Abstract

We present the results of a study of highly circularly polarized unidirectional lasing emission from an organic lasing device that consisted of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) layer on a 1-dimensional (1-D) photonic crystal (PC) reflecting mirror substrate. Unidirectional lasing was demonstrated successfully for this device structure at the wavelength of the high-energy band edge of the CLC layer. It was also shown that circularly polarized lasing emission was produced from the lasing device at a low lasing threshold of 2.5 mJ/pulse. The handedness of lasing light corresponds to the handedness of the used CLC layer with a high ratio of intensity between right- and left-handed circularly polarized lasing light over of up to 3.7. These results show that the CLC/1-D PC device enables unidirectional lasing with highly circularly polarized laser emission.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Busch and S. John, "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Tunable, Gap-State Lasing in Switchable Directions for Opal Photonic Crystals," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 21-26 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, "Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser," Opt. Express 13, 4699-4707 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).
  10. J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "Photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, "Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 1707-1709 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Lub, P. Witte, C. Doornkamp, J. P. A. Vogels, and R. T. Wegh, "Stable Photopatterned Cholesteric Layers Made by Photoisomerization and Subsequent Photopolymerization for Use as Color Filters in Liquid-Crystal Displays," Adv. Mater. 15,1420-1425 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, M. Moritsugu, S. N. Kim, and S. Kurihara, "Reversible-photon-mode full-color display by means of photochemical modulation of a helically cholesteric structure," Adv. Mater. 17, 1226-1229 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Single-Mode Lasing in One-Dimensional Periodic Structure Containing Helical Structure as a Defect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L629-L632 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, Y. Takao, and M. Ozaki, "Linearly polarized lasing in one-diensional hybrid photonic crystal containing cholesteric liquid crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033120 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S.-T. Wu, "Doubling the optical efficiency of a chiral liquid crystal laser using a reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, and S.-T. Wu, "Enhancing cholesteric liquid crystal laser performance using a cholesteric reflector," Opt. Express 14, 3906-3916 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Matsuhisa, Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, S.-T. Wu, Y. Takao, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser in a dielectric mirror cavity upon band-edge excitation," Opt. Express 15, 616-622 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, "Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 577-580 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. W. Berreman, "Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4 × 4 -matrix formulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 502-510 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. Tessler, "Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials," Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).

Y. Matsuhisa, Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, S.-T. Wu, Y. Takao, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser in a dielectric mirror cavity upon band-edge excitation," Opt. Express 15, 616-622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, Y. Takao, and M. Ozaki, "Linearly polarized lasing in one-diensional hybrid photonic crystal containing cholesteric liquid crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, "Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, and S.-T. Wu, "Enhancing cholesteric liquid crystal laser performance using a cholesteric reflector," Opt. Express 14, 3906-3916 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, "Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser," Opt. Express 13, 4699-4707 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S.-T. Wu, "Doubling the optical efficiency of a chiral liquid crystal laser using a reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, M. Moritsugu, S. N. Kim, and S. Kurihara, "Reversible-photon-mode full-color display by means of photochemical modulation of a helically cholesteric structure," Adv. Mater. 17, 1226-1229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Single-Mode Lasing in One-Dimensional Periodic Structure Containing Helical Structure as a Defect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L629-L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Lub, P. Witte, C. Doornkamp, J. P. A. Vogels, and R. T. Wegh, "Stable Photopatterned Cholesteric Layers Made by Photoisomerization and Subsequent Photopolymerization for Use as Color Filters in Liquid-Crystal Displays," Adv. Mater. 15,1420-1425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Tunable, Gap-State Lasing in Switchable Directions for Opal Photonic Crystals," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 21-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 577-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

N. Tessler, "Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials," Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch and S. John, "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, "Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 1707-1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "Photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

Asimakis, A.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 577-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Bass, M.

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S.-T. Wu, "Doubling the optical efficiency of a chiral liquid crystal laser using a reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R. H.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Tunable, Gap-State Lasing in Switchable Directions for Opal Photonic Crystals," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 21-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

Bloemer, M. J.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "Photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "Photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 577-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

K. Busch and S. John, "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. Q.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. S.

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. H.

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cimrova, V.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, M. C.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Tunable, Gap-State Lasing in Switchable Directions for Opal Photonic Crystals," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 21-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Z.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doornkamp, C.

J. Lub, P. Witte, C. Doornkamp, J. P. A. Vogels, and R. T. Wegh, "Stable Photopatterned Cholesteric Layers Made by Photoisomerization and Subsequent Photopolymerization for Use as Color Filters in Liquid-Crystal Displays," Adv. Mater. 15,1420-1425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "Photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. M.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B.

Fan, J.-H.

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).

Fan, S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, J.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Finkelmann, H.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, A.

Genack, A. Z.

Grell, M.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 577-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B. Y.

Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ha, N. Y.

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, "Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, R.

Hoshi, H.

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, "Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, W.

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, "Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, F.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

K. Busch and S. John, "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, S. O.

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. N.

T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, M. Moritsugu, S. N. Kim, and S. Kurihara, "Reversible-photon-mode full-color display by means of photochemical modulation of a helically cholesteric structure," Adv. Mater. 17, 1226-1229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kolodrubetz, M.

Kopp, V. I.

Kurihara, S.

T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, M. Moritsugu, S. N. Kim, and S. Kurihara, "Reversible-photon-mode full-color display by means of photochemical modulation of a helically cholesteric structure," Adv. Mater. 17, 1226-1229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P.-T.

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).

Li, C. F.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-W.

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).

Lub, J.

J. Lub, P. Witte, C. Doornkamp, J. P. A. Vogels, and R. T. Wegh, "Stable Photopatterned Cholesteric Layers Made by Photoisomerization and Subsequent Photopolymerization for Use as Color Filters in Liquid-Crystal Displays," Adv. Mater. 15,1420-1425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Matsuhisa, Y.

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, Y. Takao, and M. Ozaki, "Linearly polarized lasing in one-diensional hybrid photonic crystal containing cholesteric liquid crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuhisa, Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, S.-T. Wu, Y. Takao, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser in a dielectric mirror cavity upon band-edge excitation," Opt. Express 15, 616-622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Single-Mode Lasing in One-Dimensional Periodic Structure Containing Helical Structure as a Defect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L629-L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maune, B.

Mol, G. N.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moritsugu, M.

T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, M. Moritsugu, S. N. Kim, and S. Kurihara, "Reversible-photon-mode full-color display by means of photochemical modulation of a helically cholesteric structure," Adv. Mater. 17, 1226-1229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neher, D.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 577-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, "Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, T.

T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, M. Moritsugu, S. N. Kim, and S. Kurihara, "Reversible-photon-mode full-color display by means of photochemical modulation of a helically cholesteric structure," Adv. Mater. 17, 1226-1229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oda, M.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 577-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, T.

T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, M. Moritsugu, S. N. Kim, and S. Kurihara, "Reversible-photon-mode full-color display by means of photochemical modulation of a helically cholesteric structure," Adv. Mater. 17, 1226-1229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, T.

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, Y. Takao, and M. Ozaki, "Linearly polarized lasing in one-diensional hybrid photonic crystal containing cholesteric liquid crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuhisa, Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, S.-T. Wu, Y. Takao, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser in a dielectric mirror cavity upon band-edge excitation," Opt. Express 15, 616-622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Single-Mode Lasing in One-Dimensional Periodic Structure Containing Helical Structure as a Defect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L629-L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, R.

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, Y. Takao, and M. Ozaki, "Linearly polarized lasing in one-diensional hybrid photonic crystal containing cholesteric liquid crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Single-Mode Lasing in One-Dimensional Periodic Structure Containing Helical Structure as a Defect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L629-L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Polson, R. C.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Tunable, Gap-State Lasing in Switchable Directions for Opal Photonic Crystals," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 21-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

Rapaport, A.

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S.-T. Wu, "Doubling the optical efficiency of a chiral liquid crystal laser using a reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Remmers, M.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "Photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y. H.

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, K.-C.

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shkunov, M. N.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Tunable, Gap-State Lasing in Switchable Directions for Opal Photonic Crystals," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 21-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, I. H.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, M. H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stille, W.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, G.

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, "Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swager, T. M.

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, "Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takao, Y.

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, Y. Takao, and M. Ozaki, "Linearly polarized lasing in one-diensional hybrid photonic crystal containing cholesteric liquid crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuhisa, Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, S.-T. Wu, Y. Takao, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser in a dielectric mirror cavity upon band-edge excitation," Opt. Express 15, 616-622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, "Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, "Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials," Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F.-M.

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).

Tsunoda, Y.

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Tunable, Gap-State Lasing in Switchable Directions for Opal Photonic Crystals," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 21-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vithana, H. K. M.

Vogels, J. P. A.

J. Lub, P. Witte, C. Doornkamp, J. P. A. Vogels, and R. T. Wegh, "Stable Photopatterned Cholesteric Layers Made by Photoisomerization and Subsequent Photopolymerization for Use as Color Filters in Liquid-Crystal Displays," Adv. Mater. 15,1420-1425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, J.

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wegh, R. T.

J. Lub, P. Witte, C. Doornkamp, J. P. A. Vogels, and R. T. Wegh, "Stable Photopatterned Cholesteric Layers Made by Photoisomerization and Subsequent Photopolymerization for Use as Color Filters in Liquid-Crystal Displays," Adv. Mater. 15,1420-1425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, G.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, K. S.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 577-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Witte, P.

J. Lub, P. Witte, C. Doornkamp, J. P. A. Vogels, and R. T. Wegh, "Stable Photopatterned Cholesteric Layers Made by Photoisomerization and Subsequent Photopolymerization for Use as Color Filters in Liquid-Crystal Displays," Adv. Mater. 15,1420-1425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

Wu, J. W.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.-T.

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Single-Mode Lasing in One-Dimensional Periodic Structure Containing Helical Structure as a Defect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L629-L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, T.

T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, M. Moritsugu, S. N. Kim, and S. Kurihara, "Reversible-photon-mode full-color display by means of photochemical modulation of a helically cholesteric structure," Adv. Mater. 17, 1226-1229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A. A.

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Tunable, Gap-State Lasing in Switchable Directions for Opal Photonic Crystals," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 21-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, Z.

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

M. N. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, M. C. DeLong, R. C. Polson, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Tunable, Gap-State Lasing in Switchable Directions for Opal Photonic Crystals," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 21-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (9)

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lub, P. Witte, C. Doornkamp, J. P. A. Vogels, and R. T. Wegh, "Stable Photopatterned Cholesteric Layers Made by Photoisomerization and Subsequent Photopolymerization for Use as Color Filters in Liquid-Crystal Displays," Adv. Mater. 15,1420-1425 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, M. Moritsugu, S. N. Kim, and S. Kurihara, "Reversible-photon-mode full-color display by means of photochemical modulation of a helically cholesteric structure," Adv. Mater. 17, 1226-1229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, "Effect of Phase Retardation on Defect-Mode Lasing in Polymeric Cholesteric Liquid Crystals," Adv. Mater. 16, 779-783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Park, M. Kim, S. W. Kim, W. Jang, H. Takezoe, Y. Kim, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and S. O. Kang, "Electrically controllable omnidirectional laser emission from a helical-polymer network composite film," Adv. Mater. 21, 771-775 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, "Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Adv. Mater. 8, 146-149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, "A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light," Adv. Mater. 13, 577-580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, "Lasers based on semiconducting organic materials," Adv. Mater. 11, 363-370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007).

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S.-T. Wu, "Doubling the optical efficiency of a chiral liquid crystal laser using a reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, "Defect mode lasing from a double-layered dye-doped polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films with a thin rubbed defect layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duan, "Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, Y. Takao, and M. Ozaki, "Linearly polarized lasing in one-diensional hybrid photonic crystal containing cholesteric liquid crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "Photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Single-Mode Lasing in One-Dimensional Periodic Structure Containing Helical Structure as a Defect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L629-L632 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions," Nat. Mater. 4, 383-387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Z. Y. Li, J. Wang, and B. Y. Gu, "Creation of partial band gaps in anisotropic photonic-band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. B 58, 3721-3729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

K. Busch and S. John, "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustrations of hybrid photonic helical devices with spacing d (“CLC/spacer/1-D PC”) (a) and d=0 (“CLC/1-D PC”) (b). The blue and red arrows correspond to forward- and backward-propagating directions, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Reflection spectra of the used CLC layer and 1-D PC reflector film. (b) Measured reflection spectra of the combined CLC/1-D PC device for the incident light polarized linearly along the directions parallel (blue curve) and perpendicular (red curve) to the rubbing direction. (c) Simulated reflection spectra of the combined CLC/1-D PC device for the incident light polarized linearly along directions parallel (blue curve) and perpendicular (red curve) to the rubbing direction.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) R- and L- CP light emission spectra of the combined CLC/1-D PC devices in the forward direction. Blue and red curves represent R- and L-handed CP emission, respectively. (b) Threshold power behavior for R-CP light emission. The dependence of the emission-peak intensity of the sample cells on the pump power; clear threshold behavior is exhibited. The inset shows a photograph of light emission (left red light) from a 1-D PC/CLC sample and reflected optical pumping light (right green light).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The calculated DOM from the simulated reflection spectra for the R- and L- CP light. Blue and red curves represent R- and L-handed CP light, respectively. (b) Square modulus of the field distribution corresponding to the wavelength that identifies the high energy band edge of the CLC layer.

Metrics