Abstract

We propose a maximum likelihood detection (MLD) technique that incorporates beat noise estimation (BNE). MLD can minimize a bit error rate theoretically because a bit pattern with the maximum posteriori probability is selected as the detected signals. Also, BNE can extract a specific beat noise from mixed multiple signals using a correlation. By combining these techniques, the influence of beat noise is reduced and the bit error rate becomes lower in an OCDM-based system. This paper describes the MLD algorithm and the BNE design. And numerical simulation results confirm the validity and performance of this technique.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, "The Role of Optical CDMA in Access Networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Zaccarin and M. Kavehrad, "An Optical CDMA System Based on Spectral Encoding of LED," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 479-482 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Huang, K. Kitayama, K. Baba, and M. Murata, "Impact of MAI Noise Cycle Attack on OCDMA-based Optical Networks and its Diagnostic/Mitigation Algorithm," in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (IEEE, 2007) pp. 2412-2416.
  5. S. Kaneko, H. Suzuki, N. Miki, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, "1-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency OCDM Technique Based on Multi-frequency Homodyne Detection and Optical OFDM," European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 5, PS- P088, 203-204 (2007).
  6. E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, and D. P. Taylor, "Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems," Electron. Lett. 31, 1469-1470 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Tancevski and L. A. Rusch, "Impact of the Beat Noise on the Performance of 2-D Optical CDMA Systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of Backreflection on Upstream Transmission in WDM Single-Fiber Loopback Access Networks," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Lee, H. Izadpanah, R. Menendez, S. Etemad, and P. J. Delfyett, "Synchronized Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers and Applications in Coherent Communications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 908-921 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Winters and S. Kasturia, "Constrained Maximum-Likelihood Detection for High-Speed Fiber-Optic Systems," in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (IEEE, 1991) pp. 1574-1579.
  11. A. F¨arbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, J. -P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, and C. Glingener, "Performance of a 10.7 Gb/s Receiver with Digital Equaliser using Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation," European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) PD-Th. 4.1.5 (2004).
  12. P. G. Hoel, Elementary Statistics, 2nd edition (John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1966)

2008

W. Lee, H. Izadpanah, R. Menendez, S. Etemad, and P. J. Delfyett, "Synchronized Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers and Applications in Coherent Communications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 908-921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaneko, H. Suzuki, N. Miki, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, "1-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency OCDM Technique Based on Multi-frequency Homodyne Detection and Optical OFDM," European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 5, PS- P088, 203-204 (2007).

2006

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of Backreflection on Upstream Transmission in WDM Single-Fiber Loopback Access Networks," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, "The Role of Optical CDMA in Access Networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Tancevski and L. A. Rusch, "Impact of the Beat Noise on the Performance of 2-D Optical CDMA Systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, and D. P. Taylor, "Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems," Electron. Lett. 31, 1469-1470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Zaccarin and M. Kavehrad, "An Optical CDMA System Based on Spectral Encoding of LED," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 479-482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cong, W.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

W. Lee, H. Izadpanah, R. Menendez, S. Etemad, and P. J. Delfyett, "Synchronized Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers and Applications in Coherent Communications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 908-921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Z.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Etemad, S.

W. Lee, H. Izadpanah, R. Menendez, S. Etemad, and P. J. Delfyett, "Synchronized Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers and Applications in Coherent Communications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 908-921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N. K.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of Backreflection on Upstream Transmission in WDM Single-Fiber Loopback Access Networks," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gough, P. T.

E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, and D. P. Taylor, "Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems," Electron. Lett. 31, 1469-1470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, V. J.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of Backreflection on Upstream Transmission in WDM Single-Fiber Loopback Access Networks," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Izadpanah, H.

W. Lee, H. Izadpanah, R. Menendez, S. Etemad, and P. J. Delfyett, "Synchronized Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers and Applications in Coherent Communications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 908-921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, S.

S. Kaneko, H. Suzuki, N. Miki, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, "1-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency OCDM Technique Based on Multi-frequency Homodyne Detection and Optical OFDM," European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 5, PS- P088, 203-204 (2007).

Kani, J.

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of Backreflection on Upstream Transmission in WDM Single-Fiber Loopback Access Networks," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kavehrad, M.

D. Zaccarin and M. Kavehrad, "An Optical CDMA System Based on Spectral Encoding of LED," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 479-482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

S. Kaneko, H. Suzuki, N. Miki, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, "1-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency OCDM Technique Based on Multi-frequency Homodyne Detection and Optical OFDM," European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 5, PS- P088, 203-204 (2007).

Kolner, B. H.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

W. Lee, H. Izadpanah, R. Menendez, S. Etemad, and P. J. Delfyett, "Synchronized Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers and Applications in Coherent Communications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 908-921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Menendez, R.

W. Lee, H. Izadpanah, R. Menendez, S. Etemad, and P. J. Delfyett, "Synchronized Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers and Applications in Coherent Communications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 908-921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miki, N.

S. Kaneko, H. Suzuki, N. Miki, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, "1-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency OCDM Technique Based on Multi-frequency Homodyne Detection and Optical OFDM," European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 5, PS- P088, 203-204 (2007).

Rusch, L. A.

L. Tancevski and L. A. Rusch, "Impact of the Beat Noise on the Performance of 2-D Optical CDMA Systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, "The Role of Optical CDMA in Access Networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. D. J.

E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, and D. P. Taylor, "Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems," Electron. Lett. 31, 1469-1470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stok, A.

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, "The Role of Optical CDMA in Access Networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

S. Kaneko, H. Suzuki, N. Miki, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, "1-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency OCDM Technique Based on Multi-frequency Homodyne Detection and Optical OFDM," European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 5, PS- P088, 203-204 (2007).

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of Backreflection on Upstream Transmission in WDM Single-Fiber Loopback Access Networks," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tan?cevski, L.

L. Tancevski and L. A. Rusch, "Impact of the Beat Noise on the Performance of 2-D Optical CDMA Systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. P.

E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, and D. P. Taylor, "Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems," Electron. Lett. 31, 1469-1470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsubokawa, M.

S. Kaneko, H. Suzuki, N. Miki, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, "1-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency OCDM Technique Based on Multi-frequency Homodyne Detection and Optical OFDM," European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 5, PS- P088, 203-204 (2007).

Yang, C.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zaccarin, D.

D. Zaccarin and M. Kavehrad, "An Optical CDMA System Based on Spectral Encoding of LED," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 479-482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

E. D. J. Smith, P. T. Gough, and D. P. Taylor, "Noise limits of optical spectral-encoding CDMA systems," Electron. Lett. 31, 1469-1470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett.

L. Tancevski and L. A. Rusch, "Impact of the Beat Noise on the Performance of 2-D Optical CDMA Systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, "The Role of Optical CDMA in Access Networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 83-87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s Capacity SPECTS O-CDMA Network TestbedWith Enhanced Spectral Efficiency Through Forward Error Correction," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of Backreflection on Upstream Transmission in WDM Single-Fiber Loopback Access Networks," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, H. Izadpanah, R. Menendez, S. Etemad, and P. J. Delfyett, "Synchronized Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers and Applications in Coherent Communications," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 908-921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. Zaccarin and M. Kavehrad, "An Optical CDMA System Based on Spectral Encoding of LED," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 479-482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

PS

S. Kaneko, H. Suzuki, N. Miki, H. Kimura, and M. Tsubokawa, "1-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency OCDM Technique Based on Multi-frequency Homodyne Detection and Optical OFDM," European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) 5, PS- P088, 203-204 (2007).

Other

S. Huang, K. Kitayama, K. Baba, and M. Murata, "Impact of MAI Noise Cycle Attack on OCDMA-based Optical Networks and its Diagnostic/Mitigation Algorithm," in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (IEEE, 2007) pp. 2412-2416.

J. H. Winters and S. Kasturia, "Constrained Maximum-Likelihood Detection for High-Speed Fiber-Optic Systems," in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (IEEE, 1991) pp. 1574-1579.

A. F¨arbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, J. -P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, and C. Glingener, "Performance of a 10.7 Gb/s Receiver with Digital Equaliser using Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation," European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) PD-Th. 4.1.5 (2004).

P. G. Hoel, Elementary Statistics, 2nd edition (John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1966)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example OCDM system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Influence of beat noise on BER characteristics.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Proposed detector.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Changes of signal points for bit pattern for two users.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

BNE configuration.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

How to estimate specific beat noise b 12.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Diagram of LPF characteristics for τ.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Experimental system.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

BER characteristics for τ for three users, SNR=18 dB.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

BER characteristics for two users, τ=2.22 ns.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

BER characteristics for three users, τ=2.78 ns.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Relationship between bit patterns and received signals including beat and Gaussian noises.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Si,tx(t)=ai (t) Ai Σk=1M cik · c o s (2πfikt+ϕik)
Sk,rx=Σi=1Ncik2ai2Ai22 +Σi=1N1Σj=i+1N cik ai Ai cjk aj Aj bijk +xk
bijk=c o s (2π(fikfjk)t+(ϕikϕjk))
Pr(x)=12πσ e x p (x22σ2)
arg{ai} max {ΠkPr(Sk,rxΣi=1Ncikai2Σi=1N1Σj=i+1Ncikaicjkajb̂ijk)}
argmin{ai}{Σk(Sk,rxΣi=1Ncikai2Σi=1N1Σj=i+1Ncikaicjkajb̂ijk)2}
b̂ijk(t)=1τt ettτ {Sk,rx(t)Sest(t)}uij(t) d t
uij(t)= {α,aiajal=1β,aiajal=1(li,lj)γ,others
{ 18(α+β)=1,forb1218(β+γ)=0,forb13orb2318(α+β+6γ)=0,forx̅1
uij(t)={α=203,aiaja̅l=1β=43,aiajal=1(li,lj)γ=43,others
fc=12πτ

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