol. 33(3), 613-618 (2006).

Gronlund, J.

J. Gronlund, J. Jalonen, and I. Valimaki, "Transcephalic electrical impedance provides a means for quantifying pulsatile cerebral blood volume changes following head-up tilt," Early Hum. Dev. 47, 11-18 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamilton, R.

J. P. Finley, R. Hamilton, and M. G. MacKenzie, "Heart rate response to tilting in newborns in quiet and active sleep," Biol. Neonate 45(1), 1-10 (1984).

Han, B. H.

S. A. Back, B. H. Han, N. L. Luo, C. A. Chricton, S. Xanthoudakis, J. Tam, K. L. Arvin, and D. M. Holtzman," Selective Vulnerability of Late Oligodendrocyte Progenitors to Hypoxia-Ischemia," J. Neurosci. 22(2), 455-463 (2002).

Hebden, J.

J. Hebden and T. Austin, "Optical tomography of the neonatal brain," European Radiology 17(11), 2926-2933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heckmeier, M.

Hendersonsmart, D.

H. Lagercrantz, D. Edwards, D. Hendersonsmart, T. Hertzberg, and H. Jeffery, "Autonomic reflexes in preterm infants," Acta Paediatr. Scand. 79, 721-728 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herbolzheimer, E.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hertzberg, T.

H. Lagercrantz, D. Edwards, D. Hendersonsmart, T. Hertzberg, and H. Jeffery, "Autonomic reflexes in preterm infants," Acta Paediatr. Scand. 79, 721-728 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
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Hochberg, Y.

Y. Hochberg, "A sharper Bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance" Biometrika 75, 800-802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Holtzman, D. M.

S. A. Back, B. H. Han, N. L. Luo, C. A. Chricton, S. Xanthoudakis, J. Tam, K. L. Arvin, and D. M. Holtzman," Selective Vulnerability of Late Oligodendrocyte Progenitors to Hypoxia-Ischemia," J. Neurosci. 22(2), 455-463 (2002).

Iftime, D.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044,002-1-12 (2005).

Ijichi, S.

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imai, T.

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Isobe, K.

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, S.

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaillon, F.

Jalonen, J.

J. Gronlund, J. Jalonen, and I. Valimaki, "Transcephalic electrical impedance provides a means for quantifying pulsatile cerebral blood volume changes following head-up tilt," Early Hum. Dev. 47, 11-18 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffery, H.

H. Lagercrantz, D. Edwards, D. Hendersonsmart, T. Hertzberg, and H. Jeffery, "Autonomic reflexes in preterm infants," Acta Paediatr. Scand. 79, 721-728 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jehanne-Lacasse, J.

Kapetanakis, J.

H. D. Dellagrammaticas, J. Kapetanakis, M. Papadimitriou, and G. Kourakis, "Effect of body tilting on physiological functions in stable very low birthweight neonates," Arch. Dis. Child. 66(4), 429-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kasner, S. E.

Kawada, K.

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelsall, R.

R. Panerai, A. Wilfred, R. Kelsall, J. Rennie, and D. Evans, "Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in premature Newborns," Stroke 26, 74-80 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. N.

Kissler, J.

Kluckow, M.

N. Evans, M. Kluckow, M. Simmons, and D. Osborn, "Which to measure, systemic or organ blood flow? Middle cerebral artery and superior vena cava flow in very preterm infants," Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 87(3), F181-184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koban, L.

Kontos, H. A.

H. A. Kontos, "Validity of cerebral arterial blood flow calculations from velocity measurements," Stroke 20(1), 1-3 (1989).
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Kourakis, G.

H. D. Dellagrammaticas, J. Kapetanakis, M. Papadimitriou, and G. Kourakis, "Effect of body tilting on physiological functions in stable very low birthweight neonates," Arch. Dis. Child. 66(4), 429-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kusaka, T.

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lagercrantz, H.

H. Lagercrantz, D. Edwards, D. Hendersonsmart, T. Hertzberg, and H. Jeffery, "Autonomic reflexes in preterm infants," Acta Paediatr. Scand. 79, 721-728 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lesage, F.

Li, J.

Luo, N. L.

S. A. Back, B. H. Han, N. L. Luo, C. A. Chricton, S. Xanthoudakis, J. Tam, K. L. Arvin, and D. M. Holtzman," Selective Vulnerability of Late Oligodendrocyte Progenitors to Hypoxia-Ischemia," J. Neurosci. 22(2), 455-463 (2002).

M¨, W.

G. Pichler, M. C. van Boetzelar, W. M¨uller, and B. Urlesberger "Effect of tilting on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm and term infants,"Biol. Neonate 80(3), 179-185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacKenzie, M. G.

J. P. Finley, R. Hamilton, and M. G. MacKenzie, "Heart rate response to tilting in newborns in quiet and active sleep," Biol. Neonate 45(1), 1-10 (1984).

Maret, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044,002-1-12 (2005).

M. Heckmeier, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, and R. Maynard, "Imaging of dynamic heterogeneities in multiplescattering media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 185-191 (1997).
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G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Naturforsch. B 65(4), 409-413 (1987).

Maynard, R.

Md Yusof, R.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meek, J. H.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muller, W.

G. Pichler, B. Urlesberger, G. Schmolzer, W. Muller, "Effect of tilting on cerebral haemodynamics in preterm infants with periventricular leucencephalomalacia," Acta Paediatr. 93(1), 70-75 (2004).

B. Urlesberger,W. Muller, E. Ritschl, and F. Reiterer, "The influence of head position on the intracranial-pressure in preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus," Childs Nervous System 7(2), 85-87 (1991).

Namba, M.

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ninck, M.

Nishida, T.

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okada, H.

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okubo, K.

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, D.

N. Evans, M. Kluckow, M. Simmons, and D. Osborn, "Which to measure, systemic or organ blood flow? Middle cerebral artery and superior vena cava flow in very preterm infants," Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 87(3), F181-184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panerai, R.

R. Panerai, A. Wilfred, R. Kelsall, J. Rennie, and D. Evans, "Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in premature Newborns," Stroke 26, 74-80 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papacci, P.

C. Romagnoli, C. Giannantonio, M. De Carolis, F. Gallini, E. Zecca, and P. Papacci, "Neonatal color Doppler US study: Normal values of cerebral blood flow velocities in preterm infants in the first month of life," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 32, 321-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papadimitriou, M.

H. D. Dellagrammaticas, J. Kapetanakis, M. Papadimitriou, and G. Kourakis, "Effect of body tilting on physiological functions in stable very low birthweight neonates," Arch. Dis. Child. 66(4), 429-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Perlman, J. M.

J. M. Perlman, "White matter injury in the preterm infant: an important determination of abnormal neurodevelopment outcome," Early Hum. Dev. 53, 99-120 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pichler, G.

G. Pichler, B. Urlesberger, G. Schmolzer, W. Muller, "Effect of tilting on cerebral haemodynamics in preterm infants with periventricular leucencephalomalacia," Acta Paediatr. 93(1), 70-75 (2004).

G. Pichler, M. C. van Boetzelar, W. M¨uller, and B. Urlesberger "Effect of tilting on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm and term infants,"Biol. Neonate 80(3), 179-185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pine, D. J.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Putt, M. E.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, "Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients," Opt. Express 17(5), 3884-3902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiterer, F.

B. Urlesberger,W. Muller, E. Ritschl, and F. Reiterer, "The influence of head position on the intracranial-pressure in preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus," Childs Nervous System 7(2), 85-87 (1991).

Rennie, J.

R. Panerai, A. Wilfred, R. Kelsall, J. Rennie, and D. Evans, "Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in premature Newborns," Stroke 26, 74-80 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, E. O. R.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. R. Reynolds, "Cotside measurement of cerebral blood-flow in ill newborn infants by near-infrared spectroscopy," The Lancet 2(8614), 770-771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, C.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. R. Reynolds, "Cotside measurement of cerebral blood-flow in ill newborn infants by near-infrared spectroscopy," The Lancet 2(8614), 770-771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ritschl, E.

B. Urlesberger,W. Muller, E. Ritschl, and F. Reiterer, "The influence of head position on the intracranial-pressure in preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus," Childs Nervous System 7(2), 85-87 (1991).

Rockstroh, B.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044,002-1-12 (2005).

Romagnoli, C.

C. Romagnoli, C. Giannantonio, M. De Carolis, F. Gallini, E. Zecca, and P. Papacci, "Neonatal color Doppler US study: Normal values of cerebral blood flow velocities in preterm infants in the first month of life," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 32, 321-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, H. M.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmolzer, G.

G. Pichler, B. Urlesberger, G. Schmolzer, W. Muller, "Effect of tilting on cerebral haemodynamics in preterm infants with periventricular leucencephalomalacia," Acta Paediatr. 93(1), 70-75 (2004).

Schrod, L.

L. Schrod, and J. Walter, "Effect of head-up body tilt position on autonomic function and cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants," Biol. Neonate 81(4), 255-259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sehgal, C. M.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, Q.

Simmons, M.

N. Evans, M. Kluckow, M. Simmons, and D. Osborn, "Which to measure, systemic or organ blood flow? Middle cerebral artery and superior vena cava flow in very preterm infants," Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 87(3), F181-184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skidmore, R.

M. Drayton and R. Skidmore, "Vasoactivity of the major intracranial arteries in newborn infants," Arch. Dis. Child 62(3), 236-240 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Skipetrov, S. E.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044,002-1-12 (2005).

M. Heckmeier, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, and R. Maynard, "Imaging of dynamic heterogeneities in multiplescattering media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 185-191 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spearman, C.

C. Spearman, "The proof and measurement of association between two things. By C. Spearman, 1904." Am. J. Psychol. 100(3-4), 441-471 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, J.

S. A. Back, B. H. Han, N. L. Luo, C. A. Chricton, S. Xanthoudakis, J. Tam, K. L. Arvin, and D. M. Holtzman," Selective Vulnerability of Late Oligodendrocyte Progenitors to Hypoxia-Ischemia," J. Neurosci. 22(2), 455-463 (2002).

Tchou, J. C.

Urlesberger, B.

G. Pichler, B. Urlesberger, G. Schmolzer, W. Muller, "Effect of tilting on cerebral haemodynamics in preterm infants with periventricular leucencephalomalacia," Acta Paediatr. 93(1), 70-75 (2004).

B. Urlesberger,W. Muller, E. Ritschl, and F. Reiterer, "The influence of head position on the intracranial-pressure in preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus," Childs Nervous System 7(2), 85-87 (1991).

Valimaki, I.

J. Gronlund, J. Jalonen, and I. Valimaki, "Transcephalic electrical impedance provides a means for quantifying pulsatile cerebral blood volume changes following head-up tilt," Early Hum. Dev. 47, 11-18 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Boetzelar, M. C.

G. Pichler, M. C. van Boetzelar, W. M¨uller, and B. Urlesberger "Effect of tilting on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm and term infants,"Biol. Neonate 80(3), 179-185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Volpe, J. J.

A. J. du Plessis and J. J. Volpe, "Perinatal brain injury in the preterm and term newborn," Curr. Opin. Neurol. 15, 151-7 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, J.

L. Schrod, and J. Walter, "Effect of head-up body tilt position on autonomic function and cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants," Biol. Neonate 81(4), 255-259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Weitz, D. A.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wilcoxon, F.

F. Wilcoxon, "Individual Comparisons by Ranking Methods", Biometrics Bulletin 1(6), 80-83 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Wilfred, A.

R. Panerai, A. Wilfred, R. Kelsall, J. Rennie, and D. Evans, "Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in premature Newborns," Stroke 26, 74-80 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, P. E.

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Naturforsch. B 65(4), 409-413 (1987).

Wolfberg, A. J.

A. J. Wolfberg and A. J. du Plessis, "Near-infrared spectroscopy in the fetus and neonate," Clin. Perinatol. 33(3), 707-728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, J. S.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. R. Reynolds, "Cotside measurement of cerebral blood-flow in ill newborn infants by near-infrared spectroscopy," The Lancet 2(8614), 770-771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Xanthoudakis, S.

S. A. Back, B. H. Han, N. L. Luo, C. A. Chricton, S. Xanthoudakis, J. Tam, K. L. Arvin, and D. M. Holtzman," Selective Vulnerability of Late Oligodendrocyte Progenitors to Hypoxia-Ischemia," J. Neurosci. 22(2), 455-463 (2002).

Yodh, A.

A. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and Imaging with Diffusing Light," Phys. Today48, 34-40 (1995).

Yodh, A. G.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, "Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients," Opt. Express 17(5), 3884-3902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, "Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI," Opt. Express 15, 1064-1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, G. Yu, F. Daisuke, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-1144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors," Opt. Lett. 30, 2915-2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, T. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, "Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 192-215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

Yu, G. Q.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zecca, E.

C. Romagnoli, C. Giannantonio, M. De Carolis, F. Gallini, E. Zecca, and P. Papacci, "Neonatal color Doppler US study: Normal values of cerebral blood flow velocities in preterm infants in the first month of life," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 32, 321-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, "Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients," Opt. Express 17(5), 3884-3902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, "Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI," Opt. Express 15, 1064-1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, G. Yu, F. Daisuke, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-1144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors," Opt. Lett. 30, 2915-2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou., S. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, S. Friess, R. Ichord, S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh. "Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamics in piglet brain with head trauma injury," J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Acta Paediatr.

G. Pichler, B. Urlesberger, G. Schmolzer, W. Muller, "Effect of tilting on cerebral haemodynamics in preterm infants with periventricular leucencephalomalacia," Acta Paediatr. 93(1), 70-75 (2004).

Acta Paediatr. Scand.

H. Lagercrantz, D. Edwards, D. Hendersonsmart, T. Hertzberg, and H. Jeffery, "Autonomic reflexes in preterm infants," Acta Paediatr. Scand. 79, 721-728 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Psychol.

C. Spearman, "The proof and measurement of association between two things. By C. Spearman, 1904." Am. J. Psychol. 100(3-4), 441-471 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Dis. Child

M. Drayton and R. Skidmore, "Vasoactivity of the major intracranial arteries in newborn infants," Arch. Dis. Child 62(3), 236-240 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal Ed.

N. Evans, M. Kluckow, M. Simmons, and D. Osborn, "Which to measure, systemic or organ blood flow? Middle cerebral artery and superior vena cava flow in very preterm infants," Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 87(3), F181-184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Dis. Child.

H. D. Dellagrammaticas, J. Kapetanakis, M. Papadimitriou, and G. Kourakis, "Effect of body tilting on physiological functions in stable very low birthweight neonates," Arch. Dis. Child. 66(4), 429-432 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Biol. Neonate

J. P. Finley, R. Hamilton, and M. G. MacKenzie, "Heart rate response to tilting in newborns in quiet and active sleep," Biol. Neonate 45(1), 1-10 (1984).

G. Pichler, M. C. van Boetzelar, W. M¨uller, and B. Urlesberger "Effect of tilting on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm and term infants,"Biol. Neonate 80(3), 179-185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Schrod, and J. Walter, "Effect of head-up body tilt position on autonomic function and cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants," Biol. Neonate 81(4), 255-259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biometrics Bulletin

F. Wilcoxon, "Individual Comparisons by Ranking Methods", Biometrics Bulletin 1(6), 80-83 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Biometrika

Y. Hochberg, "A sharper Bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance" Biometrika 75, 800-802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Childs Nervous System

B. Urlesberger,W. Muller, E. Ritschl, and F. Reiterer, "The influence of head position on the intracranial-pressure in preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus," Childs Nervous System 7(2), 85-87 (1991).

Clin. Cancer Res.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. Wang, M. E. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive monitoring of murine tumor blood flow during and after photodynamic therapy provides early assessment of therapeutic efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Perinatol.

A. J. Wolfberg and A. J. du Plessis, "Near-infrared spectroscopy in the fetus and neonate," Clin. Perinatol. 33(3), 707-728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Greisen, "Brain Monitoring in the Neonate-the Rationale," Clin. Perinatol. 33(3), 613-618 (2006).

Curr. Opin. Neurol.

M. C. Allen, "Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants," Curr. Opin. Neurol. 21(2), 123-128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. du Plessis and J. J. Volpe, "Perinatal brain injury in the preterm and term newborn," Curr. Opin. Neurol. 15, 151-7 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Early Hum. Dev.

J. M. Perlman, "White matter injury in the preterm infant: an important determination of abnormal neurodevelopment outcome," Early Hum. Dev. 53, 99-120 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Gronlund, J. Jalonen, and I. Valimaki, "Transcephalic electrical impedance provides a means for quantifying pulsatile cerebral blood volume changes following head-up tilt," Early Hum. Dev. 47, 11-18 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

European Radiology

J. Hebden and T. Austin, "Optical tomography of the neonatal brain," European Radiology 17(11), 2926-2933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044,002-1-12 (2005).

C. Zhou., S. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, S. Friess, R. Ichord, S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh. "Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamics in piglet brain with head trauma injury," J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, T. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci.

S. A. Back, B. H. Han, N. L. Luo, C. A. Chricton, S. Xanthoudakis, J. Tam, K. L. Arvin, and D. M. Holtzman," Selective Vulnerability of Late Oligodendrocyte Progenitors to Hypoxia-Ischemia," J. Neurosci. 22(2), 455-463 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Pediatr. Res.

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, "Developmental Changes of Optical Properties in Neonates Determined by Near-Infrared Time-Resolved Spectroscopy," Pediatr. Res. 58(3), 568-573 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. Md Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47(23), 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today

A. Yodh and B. Chance, "Spectroscopy and Imaging with Diffusing Light," Phys. Today48, 34-40 (1995).

Stroke

R. Panerai, A. Wilfred, R. Kelsall, J. Rennie, and D. Evans, "Cerebral autoregulation dynamics in premature Newborns," Stroke 26, 74-80 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Kontos, "Validity of cerebral arterial blood flow calculations from velocity measurements," Stroke 20(1), 1-3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

The Lancet

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and E. O. R. Reynolds, "Cotside measurement of cerebral blood-flow in ill newborn infants by near-infrared spectroscopy," The Lancet 2(8614), 770-771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

C. Romagnoli, C. Giannantonio, M. De Carolis, F. Gallini, E. Zecca, and P. Papacci, "Neonatal color Doppler US study: Normal values of cerebral blood flow velocities in preterm infants in the first month of life," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 32, 321-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Naturforsch. B

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Naturforsch. B 65(4), 409-413 (1987).

Other

T. Durduran, "Non-invasive measurements of tissue hemodynamics with hybrid diffuse optical methods." Ph. D. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania (2004).

M. Y. Anthony, D. H. Evans, and M. I. Levene, "Neonatal cerebral blood flow velocity responses to changes in posture," Arch. Dis. Child 69(3 Spec No), 304-308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Martin, B. E. Hamilton, P. D. Sutton, S. J. Ventura, F. Menacker, S. Kirmeyer, and M. L. Munson, "Births: Final Data for 2005," Tech. Rep. 6, National Center for Health Statistics (2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The fibers used to deliver and detect light are secured to the infant’s forehead using a soft black pad. The pad is held in place with a mask that wraps around the head.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of the protocol used for DCS (top) and TCD (bottom) measurements. DCS and TCD measurements were NOT taken at the same time. For DCS, data was taken continuously (8 data points per minute) for 5 minutes at each head of bed angle adjustment. The head of bed 0° to 12° elevation was repeated 3 times, making the total study time 35 minutes. By comparison, for TCD only 3 data points were taken at each HOB angle before the bed was repositioned, and the HOB angle was only elevated twice.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Left) Typical normalized intensity autocorrelation curve derived directly from the correlator board as a function of time, τ (data measured on the forehead of a preterm infant). (Right) The corresponding normalized electric field autocorrelation curve, g 1(r,τ), calculated using the Siegert relation with a fitted value for β. The solid line shows the raw data. The dotted line is the best fit curve to a Brownian motion model, which we use to derive the blood flow index (BFI).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Left) Correlation between population averaged mean TCD PSV taken at the initial (PSV¯) and population averaged mean DCS BFI also taken at the initial (BFI¯) . (Center) Correlation between population averaged mean TCD MV taken at the initial (MV¯) and DCS BFI¯ . (Right) Correlation between population averaged mean TCD EDV taken at first HOB=0° event (EDV¯) and DCS BFI¯ . The solid line in each plot shows the best linear fit between the two variables. Both Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients (R 2 and rs, respectively) were calculated. The R 2 Pearson values are displayed for each plot.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Median and range of average daily hemodynamic response to postural elevation (*pA =0.48, pA =0.91).

Equations (1)

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G1(r,τ)=3μsS04π(eκ(τ)r1r1eκ(τ)r2r2) .

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