Abstract

Detection of esophageal disease in current clinical practice is limited to visualization of macroscopic epithelial morphology. In this work, we investigate high resolution autofluorescence imaging under ultra violet excitation to visualize microscopic epithelial changes related to disease progression using a bench top prototype microscope. The approach is based on the hypothesis that UV excitation light can only penetrate the superficial layer of cells resulting in autofluorescence images of the epithelial layer without using an additional image sectioning approach. The experiments were performed using ex vivo human esophagus biopsy specimens. The results indicate that cellular morphology information related to disease progression is attainable without tissue preparation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. P. Michalopoulou, J. T. Fitzgerald, C. Troppmann, and S. G. Demos, "Spectroscopic imaging for detection of ischemic injury in rat kidneys by use of changes in intrinsic optical properties," Appl. Opt. 44, 2024-2032 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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2009 (2)

G. Y. Lauwers, D. G. Forcione, N. S. Nishioka, V. Deshpande, M. Y. Lisovsky, W. R. Brugge, and M. Mino-Kenudson, "Novel endoscopic therapeutic modalities for superficial neoplasms arising in Barrett's esophagus: a primer for surgical pathologists," Mod Pathol. 22, 489-498 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wani, S. R. Puli, N. J. Shaheen, B. Westhoff, S. Slehria, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, "Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus After Endoscopic Ablative Therapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104, 502-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. I. Canto, K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, S. B. Jagannath, and S. V. Kantsevoy, "Low flow CO2-cryotherapy for high risk Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients with high grade dysplasia and early adenocarcinoma: A pilot trial of feasibility and safety," Gastrointest. Endosc. 67, Ab179-Ab180 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. R. DeMeester, "New options for the therapy of Barrett's high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal adenocarcinoma: Endoscopic mucosal resection and ablation versus vagal-sparing esophagectomy," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 85, S747-S750 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ekman, M. Dreilich, J. Lennartsson, B. Wallner, D. Brattstrom, M. Sundbom, and M. Bergqvist, "Esophageal cancer: current and emerging therapy modalities," Expert Rev. Anticanc. 8, 1433-1448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Trivers, S. A. Sabatino, and S. L. Stewart, "Trends in esophageal cancer incidence by histology, United States, 1998-2003," I. J.Cancer 123, 1422-1428 (2008).

C. Gheorghe, R. Iacob, G. Becheanu, and M. Dumbrava, "Confocal endomicroscopy for in vivo microscopic analysis of upper gastrointestinal tract premalignant and malignant lesions," J. Gastrointest. Liver 17, 95-100 (2008).

2007 (4)

M. A. Kara, R. S. DaCosta, C. J. Streutker, N. E. Marcon, J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and B. C. Wilson, "Characterization of tissue autofluorescence in Barrett's esophagus by confocal fluorescence microscopy," Dis. Esophagus 20, 141-150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Anagnostopoulos, K. Yao, P. Kaye, C. J. Hawkey, and K. Ragunath, "Novel endoscopic observation in Barrett's oesophagus using high resolution magnification endoscopy and narrow band imaging," Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 26, 501-507 (2007).
[PubMed]

W. L. Curvers, P. Fockens, J. J. Bergrnan, R. Singh, K. Ragunath, L. W. K. Song, K. K. Wang, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, "Endoscopic trimodal imaging improves the detection of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer (EC) in Barrett's esophagus: An international multicenter study," Gastroenterology 132, 2586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Mork, O. Al-Taie, F. Berlin, M. R. Kraus, and M. Scheurlen, "High recurrence rate of Barrett's epithelium during long-term follow-up after argon plasma coagulation," Scand. J. Gastroentero. 42, 23-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Peters, M. A. Kara, W. D. Rosmolen, F. J. W. ten Kate, K. K. Krishnadath, J. J. B. van Lanschot, P. Fockens, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, "Stepwise radical endoscopic resection is effective for complete removal of Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia: A prospective study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101, 1449-1457 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Lieber, S. Urayama, N. Rahim, R. Tu, R. Saroufeem, B. Reubner, and S. G. Demos, "Multimodal near infrared spectral imaging as an exploratory tool for dysplastic esophageal lesion identification," Opt. Express 14, 2211-2219 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

A. P. Michalopoulou, J. T. Fitzgerald, C. Troppmann, and S. G. Demos, "Spectroscopic imaging for detection of ischemic injury in rat kidneys by use of changes in intrinsic optical properties," Appl. Opt. 44, 2024-2032 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, C. A. Lieber, B. Lin, and R. Ramsamooj, "Imaging of tissue microstructures using a multimodal microscope design," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 752-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and G. N. J. Tytgat, "New developments in the endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 54, I38-I42 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Agarwal, S. G. Swisher, J. Ajani, K. Kelly, R. R. Komaki, E. Abu-Hamda, A. M. Correa, and J. A. Roth, "Differential response to preoperative chemoradiation and surgery in esophageal adenocarcinomas based on presence of Barrett's esophagus and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79, 1716-1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. J. Spechler and H. Barr, "Review article: screening and surveillance of Barrett's esophagus: what is a cost-effective framework?," Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 19, 49-53 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stolte, "The new Vienna classification of epithelial neoplasia of the gastrointestinal tract: advantages and disadvantages." Virchows. Arch. 442, 99-106 (2003).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Das, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, G. Isenberg, and J. A. Izatt, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract: a comparative study of optical coherence tomography versus high-frequency catheter probe EUS," Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 219-224 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

B. Banerjee, B. Miedema, and H. R. Chandrasekhar, "Emission spectra of colonic tissue and endogenous fluorophores," Am. J. Med. Sci. 316, 220-226 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abu-Hamda, E.

B. Agarwal, S. G. Swisher, J. Ajani, K. Kelly, R. R. Komaki, E. Abu-Hamda, A. M. Correa, and J. A. Roth, "Differential response to preoperative chemoradiation and surgery in esophageal adenocarcinomas based on presence of Barrett's esophagus and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79, 1716-1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, B.

B. Agarwal, S. G. Swisher, J. Ajani, K. Kelly, R. R. Komaki, E. Abu-Hamda, A. M. Correa, and J. A. Roth, "Differential response to preoperative chemoradiation and surgery in esophageal adenocarcinomas based on presence of Barrett's esophagus and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79, 1716-1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajani, J.

B. Agarwal, S. G. Swisher, J. Ajani, K. Kelly, R. R. Komaki, E. Abu-Hamda, A. M. Correa, and J. A. Roth, "Differential response to preoperative chemoradiation and surgery in esophageal adenocarcinomas based on presence of Barrett's esophagus and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79, 1716-1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Taie, O.

H. Mork, O. Al-Taie, F. Berlin, M. R. Kraus, and M. Scheurlen, "High recurrence rate of Barrett's epithelium during long-term follow-up after argon plasma coagulation," Scand. J. Gastroentero. 42, 23-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anagnostopoulos, G. K.

G. K. Anagnostopoulos, K. Yao, P. Kaye, C. J. Hawkey, and K. Ragunath, "Novel endoscopic observation in Barrett's oesophagus using high resolution magnification endoscopy and narrow band imaging," Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 26, 501-507 (2007).
[PubMed]

Backman, V.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, B.

B. Banerjee, B. Miedema, and H. R. Chandrasekhar, "Emission spectra of colonic tissue and endogenous fluorophores," Am. J. Med. Sci. 316, 220-226 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bansal, A.

S. Wani, S. R. Puli, N. J. Shaheen, B. Westhoff, S. Slehria, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, "Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus After Endoscopic Ablative Therapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104, 502-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

S. J. Spechler and H. Barr, "Review article: screening and surveillance of Barrett's esophagus: what is a cost-effective framework?," Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 19, 49-53 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becheanu, G.

C. Gheorghe, R. Iacob, G. Becheanu, and M. Dumbrava, "Confocal endomicroscopy for in vivo microscopic analysis of upper gastrointestinal tract premalignant and malignant lesions," J. Gastrointest. Liver 17, 95-100 (2008).

Bennett, R.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, J. J. G. H. M.

M. A. Kara, R. S. DaCosta, C. J. Streutker, N. E. Marcon, J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and B. C. Wilson, "Characterization of tissue autofluorescence in Barrett's esophagus by confocal fluorescence microscopy," Dis. Esophagus 20, 141-150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Peters, M. A. Kara, W. D. Rosmolen, F. J. W. ten Kate, K. K. Krishnadath, J. J. B. van Lanschot, P. Fockens, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, "Stepwise radical endoscopic resection is effective for complete removal of Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia: A prospective study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101, 1449-1457 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and G. N. J. Tytgat, "New developments in the endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 54, I38-I42 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergqvist, M.

S. Ekman, M. Dreilich, J. Lennartsson, B. Wallner, D. Brattstrom, M. Sundbom, and M. Bergqvist, "Esophageal cancer: current and emerging therapy modalities," Expert Rev. Anticanc. 8, 1433-1448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergrnan, J. J.

W. L. Curvers, P. Fockens, J. J. Bergrnan, R. Singh, K. Ragunath, L. W. K. Song, K. K. Wang, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, "Endoscopic trimodal imaging improves the detection of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer (EC) in Barrett's esophagus: An international multicenter study," Gastroenterology 132, 2586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berlin, F.

H. Mork, O. Al-Taie, F. Berlin, M. R. Kraus, and M. Scheurlen, "High recurrence rate of Barrett's epithelium during long-term follow-up after argon plasma coagulation," Scand. J. Gastroentero. 42, 23-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bigio, I.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bown, S. G.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brattstrom, D.

S. Ekman, M. Dreilich, J. Lennartsson, B. Wallner, D. Brattstrom, M. Sundbom, and M. Bergqvist, "Esophageal cancer: current and emerging therapy modalities," Expert Rev. Anticanc. 8, 1433-1448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bressner, J.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brugge, W. R.

G. Y. Lauwers, D. G. Forcione, N. S. Nishioka, V. Deshpande, M. Y. Lisovsky, W. R. Brugge, and M. Mino-Kenudson, "Novel endoscopic therapeutic modalities for superficial neoplasms arising in Barrett's esophagus: a primer for surgical pathologists," Mod Pathol. 22, 489-498 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canto, M. I.

M. I. Canto, K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, S. B. Jagannath, and S. V. Kantsevoy, "Low flow CO2-cryotherapy for high risk Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients with high grade dysplasia and early adenocarcinoma: A pilot trial of feasibility and safety," Gastrointest. Endosc. 67, Ab179-Ab180 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chak, A.

A. Das, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, G. Isenberg, and J. A. Izatt, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract: a comparative study of optical coherence tomography versus high-frequency catheter probe EUS," Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 219-224 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandrasekhar, H. R.

B. Banerjee, B. Miedema, and H. R. Chandrasekhar, "Emission spectra of colonic tissue and endogenous fluorophores," Am. J. Med. Sci. 316, 220-226 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, B. R.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Correa, A. M.

B. Agarwal, S. G. Swisher, J. Ajani, K. Kelly, R. R. Komaki, E. Abu-Hamda, A. M. Correa, and J. A. Roth, "Differential response to preoperative chemoradiation and surgery in esophageal adenocarcinomas based on presence of Barrett's esophagus and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79, 1716-1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curvers, W. L.

W. L. Curvers, P. Fockens, J. J. Bergrnan, R. Singh, K. Ragunath, L. W. K. Song, K. K. Wang, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, "Endoscopic trimodal imaging improves the detection of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer (EC) in Barrett's esophagus: An international multicenter study," Gastroenterology 132, 2586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DaCosta, R. S.

M. A. Kara, R. S. DaCosta, C. J. Streutker, N. E. Marcon, J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and B. C. Wilson, "Characterization of tissue autofluorescence in Barrett's esophagus by confocal fluorescence microscopy," Dis. Esophagus 20, 141-150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, A.

A. Das, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, G. Isenberg, and J. A. Izatt, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract: a comparative study of optical coherence tomography versus high-frequency catheter probe EUS," Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 219-224 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, S.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeMeester, S. R.

S. R. DeMeester, "New options for the therapy of Barrett's high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal adenocarcinoma: Endoscopic mucosal resection and ablation versus vagal-sparing esophagectomy," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 85, S747-S750 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demos, S. G.

Deshpande, V.

G. Y. Lauwers, D. G. Forcione, N. S. Nishioka, V. Deshpande, M. Y. Lisovsky, W. R. Brugge, and M. Mino-Kenudson, "Novel endoscopic therapeutic modalities for superficial neoplasms arising in Barrett's esophagus: a primer for surgical pathologists," Mod Pathol. 22, 489-498 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreilich, M.

S. Ekman, M. Dreilich, J. Lennartsson, B. Wallner, D. Brattstrom, M. Sundbom, and M. Bergqvist, "Esophageal cancer: current and emerging therapy modalities," Expert Rev. Anticanc. 8, 1433-1448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dumbrava, M.

C. Gheorghe, R. Iacob, G. Becheanu, and M. Dumbrava, "Confocal endomicroscopy for in vivo microscopic analysis of upper gastrointestinal tract premalignant and malignant lesions," J. Gastrointest. Liver 17, 95-100 (2008).

Dunbar, K. B.

M. I. Canto, K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, S. B. Jagannath, and S. V. Kantsevoy, "Low flow CO2-cryotherapy for high risk Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients with high grade dysplasia and early adenocarcinoma: A pilot trial of feasibility and safety," Gastrointest. Endosc. 67, Ab179-Ab180 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ekman, S.

S. Ekman, M. Dreilich, J. Lennartsson, B. Wallner, D. Brattstrom, M. Sundbom, and M. Bergqvist, "Esophageal cancer: current and emerging therapy modalities," Expert Rev. Anticanc. 8, 1433-1448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. A.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fearn, T.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, J. T.

Fitzgerald, R.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fockens, P.

W. L. Curvers, P. Fockens, J. J. Bergrnan, R. Singh, K. Ragunath, L. W. K. Song, K. K. Wang, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, "Endoscopic trimodal imaging improves the detection of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer (EC) in Barrett's esophagus: An international multicenter study," Gastroenterology 132, 2586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Peters, M. A. Kara, W. D. Rosmolen, F. J. W. ten Kate, K. K. Krishnadath, J. J. B. van Lanschot, P. Fockens, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, "Stepwise radical endoscopic resection is effective for complete removal of Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia: A prospective study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101, 1449-1457 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forcione, D. G.

G. Y. Lauwers, D. G. Forcione, N. S. Nishioka, V. Deshpande, M. Y. Lisovsky, W. R. Brugge, and M. Mino-Kenudson, "Novel endoscopic therapeutic modalities for superficial neoplasms arising in Barrett's esophagus: a primer for surgical pathologists," Mod Pathol. 22, 489-498 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geboes, K.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gheorghe, C.

C. Gheorghe, R. Iacob, G. Becheanu, and M. Dumbrava, "Confocal endomicroscopy for in vivo microscopic analysis of upper gastrointestinal tract premalignant and malignant lesions," J. Gastrointest. Liver 17, 95-100 (2008).

Halpern, E. F.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hawkey, C. J.

G. K. Anagnostopoulos, K. Yao, P. Kaye, C. J. Hawkey, and K. Ragunath, "Novel endoscopic observation in Barrett's oesophagus using high resolution magnification endoscopy and narrow band imaging," Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 26, 501-507 (2007).
[PubMed]

Iacob, R.

C. Gheorghe, R. Iacob, G. Becheanu, and M. Dumbrava, "Confocal endomicroscopy for in vivo microscopic analysis of upper gastrointestinal tract premalignant and malignant lesions," J. Gastrointest. Liver 17, 95-100 (2008).

Isenberg, G.

A. Das, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, G. Isenberg, and J. A. Izatt, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract: a comparative study of optical coherence tomography versus high-frequency catheter probe EUS," Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 219-224 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

A. Das, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, G. Isenberg, and J. A. Izatt, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract: a comparative study of optical coherence tomography versus high-frequency catheter probe EUS," Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 219-224 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagannath, S. B.

M. I. Canto, K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, S. B. Jagannath, and S. V. Kantsevoy, "Low flow CO2-cryotherapy for high risk Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients with high grade dysplasia and early adenocarcinoma: A pilot trial of feasibility and safety," Gastrointest. Endosc. 67, Ab179-Ab180 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kantsevoy, S. V.

M. I. Canto, K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, S. B. Jagannath, and S. V. Kantsevoy, "Low flow CO2-cryotherapy for high risk Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients with high grade dysplasia and early adenocarcinoma: A pilot trial of feasibility and safety," Gastrointest. Endosc. 67, Ab179-Ab180 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kara, M. A.

M. A. Kara, R. S. DaCosta, C. J. Streutker, N. E. Marcon, J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and B. C. Wilson, "Characterization of tissue autofluorescence in Barrett's esophagus by confocal fluorescence microscopy," Dis. Esophagus 20, 141-150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Peters, M. A. Kara, W. D. Rosmolen, F. J. W. ten Kate, K. K. Krishnadath, J. J. B. van Lanschot, P. Fockens, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, "Stepwise radical endoscopic resection is effective for complete removal of Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia: A prospective study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101, 1449-1457 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaye, P.

G. K. Anagnostopoulos, K. Yao, P. Kaye, C. J. Hawkey, and K. Ragunath, "Novel endoscopic observation in Barrett's oesophagus using high resolution magnification endoscopy and narrow band imaging," Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 26, 501-507 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kelly, K.

B. Agarwal, S. G. Swisher, J. Ajani, K. Kelly, R. R. Komaki, E. Abu-Hamda, A. M. Correa, and J. A. Roth, "Differential response to preoperative chemoradiation and surgery in esophageal adenocarcinomas based on presence of Barrett's esophagus and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79, 1716-1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kendall, C.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komaki, R. R.

B. Agarwal, S. G. Swisher, J. Ajani, K. Kelly, R. R. Komaki, E. Abu-Hamda, A. M. Correa, and J. A. Roth, "Differential response to preoperative chemoradiation and surgery in esophageal adenocarcinomas based on presence of Barrett's esophagus and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79, 1716-1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. R.

H. Mork, O. Al-Taie, F. Berlin, M. R. Kraus, and M. Scheurlen, "High recurrence rate of Barrett's epithelium during long-term follow-up after argon plasma coagulation," Scand. J. Gastroentero. 42, 23-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krishnadath, K. K.

F. P. Peters, M. A. Kara, W. D. Rosmolen, F. J. W. ten Kate, K. K. Krishnadath, J. J. B. van Lanschot, P. Fockens, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, "Stepwise radical endoscopic resection is effective for complete removal of Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia: A prospective study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101, 1449-1457 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauwers, G. Y.

G. Y. Lauwers, D. G. Forcione, N. S. Nishioka, V. Deshpande, M. Y. Lisovsky, W. R. Brugge, and M. Mino-Kenudson, "Novel endoscopic therapeutic modalities for superficial neoplasms arising in Barrett's esophagus: a primer for surgical pathologists," Mod Pathol. 22, 489-498 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lennartsson, J.

S. Ekman, M. Dreilich, J. Lennartsson, B. Wallner, D. Brattstrom, M. Sundbom, and M. Bergqvist, "Esophageal cancer: current and emerging therapy modalities," Expert Rev. Anticanc. 8, 1433-1448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q. B.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. A.

C. A. Lieber, S. Urayama, N. Rahim, R. Tu, R. Saroufeem, B. Reubner, and S. G. Demos, "Multimodal near infrared spectral imaging as an exploratory tool for dysplastic esophageal lesion identification," Opt. Express 14, 2211-2219 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Demos, C. A. Lieber, B. Lin, and R. Ramsamooj, "Imaging of tissue microstructures using a multimodal microscope design," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 752-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

S. G. Demos, C. A. Lieber, B. Lin, and R. Ramsamooj, "Imaging of tissue microstructures using a multimodal microscope design," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 752-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lisovsky, M. Y.

G. Y. Lauwers, D. G. Forcione, N. S. Nishioka, V. Deshpande, M. Y. Lisovsky, W. R. Brugge, and M. Mino-Kenudson, "Novel endoscopic therapeutic modalities for superficial neoplasms arising in Barrett's esophagus: a primer for surgical pathologists," Mod Pathol. 22, 489-498 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovat, L. B.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackenzie, G. D.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcon, N. E.

M. A. Kara, R. S. DaCosta, C. J. Streutker, N. E. Marcon, J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and B. C. Wilson, "Characterization of tissue autofluorescence in Barrett's esophagus by confocal fluorescence microscopy," Dis. Esophagus 20, 141-150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michalopoulou, A. P.

Miedema, B.

B. Banerjee, B. Miedema, and H. R. Chandrasekhar, "Emission spectra of colonic tissue and endogenous fluorophores," Am. J. Med. Sci. 316, 220-226 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

G. Y. Lauwers, D. G. Forcione, N. S. Nishioka, V. Deshpande, M. Y. Lisovsky, W. R. Brugge, and M. Mino-Kenudson, "Novel endoscopic therapeutic modalities for superficial neoplasms arising in Barrett's esophagus: a primer for surgical pathologists," Mod Pathol. 22, 489-498 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mork, H.

H. Mork, O. Al-Taie, F. Berlin, M. R. Kraus, and M. Scheurlen, "High recurrence rate of Barrett's epithelium during long-term follow-up after argon plasma coagulation," Scand. J. Gastroentero. 42, 23-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M. G.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

G. Y. Lauwers, D. G. Forcione, N. S. Nishioka, V. Deshpande, M. Y. Lisovsky, W. R. Brugge, and M. Mino-Kenudson, "Novel endoscopic therapeutic modalities for superficial neoplasms arising in Barrett's esophagus: a primer for surgical pathologists," Mod Pathol. 22, 489-498 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Novelli, M. R.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Donovan, M.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okolo, P.

M. I. Canto, K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, S. B. Jagannath, and S. V. Kantsevoy, "Low flow CO2-cryotherapy for high risk Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients with high grade dysplasia and early adenocarcinoma: A pilot trial of feasibility and safety," Gastrointest. Endosc. 67, Ab179-Ab180 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, F. P.

F. P. Peters, M. A. Kara, W. D. Rosmolen, F. J. W. ten Kate, K. K. Krishnadath, J. J. B. van Lanschot, P. Fockens, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, "Stepwise radical endoscopic resection is effective for complete removal of Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia: A prospective study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101, 1449-1457 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickard, D.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poneros, J. M.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Puli, S. R.

S. Wani, S. R. Puli, N. J. Shaheen, B. Westhoff, S. Slehria, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, "Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus After Endoscopic Ablative Therapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104, 502-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ragunath, K.

G. K. Anagnostopoulos, K. Yao, P. Kaye, C. J. Hawkey, and K. Ragunath, "Novel endoscopic observation in Barrett's oesophagus using high resolution magnification endoscopy and narrow band imaging," Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 26, 501-507 (2007).
[PubMed]

W. L. Curvers, P. Fockens, J. J. Bergrnan, R. Singh, K. Ragunath, L. W. K. Song, K. K. Wang, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, "Endoscopic trimodal imaging improves the detection of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer (EC) in Barrett's esophagus: An international multicenter study," Gastroenterology 132, 2586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rahim, N.

Ramsamooj, R.

S. G. Demos, C. A. Lieber, B. Lin, and R. Ramsamooj, "Imaging of tissue microstructures using a multimodal microscope design," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 752-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, A.

S. Wani, S. R. Puli, N. J. Shaheen, B. Westhoff, S. Slehria, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, "Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus After Endoscopic Ablative Therapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104, 502-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reubner, B.

Rollins, A. M.

A. Das, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, G. Isenberg, and J. A. Izatt, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract: a comparative study of optical coherence tomography versus high-frequency catheter probe EUS," Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 219-224 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosmolen, W. D.

F. P. Peters, M. A. Kara, W. D. Rosmolen, F. J. W. ten Kate, K. K. Krishnadath, J. J. B. van Lanschot, P. Fockens, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, "Stepwise radical endoscopic resection is effective for complete removal of Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia: A prospective study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101, 1449-1457 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, J. A.

B. Agarwal, S. G. Swisher, J. Ajani, K. Kelly, R. R. Komaki, E. Abu-Hamda, A. M. Correa, and J. A. Roth, "Differential response to preoperative chemoradiation and surgery in esophageal adenocarcinomas based on presence of Barrett's esophagus and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79, 1716-1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabatino, S. A.

K. F. Trivers, S. A. Sabatino, and S. L. Stewart, "Trends in esophageal cancer incidence by histology, United States, 1998-2003," I. J.Cancer 123, 1422-1428 (2008).

Saroufeem, R.

Sayana, H.

S. Wani, S. R. Puli, N. J. Shaheen, B. Westhoff, S. Slehria, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, "Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus After Endoscopic Ablative Therapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104, 502-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheurlen, M.

H. Mork, O. Al-Taie, F. Berlin, M. R. Kraus, and M. Scheurlen, "High recurrence rate of Barrett's epithelium during long-term follow-up after argon plasma coagulation," Scand. J. Gastroentero. 42, 23-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Selvasekar, C.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaheen, N. J.

S. Wani, S. R. Puli, N. J. Shaheen, B. Westhoff, S. Slehria, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, "Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus After Endoscopic Ablative Therapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104, 502-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, P.

S. Wani, S. R. Puli, N. J. Shaheen, B. Westhoff, S. Slehria, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, "Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus After Endoscopic Ablative Therapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104, 502-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shepherd, N.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, J. S.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

W. L. Curvers, P. Fockens, J. J. Bergrnan, R. Singh, K. Ragunath, L. W. K. Song, K. K. Wang, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, "Endoscopic trimodal imaging improves the detection of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer (EC) in Barrett's esophagus: An international multicenter study," Gastroenterology 132, 2586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sivak, M. V.

A. Das, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, G. Isenberg, and J. A. Izatt, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract: a comparative study of optical coherence tomography versus high-frequency catheter probe EUS," Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 219-224 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slehria, S.

S. Wani, S. R. Puli, N. J. Shaheen, B. Westhoff, S. Slehria, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, "Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus After Endoscopic Ablative Therapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104, 502-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, L. W. K.

W. L. Curvers, P. Fockens, J. J. Bergrnan, R. Singh, K. Ragunath, L. W. K. Song, K. K. Wang, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, "Endoscopic trimodal imaging improves the detection of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer (EC) in Barrett's esophagus: An international multicenter study," Gastroenterology 132, 2586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spechler, S. J.

S. J. Spechler and H. Barr, "Review article: screening and surveillance of Barrett's esophagus: what is a cost-effective framework?," Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 19, 49-53 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, S. L.

K. F. Trivers, S. A. Sabatino, and S. L. Stewart, "Trends in esophageal cancer incidence by histology, United States, 1998-2003," I. J.Cancer 123, 1422-1428 (2008).

Stolte, M.

M. Stolte, "The new Vienna classification of epithelial neoplasia of the gastrointestinal tract: advantages and disadvantages." Virchows. Arch. 442, 99-106 (2003).
[PubMed]

Stone, N.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streutker, C. J.

M. A. Kara, R. S. DaCosta, C. J. Streutker, N. E. Marcon, J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and B. C. Wilson, "Characterization of tissue autofluorescence in Barrett's esophagus by confocal fluorescence microscopy," Dis. Esophagus 20, 141-150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, D.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. J.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundbom, M.

S. Ekman, M. Dreilich, J. Lennartsson, B. Wallner, D. Brattstrom, M. Sundbom, and M. Bergqvist, "Esophageal cancer: current and emerging therapy modalities," Expert Rev. Anticanc. 8, 1433-1448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swisher, S. G.

B. Agarwal, S. G. Swisher, J. Ajani, K. Kelly, R. R. Komaki, E. Abu-Hamda, A. M. Correa, and J. A. Roth, "Differential response to preoperative chemoradiation and surgery in esophageal adenocarcinomas based on presence of Barrett's esophagus and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79, 1716-1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

ten Kate, F. J. W.

F. P. Peters, M. A. Kara, W. D. Rosmolen, F. J. W. ten Kate, K. K. Krishnadath, J. J. B. van Lanschot, P. Fockens, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, "Stepwise radical endoscopic resection is effective for complete removal of Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia: A prospective study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101, 1449-1457 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, G. A.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorpe, S. M.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trivers, K. F.

K. F. Trivers, S. A. Sabatino, and S. L. Stewart, "Trends in esophageal cancer incidence by histology, United States, 1998-2003," I. J.Cancer 123, 1422-1428 (2008).

Troppmann, C.

Tu, R.

Tytgat, G. N. J.

J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and G. N. J. Tytgat, "New developments in the endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 54, I38-I42 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urayama, S.

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Lanschot, J. J. B.

F. P. Peters, M. A. Kara, W. D. Rosmolen, F. J. W. ten Kate, K. K. Krishnadath, J. J. B. van Lanschot, P. Fockens, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, "Stepwise radical endoscopic resection is effective for complete removal of Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia: A prospective study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101, 1449-1457 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

W. L. Curvers, P. Fockens, J. J. Bergrnan, R. Singh, K. Ragunath, L. W. K. Song, K. K. Wang, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, "Endoscopic trimodal imaging improves the detection of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer (EC) in Barrett's esophagus: An international multicenter study," Gastroenterology 132, 2586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallner, B.

S. Ekman, M. Dreilich, J. Lennartsson, B. Wallner, D. Brattstrom, M. Sundbom, and M. Bergqvist, "Esophageal cancer: current and emerging therapy modalities," Expert Rev. Anticanc. 8, 1433-1448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. K.

W. L. Curvers, P. Fockens, J. J. Bergrnan, R. Singh, K. Ragunath, L. W. K. Song, K. K. Wang, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, "Endoscopic trimodal imaging improves the detection of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer (EC) in Barrett's esophagus: An international multicenter study," Gastroenterology 132, 2586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wani, S.

S. Wani, S. R. Puli, N. J. Shaheen, B. Westhoff, S. Slehria, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, "Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus After Endoscopic Ablative Therapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104, 502-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, B.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weng, S. F.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westhoff, B.

S. Wani, S. R. Puli, N. J. Shaheen, B. Westhoff, S. Slehria, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, "Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus After Endoscopic Ablative Therapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104, 502-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, V.

A. Das, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, G. Isenberg, and J. A. Izatt, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract: a comparative study of optical coherence tomography versus high-frequency catheter probe EUS," Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 219-224 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, J.

A. Das, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, G. Isenberg, and J. A. Izatt, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract: a comparative study of optical coherence tomography versus high-frequency catheter probe EUS," Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 219-224 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

M. A. Kara, R. S. DaCosta, C. J. Streutker, N. E. Marcon, J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and B. C. Wilson, "Characterization of tissue autofluorescence in Barrett's esophagus by confocal fluorescence microscopy," Dis. Esophagus 20, 141-150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfsen, H. C.

W. L. Curvers, P. Fockens, J. J. Bergrnan, R. Singh, K. Ragunath, L. W. K. Song, K. K. Wang, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, "Endoscopic trimodal imaging improves the detection of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer (EC) in Barrett's esophagus: An international multicenter study," Gastroenterology 132, 2586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, R. C. K.

A. Das, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, G. Isenberg, and J. A. Izatt, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract: a comparative study of optical coherence tomography versus high-frequency catheter probe EUS," Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 219-224 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J. G.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y. Z.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L. M.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, K.

G. K. Anagnostopoulos, K. Yao, P. Kaye, C. J. Hawkey, and K. Ragunath, "Novel endoscopic observation in Barrett's oesophagus using high resolution magnification endoscopy and narrow band imaging," Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 26, 501-507 (2007).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. F.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. (2)

S. J. Spechler and H. Barr, "Review article: screening and surveillance of Barrett's esophagus: what is a cost-effective framework?," Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 19, 49-53 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Anagnostopoulos, K. Yao, P. Kaye, C. J. Hawkey, and K. Ragunath, "Novel endoscopic observation in Barrett's oesophagus using high resolution magnification endoscopy and narrow band imaging," Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 26, 501-507 (2007).
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Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2)

S. Wani, S. R. Puli, N. J. Shaheen, B. Westhoff, S. Slehria, A. Bansal, A. Rastogi, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, "Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus After Endoscopic Ablative Therapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 104, 502-513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Peters, M. A. Kara, W. D. Rosmolen, F. J. W. ten Kate, K. K. Krishnadath, J. J. B. van Lanschot, P. Fockens, and J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, "Stepwise radical endoscopic resection is effective for complete removal of Barrett's esophagus with early neoplasia: A prospective study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 101, 1449-1457 (2006).
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Am. J. Med. Sci. (1)

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S. R. DeMeester, "New options for the therapy of Barrett's high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal adenocarcinoma: Endoscopic mucosal resection and ablation versus vagal-sparing esophagectomy," Ann. Thorac. Surg. 85, S747-S750 (2008).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Clin. Chem. (1)

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. H. (1)

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clin. Gastroenterol. H. 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dis. Esophagus (1)

M. A. Kara, R. S. DaCosta, C. J. Streutker, N. E. Marcon, J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and B. C. Wilson, "Characterization of tissue autofluorescence in Barrett's esophagus by confocal fluorescence microscopy," Dis. Esophagus 20, 141-150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Anticanc. (1)

S. Ekman, M. Dreilich, J. Lennartsson, B. Wallner, D. Brattstrom, M. Sundbom, and M. Bergqvist, "Esophageal cancer: current and emerging therapy modalities," Expert Rev. Anticanc. 8, 1433-1448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterology (2)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Curvers, P. Fockens, J. J. Bergrnan, R. Singh, K. Ragunath, L. W. K. Song, K. K. Wang, H. C. Wolfsen, and M. B. Wallace, "Endoscopic trimodal imaging improves the detection of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer (EC) in Barrett's esophagus: An international multicenter study," Gastroenterology 132, 2586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

A. Das, M. V. Sivak, A. Chak, R. C. K. Wong, V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, J. Willis, G. Isenberg, and J. A. Izatt, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract: a comparative study of optical coherence tomography versus high-frequency catheter probe EUS," Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 219-224 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Canto, K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, S. B. Jagannath, and S. V. Kantsevoy, "Low flow CO2-cryotherapy for high risk Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients with high grade dysplasia and early adenocarcinoma: A pilot trial of feasibility and safety," Gastrointest. Endosc. 67, Ab179-Ab180 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gut (2)

J. J. G. H. M. Bergman, and G. N. J. Tytgat, "New developments in the endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's oesophagus," Gut 54, I38-I42 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O'Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, "Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus," Gut 55, 1078-1083 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J.Cancer (1)

K. F. Trivers, S. A. Sabatino, and S. L. Stewart, "Trends in esophageal cancer incidence by histology, United States, 1998-2003," I. J.Cancer 123, 1422-1428 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. G. Demos, C. A. Lieber, B. Lin, and R. Ramsamooj, "Imaging of tissue microstructures using a multimodal microscope design," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 752-758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gastrointest. Liver (1)

C. Gheorghe, R. Iacob, G. Becheanu, and M. Dumbrava, "Confocal endomicroscopy for in vivo microscopic analysis of upper gastrointestinal tract premalignant and malignant lesions," J. Gastrointest. Liver 17, 95-100 (2008).

J. Pathol. (1)

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mod Pathol. (1)

G. Y. Lauwers, D. G. Forcione, N. S. Nishioka, V. Deshpande, M. Y. Lisovsky, W. R. Brugge, and M. Mino-Kenudson, "Novel endoscopic therapeutic modalities for superficial neoplasms arising in Barrett's esophagus: a primer for surgical pathologists," Mod Pathol. 22, 489-498 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Scand. J. Gastroentero. (1)

H. Mork, O. Al-Taie, F. Berlin, M. R. Kraus, and M. Scheurlen, "High recurrence rate of Barrett's epithelium during long-term follow-up after argon plasma coagulation," Scand. J. Gastroentero. 42, 23-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Virchows. Arch. (1)

M. Stolte, "The new Vienna classification of epithelial neoplasia of the gastrointestinal tract: advantages and disadvantages." Virchows. Arch. 442, 99-106 (2003).
[PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Nakao, S. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, Y. Takemura, S. Oka, M. Yoshihara, and K. Chayama, "Optical biopsy of early gastroesophageal cancer by catheter-based reflectance-type laser-scanning confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt.  13, 054043-1 - 054043-5 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic depicting the autofluorescence microscopy system. Inset illustrates specimen placement.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Image of a 300 µm×270 µm area of a human esophagus columnar epithelium specimen under a) 266 nm, b) 355 nm, c) 408 nm excitation, and d) white light illumination.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Autofluorescence images under 266 nm excitation of a 434 µm×301 µm section of human esophagus of a) squamous mucosa, b) glandular mucosa.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Autofluorescence image of human a) Barrett’s esophagus, b) dysplastic glandular epithelium under 266 nm excitation. Arrows designate what could be goblet cells

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Autofluorescence images of human esophagus a) high-grade dysplasia, b) adenocarcinoma.

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