Abstract

We demonstrate warm target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for the fragmentation dynamics of the warm hydrogen molecules at room temperature. The thermal movement effect of the warm molecule is removed by using a correction algorithm in the momentum space. Based on the reconstructed three-dimensional momentum vectors as well as the kinetic energy release spectra, different vibrational states of the H+ 2 ground state are clearly visible and the internuclear separation for charge resonance enhanced ionization of the second electron is identified. The results show adequate accordance with the former experiments using other techniques.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics," Phys. Rep. 330, 95-192 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C.L. Cocke, X.M. Tong and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses," P hys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. D. Esry, A. M. Sayler, P. Q. Wang, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, "Above Threshold Coulomb Explosion of Molecules in Intense Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,013003 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, "Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883-1886 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, "Role of Electron Localization in Intense-Field Molecular Ionization, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2819-2822 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, "Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers," Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511-R2514 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-Field Dissociation and Ionization of H2+ using Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Staudte, C. L.  Cocke, M. H. Prior, A. Belkacem, C. Ray, H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, and U. Saalmann, "Observation of a nearly isotropic, high-energy Coulomb explosion group in the fragmentation of D2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 65, 020703 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski and K. Codling, "One and two-color studies of the dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion of H2 with intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 305755-5772 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. J. Frasinski, K. Codling, and P. A. Hatherly, "Covariance Mapping: A Correlation Method Applied to Multiphoton Multiple Ionization," Science 246, 1029-1031 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Hering and C. Comaggia, "Coulomb explosion of N2 and CO2 using linearly and circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2836-2843 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Polarization effects on nonsequential double ionization of molecular fragments in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043402 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Vertical and nonvertical transitions in triple-ionization-induced dissociation of diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 74, 065403 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. D. G. Walsh, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "The dynamical behavior of H2 and D2 in a strong, femtosecond, titanium:sapphire laser field," J Phys.B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 2167-2175 (1997).

2008 (2)

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Polarization effects on nonsequential double ionization of molecular fragments in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Vertical and nonvertical transitions in triple-ionization-induced dissociation of diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 74, 065403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Esry, A. M. Sayler, P. Q. Wang, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, "Above Threshold Coulomb Explosion of Molecules in Intense Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,013003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C.L. Cocke, X.M. Tong and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses," P hys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Staudte, C. L.  Cocke, M. H. Prior, A. Belkacem, C. Ray, H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, and U. Saalmann, "Observation of a nearly isotropic, high-energy Coulomb explosion group in the fragmentation of D2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 65, 020703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics," Phys. Rep. 330, 95-192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

P. Hering and C. Comaggia, "Coulomb explosion of N2 and CO2 using linearly and circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2836-2843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-Field Dissociation and Ionization of H2+ using Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski and K. Codling, "One and two-color studies of the dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion of H2 with intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 305755-5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. D. G. Walsh, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "The dynamical behavior of H2 and D2 in a strong, femtosecond, titanium:sapphire laser field," J Phys.B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 2167-2175 (1997).

1995 (2)

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, "Role of Electron Localization in Intense-Field Molecular Ionization, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2819-2822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, "Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers," Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511-R2514 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, "Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883-1886 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

L. J. Frasinski, K. Codling, and P. A. Hatherly, "Covariance Mapping: A Correlation Method Applied to Multiphoton Multiple Ionization," Science 246, 1029-1031 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afaneh, F.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alnaser, A. S.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alnaser, S.

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C.L. Cocke, X.M. Tong and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses," P hys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bandrauk, A. D.

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, "Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers," Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511-R2514 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkacem, A.

Staudte, C. L.  Cocke, M. H. Prior, A. Belkacem, C. Ray, H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, and U. Saalmann, "Observation of a nearly isotropic, high-energy Coulomb explosion group in the fragmentation of D2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 65, 020703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benis, E. P.

S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C.L. Cocke, X.M. Tong and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses," P hys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Itzhak,

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Itzhak, I.

B. D. Esry, A. M. Sayler, P. Q. Wang, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, "Above Threshold Coulomb Explosion of Molecules in Intense Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,013003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, "Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883-1886 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carnes, K. D.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Esry, A. M. Sayler, P. Q. Wang, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, "Above Threshold Coulomb Explosion of Molecules in Intense Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,013003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

T. D. G. Walsh, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "The dynamical behavior of H2 and D2 in a strong, femtosecond, titanium:sapphire laser field," J Phys.B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 2167-2175 (1997).

Chong, H. W.

Staudte, C. L.  Cocke, M. H. Prior, A. Belkacem, C. Ray, H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, and U. Saalmann, "Observation of a nearly isotropic, high-energy Coulomb explosion group in the fragmentation of D2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 65, 020703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cocke, C. L.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cocke, C.L.

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C.L. Cocke, X.M. Tong and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses," P hys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Codling, K.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski and K. Codling, "One and two-color studies of the dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion of H2 with intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 305755-5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Frasinski, K. Codling, and P. A. Hatherly, "Covariance Mapping: A Correlation Method Applied to Multiphoton Multiple Ionization," Science 246, 1029-1031 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comaggia, C.

P. Hering and C. Comaggia, "Coulomb explosion of N2 and CO2 using linearly and circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2836-2843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, "Role of Electron Localization in Intense-Field Molecular Ionization, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2819-2822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czasch, A.

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dimopoulou, C.

Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dörner, R.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics," Phys. Rep. 330, 95-192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergler, T.

Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Esry, B. D.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Esry, A. M. Sayler, P. Q. Wang, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, "Above Threshold Coulomb Explosion of Molecules in Intense Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,013003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuerstein, B.

Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frasinski, L. J.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski and K. Codling, "One and two-color studies of the dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion of H2 with intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 305755-5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Frasinski, K. Codling, and P. A. Hatherly, "Covariance Mapping: A Correlation Method Applied to Multiphoton Multiple Ionization," Science 246, 1029-1031 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, E.

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghimire, S.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G. N.

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-Field Dissociation and Ionization of H2+ using Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glover, T. E.

Staudte, C. L.  Cocke, M. H. Prior, A. Belkacem, C. Ray, H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, and U. Saalmann, "Observation of a nearly isotropic, high-energy Coulomb explosion group in the fragmentation of D2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 65, 020703 (2002).
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Guo, C.

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Polarization effects on nonsequential double ionization of molecular fragments in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Vertical and nonvertical transitions in triple-ionization-induced dissociation of diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 74, 065403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-Field Dissociation and Ionization of H2+ using Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, K.

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatherly, P. A.

L. J. Frasinski, K. Codling, and P. A. Hatherly, "Covariance Mapping: A Correlation Method Applied to Multiphoton Multiple Ionization," Science 246, 1029-1031 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hering, P.

P. Hering and C. Comaggia, "Coulomb explosion of N2 and CO2 using linearly and circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2836-2843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ilkov, F. A.

T. D. G. Walsh, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "The dynamical behavior of H2 and D2 in a strong, femtosecond, titanium:sapphire laser field," J Phys.B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 2167-2175 (1997).

Ivanov, M. Y.

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, "Role of Electron Localization in Intense-Field Molecular Ionization, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2819-2822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagutzki, O.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics," Phys. Rep. 330, 95-192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jahnke, T.

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H.C.

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langley, A. J.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski and K. Codling, "One and two-color studies of the dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion of H2 with intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 305755-5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, M.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-Field Dissociation and Ionization of H2+ using Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C.L. Cocke, X.M. Tong and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses," P hys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maharjan, C. M.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergel, V.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics," Phys. Rep. 330, 95-192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshammer, R.

Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics," Phys. Rep. 330, 95-192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, "Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883-1886 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M.M.

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neira, J.

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-Field Dissociation and Ionization of H2+ using Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osipov, T.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C.L. Cocke, X.M. Tong and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses," P hys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Posthumus, J. H.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski and K. Codling, "One and two-color studies of the dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion of H2 with intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 305755-5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prior, M. H.

Staudte, C. L.  Cocke, M. H. Prior, A. Belkacem, C. Ray, H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, and U. Saalmann, "Observation of a nearly isotropic, high-energy Coulomb explosion group in the fragmentation of D2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 65, 020703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ranitovic, P.

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray, C.

Staudte, C. L.  Cocke, M. H. Prior, A. Belkacem, C. Ray, H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, and U. Saalmann, "Observation of a nearly isotropic, high-energy Coulomb explosion group in the fragmentation of D2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 65, 020703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rudenko,

Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saalmann, U.

Staudte, C. L.  Cocke, M. H. Prior, A. Belkacem, C. Ray, H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, and U. Saalmann, "Observation of a nearly isotropic, high-energy Coulomb explosion group in the fragmentation of D2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 65, 020703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, A.S.

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayler, A. M.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Esry, A. M. Sayler, P. Q. Wang, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, "Above Threshold Coulomb Explosion of Molecules in Intense Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,013003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Böcking, H.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics," Phys. Rep. 330, 95-192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlein, R. W.

Staudte, C. L.  Cocke, M. H. Prior, A. Belkacem, C. Ray, H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, and U. Saalmann, "Observation of a nearly isotropic, high-energy Coulomb explosion group in the fragmentation of D2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 65, 020703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schröter, C. D.

Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, D. W.

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, "Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883-1886 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seideman, T.

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, "Role of Electron Localization in Intense-Field Molecular Ionization, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2819-2822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shan, B.

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C.L. Cocke, X.M. Tong and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses," P hys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spielberger, L.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics," Phys. Rep. 330, 95-192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Staudte,

Staudte, C. L.  Cocke, M. H. Prior, A. Belkacem, C. Ray, H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, and U. Saalmann, "Observation of a nearly isotropic, high-energy Coulomb explosion group in the fragmentation of D2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 65, 020703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Staudte, A.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski and K. Codling, "One and two-color studies of the dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion of H2 with intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 305755-5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. K.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski and K. Codling, "One and two-color studies of the dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion of H2 with intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 305755-5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. R.

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski and K. Codling, "One and two-color studies of the dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion of H2 with intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 305755-5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. M.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X.M.

S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C.L. Cocke, X.M. Tong and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses," P hys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics," Phys. Rep. 330, 95-192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, B.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, M.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, S.

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, B.

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, T. D. G.

T. D. G. Walsh, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "The dynamical behavior of H2 and D2 in a strong, femtosecond, titanium:sapphire laser field," J Phys.B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 2167-2175 (1997).

Wang, P. Q.

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Esry, A. M. Sayler, P. Q. Wang, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, "Above Threshold Coulomb Explosion of Molecules in Intense Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,013003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, Th.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wech, A.

S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C.L. Cocke, X.M. Tong and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses," P hys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weckenbrock, M.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Polarization effects on nonsequential double ionization of molecular fragments in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Vertical and nonvertical transitions in triple-ionization-induced dissociation of diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 74, 065403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zavriyev, A.

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, "Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883-1886 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Polarization effects on nonsequential double ionization of molecular fragments in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Vertical and nonvertical transitions in triple-ionization-induced dissociation of diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 74, 065403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, T.

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, "Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers," Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511-R2514 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

T. D. G. Walsh, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "The dynamical behavior of H2 and D2 in a strong, femtosecond, titanium:sapphire laser field," J Phys.B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 2167-2175 (1997).

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys (2)

Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, C. Dimopoulou, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 38, 487-501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Thompson, M. K. Thomas, P. F. Taday, J. H. Posthumus, A. J. Langley, L. J. Frasinski and K. Codling, "One and two-color studies of the dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion of H2 with intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys 305755-5772 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P hys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C.L. Cocke, X.M. Tong and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses," P hys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, "Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics," Phys. Rep. 330, 95-192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

Ben-Itzhak, P. Q. Wang, A. M. Sayler, K. D. Carnes, M. Leonard, B. D. Esry, A. S. Alnaser, B. Ulrich, X. M. Tong, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, T. Osipov, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, "Elusive enhanced ionization structure for H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 78, 063419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, "Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers," Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511-R2514 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, C. L.  Cocke, M. H. Prior, A. Belkacem, C. Ray, H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, and U. Saalmann, "Observation of a nearly isotropic, high-energy Coulomb explosion group in the fragmentation of D2 by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 65, 020703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Hering and C. Comaggia, "Coulomb explosion of N2 and CO2 using linearly and circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2836-2843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Polarization effects on nonsequential double ionization of molecular fragments in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Zeng, and C. Guo, "Vertical and nonvertical transitions in triple-ionization-induced dissociation of diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 74, 065403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to Control of H2 Coulomb Explosion in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-Field Dissociation and Ionization of H2+ using Ultrashort Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, "Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1883-1886 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, "Role of Electron Localization in Intense-Field Molecular Ionization, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2819-2822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Esry, A. M. Sayler, P. Q. Wang, K. D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, "Above Threshold Coulomb Explosion of Molecules in Intense Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,013003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. Gagnon, A.S. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, B. Walker, M.M. Murnane,and H.C. Kapteyn, "Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 063102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

L. J. Frasinski, K. Codling, and P. A. Hatherly, "Covariance Mapping: A Correlation Method Applied to Multiphoton Multiple Ionization," Science 246, 1029-1031 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the experimental apparatus. (b) Potential energy curves for H2 and H+ 2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Time-of-flight spectra of H2 at different driving intensities, normalized by using the H+ 2 peaks. TOF: time-of-flight, BS: bond softening, ATD: above-threshold dissociation, CREI: charge resonance enhanced ionization. (b) The photoion-photoion coincidence spectrum.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The momentum distributions of the Coulomb explosion induced fragments H+ with and without software cooling.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured and fitted dissociation energy of the single-ionization-induced H+ fragmentation at a driving intensity of 7.5×1013 W/cm2. (b) The charge resonance enhanced ionization probability as a function of internuclear separation. The inset is the Edisso as well as the ECERI spectrum of H+.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v1=(1133.0,1133.0,24063.2+1133.0)m/sv2=(1133.0,1133.0,24063.2+1133.0)m/s .
v1'=v1(v1+v2)2=(v1v2)2=(0,0,24063.2)m/sv2'=v2(v1+v2)2=(v2v1)2=(0,0,24063.2)m/s ,

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