Abstract

Cloud masks developed in the frame of ocean color missions are usually based on the assumption that the marine reflectance is close to zero in the near-infrared (NIR). This is valid over the open ocean, but coastal (Case-2) waters may have a higher NIR reflectance due to suspended matter and non-maritime aerosols. Cloud-free pixels are sometimes classed as clouds, leading to a loss of data. We present an algorithm, based on standard ocean color wavelengths, that makes use of the lower spectral variability of clouds compared to water. Images from different coastal areas have been used to develop and test the algorithm and a radiative transfer model has been used for a numerical sensitivity analysis. The algorithm shows a good performance in many of the tested scenes, and using this algorithm instead of the standard SeaWiFS NIR threshold will increase the amount of data over Case-2 waters.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

B. Lubac and H. Loisel, "Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 45-58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Duforêt, R. Frouin, and P. Dubuisson, "Importance and estimation of aerosol vertical structure in satellite ocean-color remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 46, 1107-1119 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3196-3205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, and P. Dubuisson, "Ocean color remote sensing through clouds," Proc. SPIE 5885, 588504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Nobileau and D. Antoine, "Detection of blue-absorbing aerosols using near infrared and visible (ocean color) remote sensing observations," Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 368-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J.-M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, C. Hu, D. Doxaran, D. Guiral, M. T. Prost, and J.-F. Ternon, "Mudflats and mud suspension observed from satellite data in French Guiana," Mar. Geol. 208, 153-168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

R.-R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B.-C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended matter and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, G. Zhang, and S. Yang, "Temporal and spatial changes of suspended sediment concentration and resuspension in the Yangtze River estuary," J. Geog. Sci. 13, 498-506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. V. Martins, D. Tanré, L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, and R. Levy, "MODIS cloud screening for remote sensing of aerosols over oceans using spatial variability," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029 /2001GL013252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J.-M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, and P. Castaing, "Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations," Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Iida, S. I. Saitoh, T. Miyamura, M. Toratani, H. Fukushima, and N. Shiga, "Temporal and spatial variability of coccolithophore blooms in the eastern Bering Sea," Prog. Oceanogr. 55, 165-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: Aircraft measurements over open ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445-4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275-295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and S. W. Bailey, "Correction of sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products," Appl. Opt. 40, 4790-4798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, "Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters," Appl. Opt. 39, 897-912 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

H. R. Gordon, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081-17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Nobileau and D. Antoine, "Detection of blue-absorbing aerosols using near infrared and visible (ocean color) remote sensing observations," Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 368-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

Berthon, J.-F.

H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Castaing, P.

D. Doxaran, J.-M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, and P. Castaing, "Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations," Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, G. Zhang, and S. Yang, "Temporal and spatial changes of suspended sediment concentration and resuspension in the Yangtze River estuary," J. Geog. Sci. 13, 498-506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

R.-R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B.-C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended matter and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P.-Y.

R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, and P. Dubuisson, "Ocean color remote sensing through clouds," Proc. SPIE 5885, 588504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: Aircraft measurements over open ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445-4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doxaran, D.

J.-M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, C. Hu, D. Doxaran, D. Guiral, M. T. Prost, and J.-F. Ternon, "Mudflats and mud suspension observed from satellite data in French Guiana," Mar. Geol. 208, 153-168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J.-M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, and P. Castaing, "Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations," Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dubuisson, P.

L. Duforêt, R. Frouin, and P. Dubuisson, "Importance and estimation of aerosol vertical structure in satellite ocean-color remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 46, 1107-1119 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, and P. Dubuisson, "Ocean color remote sensing through clouds," Proc. SPIE 5885, 588504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duforêt, L.

Froidefond, J.-M.

J.-M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, C. Hu, D. Doxaran, D. Guiral, M. T. Prost, and J.-F. Ternon, "Mudflats and mud suspension observed from satellite data in French Guiana," Mar. Geol. 208, 153-168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, J.-M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, and P. Castaing, "Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations," Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

L. Duforêt, R. Frouin, and P. Dubuisson, "Importance and estimation of aerosol vertical structure in satellite ocean-color remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 46, 1107-1119 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, and P. Dubuisson, "Ocean color remote sensing through clouds," Proc. SPIE 5885, 588504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: Aircraft measurements over open ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445-4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, H.

T. Iida, S. I. Saitoh, T. Miyamura, M. Toratani, H. Fukushima, and N. Shiga, "Temporal and spatial variability of coccolithophore blooms in the eastern Bering Sea," Prog. Oceanogr. 55, 165-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B.-C.

R.-R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B.-C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended matter and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081-17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guiral, D.

J.-M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, C. Hu, D. Doxaran, D. Guiral, M. T. Prost, and J.-F. Ternon, "Mudflats and mud suspension observed from satellite data in French Guiana," Mar. Geol. 208, 153-168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

J.-M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, C. Hu, D. Doxaran, D. Guiral, M. T. Prost, and J.-F. Ternon, "Mudflats and mud suspension observed from satellite data in French Guiana," Mar. Geol. 208, 153-168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iida, T.

T. Iida, S. I. Saitoh, T. Miyamura, M. Toratani, H. Fukushima, and N. Shiga, "Temporal and spatial variability of coccolithophore blooms in the eastern Bering Sea," Prog. Oceanogr. 55, 165-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y.

J. V. Martins, D. Tanré, L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, and R. Levy, "MODIS cloud screening for remote sensing of aerosols over oceans using spatial variability," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029 /2001GL013252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

R.-R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B.-C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended matter and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lahet, F.

J.-M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, C. Hu, D. Doxaran, D. Guiral, M. T. Prost, and J.-F. Ternon, "Mudflats and mud suspension observed from satellite data in French Guiana," Mar. Geol. 208, 153-168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lavender, S.

D. Doxaran, J.-M. Froidefond, S. Lavender, and P. Castaing, "Spectral signature of highly turbid waters. Application with SPOT data to quantify suspended particulate matter concentrations," Remote Sens. Environ. 81, 149-161 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Levy, R.

J. V. Martins, D. Tanré, L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, and R. Levy, "MODIS cloud screening for remote sensing of aerosols over oceans using spatial variability," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029 /2001GL013252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.-R.

R.-R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B.-C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended matter and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lubac and H. Loisel, "Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 45-58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275-295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lubac, B.

B. Lubac and H. Loisel, "Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 45-58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martins, J. V.

J. V. Martins, D. Tanré, L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, and R. Levy, "MODIS cloud screening for remote sensing of aerosols over oceans using spatial variability," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029 /2001GL013252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mattoo, S.

J. V. Martins, D. Tanré, L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, and R. Levy, "MODIS cloud screening for remote sensing of aerosols over oceans using spatial variability," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029 /2001GL013252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meriaux, X.

H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyamura, T.

T. Iida, S. I. Saitoh, T. Miyamura, M. Toratani, H. Fukushima, and N. Shiga, "Temporal and spatial variability of coccolithophore blooms in the eastern Bering Sea," Prog. Oceanogr. 55, 165-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275-295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nicolas, J.-M.

R. Frouin, P.-Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, and P. Dubuisson, "Ocean color remote sensing through clouds," Proc. SPIE 5885, 588504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: Aircraft measurements over open ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445-4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nobileau, D.

D. Nobileau and D. Antoine, "Detection of blue-absorbing aerosols using near infrared and visible (ocean color) remote sensing observations," Remote Sens. Environ. 95, 368-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ovidio, F.

Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, X. Meriaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prost, M. T.

J.-M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, C. Hu, D. Doxaran, D. Guiral, M. T. Prost, and J.-F. Ternon, "Mudflats and mud suspension observed from satellite data in French Guiana," Mar. Geol. 208, 153-168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L.

J. V. Martins, D. Tanré, L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, and R. Levy, "MODIS cloud screening for remote sensing of aerosols over oceans using spatial variability," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029 /2001GL013252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rijkeboer, M.

Ruddick, K.

Saitoh, S. I.

T. Iida, S. I. Saitoh, T. Miyamura, M. Toratani, H. Fukushima, and N. Shiga, "Temporal and spatial variability of coccolithophore blooms in the eastern Bering Sea," Prog. Oceanogr. 55, 165-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3196-3205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiga, N.

T. Iida, S. I. Saitoh, T. Miyamura, M. Toratani, H. Fukushima, and N. Shiga, "Temporal and spatial variability of coccolithophore blooms in the eastern Bering Sea," Prog. Oceanogr. 55, 165-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

J. V. Martins, D. Tanré, L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, and R. Levy, "MODIS cloud screening for remote sensing of aerosols over oceans using spatial variability," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029 /2001GL013252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ternon, J.-F.

J.-M. Froidefond, F. Lahet, C. Hu, D. Doxaran, D. Guiral, M. T. Prost, and J.-F. Ternon, "Mudflats and mud suspension observed from satellite data in French Guiana," Mar. Geol. 208, 153-168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toratani, M.

T. Iida, S. I. Saitoh, T. Miyamura, M. Toratani, H. Fukushima, and N. Shiga, "Temporal and spatial variability of coccolithophore blooms in the eastern Bering Sea," Prog. Oceanogr. 55, 165-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, "Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493-6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Yang, S.

S. Chen, G. Zhang, and S. Yang, "Temporal and spatial changes of suspended sediment concentration and resuspension in the Yangtze River estuary," J. Geog. Sci. 13, 498-506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

S. Chen, G. Zhang, and S. Yang, "Temporal and spatial changes of suspended sediment concentration and resuspension in the Yangtze River estuary," J. Geog. Sci. 13, 498-506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: Aircraft measurements over open ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445-4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Martins, D. Tanré, L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, and R. Levy, "MODIS cloud screening for remote sensing of aerosols over oceans using spatial variability," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029 /2001GL013252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2)

M. Wang and W. Shi, "Cloud masking for ocean color data processing in the coastal regions," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3196-3205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R.-R. Li, Y. J. Kaufman, B.-C. Gao, and C. O. Davis, "Remote sensing of suspended matter and shallow coastal waters," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 559-566 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275-295 (2001).
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J. Geog. Sci. (1)

S. Chen, G. Zhang, and S. Yang, "Temporal and spatial changes of suspended sediment concentration and resuspension in the Yangtze River estuary," J. Geog. Sci. 13, 498-506 (2003).
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Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

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Proc. SPIE (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Maps of the areas used to test and develop the algorithm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Scatter plot of ρs (865) versus εmax for several cloudy and cloud-free pixels, from the areas presented in Fig. 1. The chosen threshold values for ρs (865) and εmax are shown as dotted horizontal and vertical lines, respectively. (b) Examples of ρs spectra from SeaWiFS images of the Amazon and Rio de la Plata estuaries and the Yellow Sea. Each graph corresponds to one training pixel.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A SeaWiFS image of scene A5 in table 1, with (a) no cloud mask and (b-f) the different cloud masks applied. The color composite has the 865, 443 and 412 nm channels as red, green and blue, respectively. Areas of special interest are indicated with black circles.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

As Fig. 3 but for scene R4. The color composite has the 670, 510 and 443 nm channels as red, green and blue.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

As Fig. 4 but for scene Y2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

As Fig. 4 but for scene E6.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

As Fig. 4 but for scene I1.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a). ρs simulated for a stratocumulus cloud of different optical thickness τ(555). The cloud altitude is 1.5 km and the wind speed 5.0 m/s. The ratio εmax is indicated for each spectrum. (b) ρs simulated for three different cloud altitudes, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 km, and for three different cloud optical thicknesses, τ(555)=1.0, 3.0 and 5.0.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Examples of the increase in the number of water pixels when using the algorithm instead of the standard SeaWiFS NIR threshold and the algorithm by Wang and Shi [4]. The regions correspond exactly to those in Fig. 1.

Equations (12)

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ρTOA (λ)=ρpath(λ)+T(λ)ρg(λ)+t (λ) ρwc (λ) +t (λ)ρw (λ)
ρpath(λ)=ρr(λ)+ρa(λ)+ρra (λ) .
ρTOA(λ)=ρr(λ)+ρA(λ)+t(λ)ρw (λ) .
ρTOA (λ)=ρc(λ)+ρrc(λ)+ρr(λ)+ρA (λ) +t (λ) ρw (λ) ,
ρs =πF0μ0(LTOAtg,soltg,senLr)(tsoltsentO2tH2O) ,
ρs (λ) = ρTOA (λ)ρr(λ)
=t (λ) ρw (λ) +ρA (λ) .
ρs (λ) =ρTOA (λ) ρr (λ)
=t(λ)ρw(λ)+ρA(λ)+ρc(λ)+ρrc(λ).
Δ ρ(RC) (λ) =ρTOA(λ)ρr(λ) ,
ε(RC) λiλj =Δ ρ(RC) (λi) Δ ρ(RC) (λj) .
εmax =ρs(λmax) ρs (λmin),

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