Abstract

Four-quadrature spectral interferometry using balanced coherent detection enables single-shot full-field characterization of complex-shaped optical waveforms with near quantum-limited sensitivity. A 90° optical hybrid places a waveform in four-quadrature-phases with a stronger, well-characterized reference pulse. Measurement of the four spectra with an integrating two-dimensional detector array followed by balanced detection uniquely determines the signal field. Balanced coherent detection provides common-mode noise rejection and coherent gain enabling near quantum-limited sensitivity. The single-shot waveform was temporally gated from a 100 ps periodic train of arbitrary optical waveforms generated using line-by-line pulse shaping on a 10 GHz optical frequency comb. The measurements show arbitrary waveforms with 200-ps record lengths, 500 GHz optical bandwidths and only 1200 detected photons.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, "360 Gb/s optical transmitter with arbitrary modulation format and dispersion precompensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 489-491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (9)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 0139021-0139024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Willits, A. M. Weiner, and S. T. Cundiff, "Theory of rapid-update line-by-line pulse shaping," Opt. Express 16, 315-327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, and J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Express 16, 753-791 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lee, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, "Toward single-shot measurement of a broadband ultrafast continuum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A34-A40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, C. D'Amico, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Measuring ultrashort pulses in the single-cycle regime using frequency-resolved optical gating," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A63-A69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, M. A. Coughlan, R. Trebino, and R. J. Levis, "Measuring the spatiotemporal electric field of ultrashort pulses with high spatial and spectral resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A81-A92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 33, 1047-1049 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "Rapid updating of optical arbitrary waveforms via time-domain multiplexing," Opt. Lett. 33, 1068-1070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, "Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Lett. 33, 1714-1716 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

W. Lee, H. Izadpanah, P. J. Delfyett, R. Menendez, and S. Etemad, "Coherent pulse detection and multi-channel coherent detection based on a single balanced homodyne receiver," Opt. Express 15, 2098-2105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, "Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Lett. 32, 1515-1517 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Wilson, P. Schlup, and R. A. Bartels, "Ultrafast phase and amplitude pulse shaping with a single, one-dimensional, high-resolution phase mask," Opt. Express 15, 8979-8987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG," Opt. Express 15, 9977-9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral shearing interferometry with spatially chirped replicas for measuring ultrashort pulses," Opt. Express 15, 15168-15174 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Time-multiplexed photonically enabled radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation with 100 ps transitions," Opt. Lett. 32, 3242-3244 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photonics 1, 463-467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, "Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1608-1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. J. Levis, G. M. Menkir, and H. Rabitz, "Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses," Science 292, 709-713 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Araya, and M. Teshima, "Flattened optical multicarrier generation of 12.5 GHz spaced 256 channels based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," Electron. Lett. 37, 967-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Yamada, and T. Goh, "Fabrication of frequency spectrum synthesiser consisting of arrayed-waveguide grating pair and thermo-optic amplitude and phase controllers," Electron. Lett. 35, 733-734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "30-THz span optical frequency comb generation by self-phase modulation in an optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54-60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis, V. Wong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct interferometric techniques for characterizing ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 285-294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Abeles, J. H.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, "Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1608-1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

Araya, K.

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Araya, and M. Teshima, "Flattened optical multicarrier generation of 12.5 GHz spaced 256 channels based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," Electron. Lett. 37, 967-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barros, D. J. F.

Bartels, A.

Bartels, R. A.

Barthelemy, A.

Biegert, J.

Bowie, J. L.

Bowlan, P.

Cao, J.

Carruthers, T. F.

F. K. Fatemi, T. F. Carruthers, and J. W. Lou, "Characterisation of telecommunications pulse trains by Fourier-transform and dual-quadrature spectral interferometry," Electron. Lett. 39, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chériaux, G.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 0139021-0139024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coughlan, M. A.

Cundiff, S. T.

D'Amico, C.

De Silvestri, S.

Delfyett, P. J.

DeLong, K. W.

DePriest, C. M.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, "Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1608-1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

Dorrer, C.

Etemad, S.

Fatemi, F. K.

F. K. Fatemi, T. F. Carruthers, and J. W. Lou, "Characterisation of telecommunications pulse trains by Fourier-transform and dual-quadrature spectral interferometry," Electron. Lett. 39, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fontaine, N. K.

Fortier, T. M.

Foster, M. A.

Froehly, C.

Fujiwara, M.

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Araya, and M. Teshima, "Flattened optical multicarrier generation of 12.5 GHz spaced 256 channels based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," Electron. Lett. 37, 967-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gabolde, P.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gee, S.

Geisler, D. J.

Geraghty, D. F.

Goh, T.

K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Yamada, and T. Goh, "Fabrication of frequency spectrum synthesiser consisting of arrayed-waveguide grating pair and thermo-optic amplitude and phase controllers," Electron. Lett. 35, 733-734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gorza, S. P.

Goswami, D.

D. Goswami, "Optical pulse shaping approaches to coherent control," Phys. Reports 374, 385-481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

Huang, C.-B.

C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Time-multiplexed photonically enabled radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation with 100 ps transitions," Opt. Lett. 32, 3242-3244 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photonics 1, 463-467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

C. Iaconis, V. Wong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct interferometric techniques for characterizing ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 285-294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Imai, K.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "30-THz span optical frequency comb generation by self-phase modulation in an optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54-60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ip, E.

Izadpanah, H.

Izutsu, M.

Jennings, R. T.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photonics 1, 463-467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Express 13, 10431-10439 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joffre, M.

Kahn, J. M.

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Araya, and M. Teshima, "Flattened optical multicarrier generation of 12.5 GHz spaced 256 channels based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," Electron. Lett. 37, 967-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

Keller, U.

Kolner, B. H.

Kominato, T.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Yamada, and T. Goh, "Fabrication of frequency spectrum synthesiser consisting of arrayed-waveguide grating pair and thermo-optic amplitude and phase controllers," Electron. Lett. 35, 733-734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kornelis, W.

Kourogi, M.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "30-THz span optical frequency comb generation by self-phase modulation in an optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54-60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krumbugel, M. A.

Lau, A. P. T.

Leaird, D. E.

Lee, D.

Lee, W.

Lepetit, L.

Levis, R. J.

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, M. A. Coughlan, R. Trebino, and R. J. Levis, "Measuring the spatiotemporal electric field of ultrashort pulses with high spatial and spectral resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A81-A92 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Levis, G. M. Menkir, and H. Rabitz, "Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses," Science 292, 709-713 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Lou, J. W.

F. K. Fatemi, T. F. Carruthers, and J. W. Lou, "Characterisation of telecommunications pulse trains by Fourier-transform and dual-quadrature spectral interferometry," Electron. Lett. 39, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Louradour, F.

McGresham, K.

Menendez, R.

Menkir, G. M.

R. J. Levis, G. M. Menkir, and H. Rabitz, "Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses," Science 292, 709-713 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messager, V.

Myoung-Taek, C.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 0139021-0139024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

Ohtsu, M.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "30-THz span optical frequency comb generation by self-phase modulation in an optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54-60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, "360 Gb/s optical transmitter with arbitrary modulation format and dispersion precompensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 489-491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "Rapid updating of optical arbitrary waveforms via time-domain multiplexing," Opt. Lett. 33, 1068-1070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, "Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Lett. 33, 1714-1716 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG," Opt. Express 15, 9977-9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
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K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Yamada, and T. Goh, "Fabrication of frequency spectrum synthesiser consisting of arrayed-waveguide grating pair and thermo-optic amplitude and phase controllers," Electron. Lett. 35, 733-734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozharar, S.

Parameswaran, K. R.

Quinlan, F.

Rabitz, H.

R. J. Levis, G. M. Menkir, and H. Rabitz, "Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses," Science 292, 709-713 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, T.

Salem, R.

Sansone, G.

Schlup, P.

Schumaker, B. L.

Scott, R. P.

Shibata, T.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shreenath, A.

Suzuki, H.

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Araya, and M. Teshima, "Flattened optical multicarrier generation of 12.5 GHz spaced 256 channels based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," Electron. Lett. 37, 967-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, "Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 0139021-0139024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

Takahashi, H.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, K.

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teshima, M.

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Araya, and M. Teshima, "Flattened optical multicarrier generation of 12.5 GHz spaced 256 channels based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," Electron. Lett. 37, 967-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tisch, J. W. G.

Trebino, R.

Turner, A. C.

Turpin, T.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, "Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1608-1610 (2002).
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Vozzi, C.

Walmsley, I. A.

Wangkuen, L.

Wasylczyk, P.

Weiner, A. M.

Willits, J. T.

Wilson, J. W.

Wong, V.

C. Iaconis, V. Wong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct interferometric techniques for characterizing ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 285-294 (1998).
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Yamada, H.

K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Yamada, and T. Goh, "Fabrication of frequency spectrum synthesiser consisting of arrayed-waveguide grating pair and thermo-optic amplitude and phase controllers," Electron. Lett. 35, 733-734 (1999).
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Yang, C.

Yang, S.-D.

Yilmaz, T.

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, C. Myoung-Taek, H. Izadpanah, L. Wangkuen, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, and T. Yilmaz, "Optical frequency combs from semiconductor lasers and applications in ultrawideband signal processing and communications," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2701-2719 (2006).
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T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, "Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1608-1610 (2002).
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Yoo, S. J. B.

Electron. Lett. (4)

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Araya, and M. Teshima, "Flattened optical multicarrier generation of 12.5 GHz spaced 256 channels based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," Electron. Lett. 37, 967-968 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, and T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using silica-waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Yamada, and T. Goh, "Fabrication of frequency spectrum synthesiser consisting of arrayed-waveguide grating pair and thermo-optic amplitude and phase controllers," Electron. Lett. 35, 733-734 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Fatemi, T. F. Carruthers, and J. W. Lou, "Characterisation of telecommunications pulse trains by Fourier-transform and dual-quadrature spectral interferometry," Electron. Lett. 39, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "30-THz span optical frequency comb generation by self-phase modulation in an optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54-60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
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C. Iaconis, V. Wong, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct interferometric techniques for characterizing ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 285-294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, "Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1608-1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, "360 Gb/s optical transmitter with arbitrary modulation format and dispersion precompensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 489-491 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

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Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Express 13, 10431-10439 (2005).
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P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, "Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time," Opt. Express 14, 11892-11900 (2006).
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W. Lee, H. Izadpanah, P. J. Delfyett, R. Menendez, and S. Etemad, "Coherent pulse detection and multi-channel coherent detection based on a single balanced homodyne receiver," Opt. Express 15, 2098-2105 (2007).
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J. W. Wilson, P. Schlup, and R. A. Bartels, "Ultrafast phase and amplitude pulse shaping with a single, one-dimensional, high-resolution phase mask," Opt. Express 15, 8979-8987 (2007).
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R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "High-fidelity line-by-line optical waveform generation and complete characterization using FROG," Opt. Express 15, 9977-9988 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral shearing interferometry with spatially chirped replicas for measuring ultrashort pulses," Opt. Express 15, 15168-15174 (2007).
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J. T. Willits, A. M. Weiner, and S. T. Cundiff, "Theory of rapid-update line-by-line pulse shaping," Opt. Express 16, 315-327 (2008).
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E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, and J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Express 16, 753-791 (2008).
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R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, "Rapid updating of optical arbitrary waveforms via time-domain multiplexing," Opt. Lett. 33, 1068-1070 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, C. Yang, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, "Compact 10 GHz loopback arrayed-waveguide grating for high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Lett. 33, 1714-1716 (2008).
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C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, "Time-multiplexed photonically enabled radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation with 100 ps transitions," Opt. Lett. 32, 3242-3244 (2007).
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Science (1)

R. J. Levis, G. M. Menkir, and H. Rabitz, "Selective bond dissociation and rearrangement with optimally tailored, strong-field laser pulses," Science 292, 709-713 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

P. J. Delfyett, F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, and W. Lee, "Stabilized optical frequency combs from diode lasers - applications in optical communications, signal processing and instrumentation," in Optical Fiber Communication and National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC 2008), Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThN6, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2008-OThN6.

R. Kobe, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, "Generation of 100-Gbps optical packets with 8-bit RZ pulse patterns using an optical pulse synthesizer," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim, (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper WD3_4, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEOPR-2007-WD3_4.

K. Mandai, T. Suzuki, H. Tsuda, T. Kurokawa, and T. Kawanishi, "Arbitrary optical short pulse generator using a high-resolution arrayed-waveguide grating," in IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Technical Digest (CD) (IEEE, 2004), 107-110, paper MC-20.

V. R. Supradeepa, E. L. Daniel, and M. W. Andrew, "Fast amplitude and phase characterization of optical frequency combs propagating over 50 km of optical fiber using dual quadrature spectral interferometry," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OThD2, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=URI=OFC-2009-OThD2.

N. K. Fontaine, J. Yang, W. Jiang, D. J. Geisler, K. Okamoto, R. Huang, and S. J. B. Yoo, "Active arrayed-waveguide grating with amplitude and phase control for arbitrary filter generation and high-order dispersion compensation," in 34th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2008), Technical Digest (CD) (IEEE, 2008), paper Mo.4.C.3.
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C. V. Bennett, "Ultrafast time scale transformation and recording utilizing parametric temporal imaging," in Digest of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (IEEE, 2007), 180-181, paper TuC2.4.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

An overview showing the analogy between (a) optical arbitrary waveform generation and (b) measurement. (c) Nested Mach-Zehnder modulators used for I/Q (in-phase/quadrature) modulation. (d) Four-quadrature balanced homodyne coherent detection for I/Q demodulation and measurement.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the (a) optical arbitrary waveform generation and (b) single-shot optical arbitrary waveform measurement apparatus. (c) Optical frequency comb generator. (d) 10-GHz×64 channel integrated silica waveform shaper. (e) 90-dB extinction optical time gates. (f) 90° optical hybrid. (g) Four-channel spectrometer and camera image for a gated reference pulse with a 40 ps gate and (h) 1 ns gate (10 pulses). (i) FROG measurement of the OFC and a (j) transform-limited shaped waveform. (k) Example SS-OAWM via FQSI example measurement of a single gated shaped waveform (5 fJ Sg , 500 fJ Rg ).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the statistics of 200 single-shot OAWM measurements of an arbitrary waveform (4 fJ Sg , 40 fJ Rg ) to a 1 s SHG-FROG measurement (open circles). (a) Measurements in I(ω) and Q(ω) format. (b) Spectral domain, and (c) time domain, intensity (blue) and phase (red). Light shades indicate the maximum and minimum values recorded, dark shades indicate ±1 standard of deviation. (d) Similar comparison using a shaped transform-limited waveform (7 fJ Sg , 500 fJ Rg ).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Single-shot OAWM measurement of a waveform (4 fJ Sg , 40 fJ Rg ) being optically delayed through the time-gate, G(t) (a) temporal intensity (b) spectral intensity. (c) solid curve: temporal measurement window Gm (t)=Gs (t)G(t), dashed curve: predicted Gs (t) imposed by spectrometer resolution. (d) solid curve: extracted G(t) by dividing the measured combined gate by Gs (t), dashed-curve: G(t) measured independently by probing the signal gate with a CW laser and measuring the output on a 60-GHz sampling oscilloscope.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Statistics of two different shaped waveforms (4 fJ Sg, 40 fJ Rg) characterized by single-shot OAWM for 200 shots each. Waveform 1: Two pulses with opposite linear and third-order spectral phase (a) spectral domain (b) time domain. Waveform 2: 180 Gb/s on-off-keyed waveform (c) spectral domain (d) time domain. Light shading indicates the maximum and minimum values recorded, dark shading indicates ±1 standard of deviation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of single-shot OAWM results for strong and weak signals to simulations of a quantum limited measurement. Cubic spectral phase waveform (500 fJ Rg ) (a) time-domain and (b) spectrum at 10 fJ and (c) time-domain and (d) spectrum at 150 aJ.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I+(t)Sg(t)+Rg(t)Q+(t)Sg(t)+jRg(t)I-(t)Sg(t)-Rg(t)Q-(t)Sg(t)-jRg(t)
Sg(ω)[|I+(ω)|2-|I-(ω)|2]+j[|Q+(ω)|2-|Q-(ω)|2]Rg*(ω)
|I±(ω)|2|Rg(ω)|2+|Sg(ω)|2±2Re{Sg(ω)Rg*(ω)}
Sg(ω)1Rg*(ω){kI[|I'+(ω)|2s12-|I'-(ω)|2s22]+jkQ[|Q'+(ω)|2s32-|Q'-(ω)|2s42]}
kI=(r1s1+r2s2)-1kQ=(r3s3+r4s4)-1.

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