Abstract

We report photonic quantum circuits created using an ultrafast laser processing technique that is rapid, requires no lithographic mask and can be used to create three-dimensional networks of waveguide devices. We have characterized directional couplers—the key functional elements of photonic quantum circuits—and found that they perform as well as lithographically produced waveguide devices. We further demonstrate high-performance interferometers and an important multi-photon quantum interference phenomenon for the first time in integrated optics. This direct-write approach will enable the rapid development of sophisticated quantum optical circuits and their scaling into three-dimensions.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  7. A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. Marshall, J. Dawes, and M. Withford, "Femtosecond laser modification of fused silica: the effect of writing polarization on Si-O ring structure," Opt. Express 16(24), 20029-20037 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, "Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses," Opt. Express 13(15), 5676-5681 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. K. Sanaka, T. Jennewein, J. Pan, K. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental nonlinear sign shift for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 017902 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. H. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. X. Gong, Y. F. Huang, Z. Y. Ou, and G. C. Guo, "Demonstration of the three-photon de Broglie wavelength by projection measurement," Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023815 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, "Quantum Filter for Nonlocal Polarization Properties of Photonic Qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(14), 147901 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  36. B. P. Lanyon, T. J. Weinhold, N. K. Langford, J. L. O’Brien, K. J. Resch, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 060504 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  37. P. P. Rohde, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and T. C. Ralph, "Quantum-gate characterization in an extended Hilbert space," Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032306 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  38. G. Fujii, N. Namekata, M. Motoya, S. Kurimura, and S. Inoue, "Bright narrowband source of photon pairs at optical telecommunication wavelengths using a type-II periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Opt. Express 15(20), 12769-12776 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  39. Q. Zhang, X. P. Xie, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "Correlated photonpair generation in reverse-proton-exchange PPLN waveguides with integrated mode demultiplexer at 10 GHz clock," Opt. Express 15(16), 10288-10293 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 120501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009

A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, "All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate," Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 030303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, H. F. Hofmann, T. Nagata, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "An Entanglement Filter," Science 323(5913), 483-485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. P. Lanyon, T. J. Weinhold, N. K. Langford, J. L. O’Brien, K. J. Resch, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 060504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker,M. Ams, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, "Directly written monolithic waveguide laser incorporating a distributed feedback waveguide-Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 33(9), 956-958 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. Marshall, J. Dawes, and M. Withford, "Femtosecond laser modification of fused silica: the effect of writing polarization on Si-O ring structure," Opt. Express 16(24), 20029-20037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. X. Gong, Y. F. Huang, Z. Y. Ou, and G. C. Guo, "Demonstration of the three-photon de Broglie wavelength by projection measurement," Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023815 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, K. Hayashi, S. K. Ozdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Robust photonic entanglement distribution by state-independent encoding onto decoherence-free subspace," Nat. Photonics 2(8), 488-491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316(5825), 726-729 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch, K. L. Pregnell, R. Prevedel, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and A. G. White, "Time-Reversal and Super-Resolving Phase Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 223601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Shields, "Semiconductor quantum light sources," Nat. Photonics 1(4), 215-223 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin and R. Thew, "Quantum communication," Nat. Photonics 1(3), 165-171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. O’Brien, "Optical Quantum Computing," Science 318(5856), 1567-1570 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch, J. L. O’Brien, T. J. Weinhold, K. Sanaka, B. P. Lanyon, N. K. Langford, and A. G. White, "Entanglement Generation by Fock-State Filtration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 203602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Fujii, N. Namekata, M. Motoya, S. Kurimura, and S. Inoue, "Bright narrowband source of photon pairs at optical telecommunication wavelengths using a type-II periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Opt. Express 15(20), 12769-12776 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, X. P. Xie, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "Correlated photonpair generation in reverse-proton-exchange PPLN waveguides with integrated mode demultiplexer at 10 GHz clock," Opt. Express 15(16), 10288-10293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 120501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, "Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses," Opt. Express 13(15), 5676-5681 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. G. White, and S. D. Bartlett, "Demonstrating superior discrimination of locally prepared states using nonlocal Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rohde, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and T. C. Ralph, "Quantum-gate characterization in an extended Hilbert space," Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, "Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state," Nature 429(6988), 161-164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, "Quantum-Enhanced Measurements: Beating the Standard Quantum Limit," Science 306, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sanaka, T. Jennewein, J. Pan, K. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental nonlinear sign shift for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 017902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77(1), 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, "Quantum Filter for Nonlocal Polarization Properties of Photonic Qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(14), 147901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A Scheme for Efficient Quantum Computation with Linear Optics," Nature 409(6816), 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. D’Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, "Two-Photon Diffraction and Quantum Lithography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(1), 013602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum Interferometric Optical Lithography: Exploiting Entanglement to Beat the Diffraction Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

1987

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abrams, D. S.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum Interferometric Optical Lithography: Exploiting Entanglement to Beat the Diffraction Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alibart, O.

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 120501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Bartlett, S. D.

G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. G. White, and S. D. Bartlett, "Demonstrating superior discrimination of locally prepared states using nonlocal Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boto, A. N.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum Interferometric Optical Lithography: Exploiting Entanglement to Beat the Diffraction Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Braunstein, S. L.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum Interferometric Optical Lithography: Exploiting Entanglement to Beat the Diffraction Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77(1), 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.W.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chekhova, M. V.

M. D’Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, "Two-Photon Diffraction and Quantum Lithography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(1), 013602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A. S.

A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, "All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate," Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 030303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cryan, M. J.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D’Angelo, M.

M. D’Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, "Two-Photon Diffraction and Quantum Lithography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(1), 013602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Dawes, J.

Dekker, P.

Dowling, J. P.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum Interferometric Optical Lithography: Exploiting Entanglement to Beat the Diffraction Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fujii, G.

Fulconis, J.

A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, "All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate," Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 030303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 120501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gansen, E. J.

E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, A.

B. P. Lanyon, T. J. Weinhold, N. K. Langford, J. L. O’Brien, K. J. Resch, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 060504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch, K. L. Pregnell, R. Prevedel, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and A. G. White, "Time-Reversal and Super-Resolving Phase Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 223601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giovannetti, V.

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, "Quantum-Enhanced Measurements: Beating the Standard Quantum Limit," Science 306, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin and R. Thew, "Quantum communication," Nat. Photonics 1(3), 165-171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y. X.

B. H. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. X. Gong, Y. F. Huang, Z. Y. Ou, and G. C. Guo, "Demonstration of the three-photon de Broglie wavelength by projection measurement," Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023815 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Greene, M. B.

E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G. C.

B. H. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. X. Gong, Y. F. Huang, Z. Y. Ou, and G. C. Guo, "Demonstration of the three-photon de Broglie wavelength by projection measurement," Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023815 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007).
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H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343-348 (2007).
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E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007).
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T. Yamamoto, K. Hayashi, S. K. Ozdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Robust photonic entanglement distribution by state-independent encoding onto decoherence-free subspace," Nat. Photonics 2(8), 488-491 (2008).
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Hofmann, H. F.

R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, H. F. Hofmann, T. Nagata, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "An Entanglement Filter," Science 323(5913), 483-485 (2009).
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H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, "Quantum Filter for Nonlocal Polarization Properties of Photonic Qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(14), 147901 (2002).
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C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
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H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343-348 (2007).
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B. H. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. X. Gong, Y. F. Huang, Z. Y. Ou, and G. C. Guo, "Demonstration of the three-photon de Broglie wavelength by projection measurement," Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023815 (2008).
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J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367-372 (2003).
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T. Yamamoto, K. Hayashi, S. K. Ozdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Robust photonic entanglement distribution by state-independent encoding onto decoherence-free subspace," Nat. Photonics 2(8), 488-491 (2008).
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Jennewein, T.

K. Sanaka, T. Jennewein, J. Pan, K. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental nonlinear sign shift for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 017902 (2004).
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T. Yamamoto, K. Hayashi, S. K. Ozdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Robust photonic entanglement distribution by state-independent encoding onto decoherence-free subspace," Nat. Photonics 2(8), 488-491 (2008).
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A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum Interferometric Optical Lithography: Exploiting Entanglement to Beat the Diffraction Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2733-2736 (2000).
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J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367-372 (2003).
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E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A Scheme for Efficient Quantum Computation with Linear Optics," Nature 409(6816), 46-52 (2001).
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B. P. Lanyon, T. J. Weinhold, N. K. Langford, J. L. O’Brien, K. J. Resch, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 060504 (2008).
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Lanyon, B. P.

B. P. Lanyon, T. J. Weinhold, N. K. Langford, J. L. O’Brien, K. J. Resch, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 060504 (2008).
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K. J. Resch, J. L. O’Brien, T. J. Weinhold, K. Sanaka, B. P. Lanyon, N. K. Langford, and A. G. White, "Entanglement Generation by Fock-State Filtration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 203602 (2007).
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Liu, B. H.

B. H. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. X. Gong, Y. F. Huang, Z. Y. Ou, and G. C. Guo, "Demonstration of the three-photon de Broglie wavelength by projection measurement," Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023815 (2008).
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M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, "Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state," Nature 429(6988), 161-164 (2004).
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V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, "Quantum-Enhanced Measurements: Beating the Standard Quantum Limit," Science 306, 1330-1336 (2004).
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C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
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Marshall, G. D.

Maselli, V.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
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R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219-225 (2008).
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E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A Scheme for Efficient Quantum Computation with Linear Optics," Nature 409(6816), 46-52 (2001).
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E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007).
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Motoya, M.

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T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316(5825), 726-729 (2007).
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E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007).
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S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77(1), 109-111 (2003).
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A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, "All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate," Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 030303 (2009).
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R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, H. F. Hofmann, T. Nagata, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "An Entanglement Filter," Science 323(5913), 483-485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Lanyon, T. J. Weinhold, N. K. Langford, J. L. O’Brien, K. J. Resch, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 060504 (2008).
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A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).
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K. J. Resch, K. L. Pregnell, R. Prevedel, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and A. G. White, "Time-Reversal and Super-Resolving Phase Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 223601 (2007).
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T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316(5825), 726-729 (2007).
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K. J. Resch, J. L. O’Brien, T. J. Weinhold, K. Sanaka, B. P. Lanyon, N. K. Langford, and A. G. White, "Entanglement Generation by Fock-State Filtration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 203602 (2007).
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J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 120501 (2007).
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P. P. Rohde, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and T. C. Ralph, "Quantum-gate characterization in an extended Hilbert space," Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032306 (2005).
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G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. G. White, and S. D. Bartlett, "Demonstrating superior discrimination of locally prepared states using nonlocal Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220406 (2005).
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R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, H. F. Hofmann, T. Nagata, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "An Entanglement Filter," Science 323(5913), 483-485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316(5825), 726-729 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
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Ou, Z. Y.

B. H. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. X. Gong, Y. F. Huang, Z. Y. Ou, and G. C. Guo, "Demonstration of the three-photon de Broglie wavelength by projection measurement," Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023815 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozdemir, S. K.

T. Yamamoto, K. Hayashi, S. K. Ozdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Robust photonic entanglement distribution by state-independent encoding onto decoherence-free subspace," Nat. Photonics 2(8), 488-491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.

K. Sanaka, T. Jennewein, J. Pan, K. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental nonlinear sign shift for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 017902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

Politi, A.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pregnell, K. L.

K. J. Resch, K. L. Pregnell, R. Prevedel, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and A. G. White, "Time-Reversal and Super-Resolving Phase Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 223601 (2007).
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Prevedel, R.

K. J. Resch, K. L. Pregnell, R. Prevedel, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and A. G. White, "Time-Reversal and Super-Resolving Phase Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 223601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pryde, G. J.

K. J. Resch, K. L. Pregnell, R. Prevedel, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and A. G. White, "Time-Reversal and Super-Resolving Phase Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 223601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. G. White, and S. D. Bartlett, "Demonstrating superior discrimination of locally prepared states using nonlocal Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rohde, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and T. C. Ralph, "Quantum-gate characterization in an extended Hilbert space," Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

P. P. Rohde, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and T. C. Ralph, "Quantum-gate characterization in an extended Hilbert space," Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, "All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate," Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 030303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 120501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Resch, K.

K. Sanaka, T. Jennewein, J. Pan, K. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental nonlinear sign shift for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 017902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Resch, K. J.

B. P. Lanyon, T. J. Weinhold, N. K. Langford, J. L. O’Brien, K. J. Resch, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 060504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch, J. L. O’Brien, T. J. Weinhold, K. Sanaka, B. P. Lanyon, N. K. Langford, and A. G. White, "Entanglement Generation by Fock-State Filtration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 203602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch, K. L. Pregnell, R. Prevedel, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and A. G. White, "Time-Reversal and Super-Resolving Phase Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 223601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Sanaka, K. J. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Filtering Out Photonic Fock States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(8), 083601 (2006).
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Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S. H.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rohde, P. P.

P. P. Rohde, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and T. C. Ralph, "Quantum-gate characterization in an extended Hilbert space," Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, D.

E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanaka, K.

K. J. Resch, J. L. O’Brien, T. J. Weinhold, K. Sanaka, B. P. Lanyon, N. K. Langford, and A. G. White, "Entanglement Generation by Fock-State Filtration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 203602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Sanaka, K. J. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Filtering Out Photonic Fock States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(8), 083601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Sanaka, T. Jennewein, J. Pan, K. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental nonlinear sign shift for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 017902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, H. F. Hofmann, T. Nagata, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "An Entanglement Filter," Science 323(5913), 483-485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316(5825), 726-729 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

A. J. Shields, "Semiconductor quantum light sources," Nat. Photonics 1(4), 215-223 (2007).
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M. D’Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, "Two-Photon Diffraction and Quantum Lithography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(1), 013602 (2001).
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Spence, D. J.

Steinberg, A. M.

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, "Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state," Nature 429(6988), 161-164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, M. Y.

E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007).
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Sugimoto, N.

Sun, F. W.

B. H. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. X. Gong, Y. F. Huang, Z. Y. Ou, and G. C. Guo, "Demonstration of the three-photon de Broglie wavelength by projection measurement," Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023815 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, X. P. Xie, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "Correlated photonpair generation in reverse-proton-exchange PPLN waveguides with integrated mode demultiplexer at 10 GHz clock," Opt. Express 15(16), 10288-10293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, S.

R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, H. F. Hofmann, T. Nagata, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "An Entanglement Filter," Science 323(5913), 483-485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316(5825), 726-729 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, "Quantum Filter for Nonlocal Polarization Properties of Photonic Qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(14), 147901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343-348 (2007).
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N. Gisin and R. Thew, "Quantum communication," Nat. Photonics 1(3), 165-171 (2007).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77(1), 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez, R. M.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, "All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate," Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 030303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 120501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weinhold, T. J.

B. P. Lanyon, T. J. Weinhold, N. K. Langford, J. L. O’Brien, K. J. Resch, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 060504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch, J. L. O’Brien, T. J. Weinhold, K. Sanaka, B. P. Lanyon, N. K. Langford, and A. G. White, "Entanglement Generation by Fock-State Filtration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 203602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

White, A. G.

B. P. Lanyon, T. J. Weinhold, N. K. Langford, J. L. O’Brien, K. J. Resch, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 060504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch, J. L. O’Brien, T. J. Weinhold, K. Sanaka, B. P. Lanyon, N. K. Langford, and A. G. White, "Entanglement Generation by Fock-State Filtration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 203602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch, K. L. Pregnell, R. Prevedel, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and A. G. White, "Time-Reversal and Super-Resolving Phase Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 223601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. G. White, and S. D. Bartlett, "Demonstrating superior discrimination of locally prepared states using nonlocal Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77(1), 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C. P.

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum Interferometric Optical Lithography: Exploiting Entanglement to Beat the Diffraction Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M.

Withford, M. J.

Xie, X. P.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, K. Hayashi, S. K. Ozdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Robust photonic entanglement distribution by state-independent encoding onto decoherence-free subspace," Nat. Photonics 2(8), 488-491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, X. P. Xie, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "Correlated photonpair generation in reverse-proton-exchange PPLN waveguides with integrated mode demultiplexer at 10 GHz clock," Opt. Express 15(16), 10288-10293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

K. Sanaka, K. J. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Filtering Out Photonic Fock States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(8), 083601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Sanaka, T. Jennewein, J. Pan, K. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental nonlinear sign shift for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 017902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, X. P. Xie, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "Correlated photonpair generation in reverse-proton-exchange PPLN waveguides with integrated mode demultiplexer at 10 GHz clock," Opt. Express 15(16), 10288-10293 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77(1), 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin and R. Thew, "Quantum communication," Nat. Photonics 1(3), 165-171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Shields, "Semiconductor quantum light sources," Nat. Photonics 1(4), 215-223 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, K. Hayashi, S. K. Ozdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Robust photonic entanglement distribution by state-independent encoding onto decoherence-free subspace," Nat. Photonics 2(8), 488-491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, "Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state," Nature 429(6988), 161-164 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A Scheme for Efficient Quantum Computation with Linear Optics," Nature 409(6816), 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, "All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate," Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 030303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. X. Gong, Y. F. Huang, Z. Y. Ou, and G. C. Guo, "Demonstration of the three-photon de Broglie wavelength by projection measurement," Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023815 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rohde, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and T. C. Ralph, "Quantum-gate characterization in an extended Hilbert space," Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032306 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Sanaka, K. J. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Filtering Out Photonic Fock States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(8), 083601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch, J. L. O’Brien, T. J. Weinhold, K. Sanaka, B. P. Lanyon, N. K. Langford, and A. G. White, "Entanglement Generation by Fock-State Filtration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 203602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, "Quantum Filter for Nonlocal Polarization Properties of Photonic Qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(14), 147901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 120501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Lanyon, T. J. Weinhold, N. K. Langford, J. L. O’Brien, K. J. Resch, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 060504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sanaka, T. Jennewein, J. Pan, K. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental nonlinear sign shift for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 017902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum Interferometric Optical Lithography: Exploiting Entanglement to Beat the Diffraction Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2733-2736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Resch, K. L. Pregnell, R. Prevedel, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and A. G. White, "Time-Reversal and Super-Resolving Phase Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 223601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D’Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, "Two-Photon Diffraction and Quantum Lithography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(1), 013602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. G. White, and S. D. Bartlett, "Demonstrating superior discrimination of locally prepared states using nonlocal Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, "Quantum-Enhanced Measurements: Beating the Standard Quantum Limit," Science 306, 1330-1336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. O’Brien, "Optical Quantum Computing," Science 318(5856), 1567-1570 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316(5825), 726-729 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, H. F. Hofmann, T. Nagata, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "An Entanglement Filter," Science 323(5913), 483-485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fabrication and measurement of laser direct-write photonic quantum circuits. (a) A schematic of the femtosecond-laser direct-write process. (b) A refractive index (RI) profile of a typical waveguide where the writing laser was incident from the left. The white overlayed plots show the cross section of the RI profile at the peak. The distortion to the measured x-axis RI profile to the right of the peak is an artifact of the measurement method. (c) A schematic of an array of directional couplers fabricated by fs direct writing in a single fused silica chip and an optical micro-graph showing the central coupling region where the waveguides are separated by 10 µm. (d) Measurement setup based on spontaneous parametric down conversion of a continuous wave 402 nm laser diode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Quantum interference in a laser direct-write directional coupler. The number of coincident detections are shown as a function of the arrival delay between the two interfering photons. Error bars from Poissonian statistics are smaller than the point size and the fit is a Gaussian plus linear.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Quantum interference visibility as a function of coupling ratio. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility for couplers of various reflectivities η. Error bars are determined from fits such as those in Fig. 2 and are comparable to the point size.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Generalized quantum interference with three photons. (a) Measurement setup consisting of a SPDC source based on a frequency doubled Ti:Sapphire fs oscillator. (b) Generalized HOM dip for three photons. The number of coincident detections are shown as a function of the arrival delay between the two interfering photons.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

11AB 20CD02CD2 .
Videal=2η(1η)12η+2η2
21AB23|30CD33|12CD2303CD,

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